Abstract

High bunch charge, femtosecond, electron pulses were generated using a 95 kV electron gun with an S-band RF rebunching cavity. Laser ponderomotive scattering in a counter-propagating beam geometry is shown to provide high sensitivity with the prerequisite spatial and temporal resolution to fully characterize, in situ, both the temporal profile of the electron pulses and RF time timing jitter. With the current beam parameters, we determined a temporal Instrument Response Function (IRF) of 430 fs FWHM. The overall performance of our system is illustrated through the high-quality diffraction data obtained for the measurement of the electron-phonon relaxation dynamics for Si (001).

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

G. Sciaini and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron diffraction: heralding the era of atomically resolved dynamics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 096101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Murooka, N. Naruse, S. Sakakihara, M. Ishimaru, J. Yang, and K. Tanimura, “Transmission-electron diffraction by MeV electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

M. Aidelsburger, F. O. Kirchner, F. Krausz, and P. Baum, “Single-electron pulses for ultrafast diffraction,” PNAS 107, 19714–19719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. v. Oudheusden, P. L. E. M. Pasmans, S. B. v. d. Geer, M. J. d. Loos, M. J. v. d. Wiel, and O. J. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Inoue, T. Nishoji, K. Otani, and S. Sakabe, “Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction with Laser-Accelerated Electrons: Experimental Demonstration of Electron Pulse Compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

P. Reckenthaeler, M. Centurion, W. Fu, S. A. Trushin, F. Krausz, and E. E. Fill, “Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction from Selectively Aligned Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, T. Dartigalongue, and R. J. D. Miller, “The Formation of Warm Dense Matter: Experimental Evidence for Electronic Bond Hardening in Gold,” Science 323, 1033–1037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

T. v. Oudheusden, E. F. d. Jong, S. B. v. d. Geer, W. P. E. M. O. t. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” Appl J.. Phys. 102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. H. Zewail, “4D Ultrafast Electron Diffraction, Crystallography, and Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 65–103 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, T. Dartigalongue, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron pulse characterization using laser ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3517–3519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, C. T. Hebeisen, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Carrier Relaxation and Lattice Heating Dynamics in Silicon Revealed by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25308–25313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “An Atomic-Level View of Melting Using Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Science 302, 1382–1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

R. C. Dudek and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast diffraction imaging of the electrocyclic ring-opening reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadiene,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4167–4171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, C. Tth, C. W. Siders, and J. A. Squier, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Freimund, K. Affatooni, and H. Batelaan, “Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac Effect,” Nature 413, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1933 (1)

P. L. Kapitza and P. A. M. Dirac, “The reflection of electrons from standing light waves,” Math. Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 29, 297–300 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Affatooni, K.

D. L. Freimund, K. Affatooni, and H. Batelaan, “Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac Effect,” Nature 413, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aidelsburger, M.

M. Aidelsburger, F. O. Kirchner, F. Krausz, and P. Baum, “Single-electron pulses for ultrafast diffraction,” PNAS 107, 19714–19719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akre, R. A.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allison, T. K.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Als-Nielsen, J.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annrud, P. A.

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arthur, J.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batelaan, H.

D. L. Freimund, K. Affatooni, and H. Batelaan, “Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac Effect,” Nature 413, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baum, P.

M. Aidelsburger, F. O. Kirchner, F. Krausz, and P. Baum, “Single-electron pulses for ultrafast diffraction,” PNAS 107, 19714–19719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, H.

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergh, M.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beyer, M.

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blome, C.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bong, E.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brennan, S.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caleman, C.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, G. H.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tth, C. W. Siders, and J. A. Squier, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Centurion, M.

P. Reckenthaeler, M. Centurion, W. Fu, S. A. Trushin, F. Krausz, and E. E. Fill, “Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction from Selectively Aligned Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dartigalongue, T.

R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, T. Dartigalongue, and R. J. D. Miller, “The Formation of Warm Dense Matter: Experimental Evidence for Electronic Bond Hardening in Gold,” Science 323, 1033–1037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, T. Dartigalongue, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron pulse characterization using laser ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3517–3519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, C. T. Hebeisen, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Carrier Relaxation and Lattice Heating Dynamics in Silicon Revealed by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25308–25313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demsar, J.

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirac, P. A. M.

P. L. Kapitza and P. A. M. Dirac, “The reflection of electrons from standing light waves,” Math. Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 29, 297–300 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Dudek, R. C.

R. C. Dudek and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast diffraction imaging of the electrocyclic ring-opening reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadiene,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4167–4171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duesterer, S.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwyer, J. R.

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “An Atomic-Level View of Melting Using Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Science 302, 1382–1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eichberger, M.

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erasmus, N.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, M. A.

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Ernstorfer, R.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, T. Dartigalongue, and R. J. D. Miller, “The Formation of Warm Dense Matter: Experimental Evidence for Electronic Bond Hardening in Gold,” Science 323, 1033–1037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, T. Dartigalongue, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron pulse characterization using laser ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3517–3519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, C. T. Hebeisen, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Carrier Relaxation and Lattice Heating Dynamics in Silicon Revealed by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25308–25313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcone, R. W.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E. E.

P. Reckenthaeler, M. Centurion, W. Fu, S. A. Trushin, F. Krausz, and E. E. Fill, “Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction from Selectively Aligned Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, A.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freimund, D. L.

D. L. Freimund, K. Affatooni, and H. Batelaan, “Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac Effect,” Nature 413, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fritz, D. M.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, W.

P. Reckenthaeler, M. Centurion, W. Fu, S. A. Trushin, F. Krausz, and E. E. Fill, “Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction from Selectively Aligned Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuoss, P. H.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaffney, K. J.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, M.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

Geer, S. B. v. d.

T. v. Oudheusden, P. L. E. M. Pasmans, S. B. v. d. Geer, M. J. d. Loos, M. J. v. d. Wiel, and O. J. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. v. Oudheusden, E. F. d. Jong, S. B. v. d. Geer, W. P. E. M. O. t. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” Appl J.. Phys. 102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hajdu, J.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, T. N.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harb, M.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, T. Dartigalongue, and R. J. D. Miller, “The Formation of Warm Dense Matter: Experimental Evidence for Electronic Bond Hardening in Gold,” Science 323, 1033–1037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, T. Dartigalongue, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron pulse characterization using laser ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3517–3519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, C. T. Hebeisen, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Carrier Relaxation and Lattice Heating Dynamics in Silicon Revealed by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25308–25313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashida, M.

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Inoue, T. Nishoji, K. Otani, and S. Sakabe, “Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction with Laser-Accelerated Electrons: Experimental Demonstration of Electron Pulse Compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hastings, J. B.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haupt, K.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hebeisen, C. T.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, T. Dartigalongue, and R. J. D. Miller, “The Formation of Warm Dense Matter: Experimental Evidence for Electronic Bond Hardening in Gold,” Science 323, 1033–1037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, T. Dartigalongue, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron pulse characterization using laser ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3517–3519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, C. T. Hebeisen, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Carrier Relaxation and Lattice Heating Dynamics in Silicon Revealed by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25308–25313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heringdorf, F.-J. M. z.

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hignette, O.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoegen, M. H.-v.

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huldt, G.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, S.

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Inoue, T. Nishoji, K. Otani, and S. Sakabe, “Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction with Laser-Accelerated Electrons: Experimental Demonstration of Electron Pulse Compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ischebeck, R.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishimaru, M.

Y. Murooka, N. Naruse, S. Sakakihara, M. Ishimaru, J. Yang, and K. Tanimura, “Transmission-electron diffraction by MeV electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, T. A.

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jean-Ruel, H.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

Jong, E. F. d.

T. v. Oudheusden, E. F. d. Jong, S. B. v. d. Geer, W. P. E. M. O. t. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” Appl J.. Phys. 102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. E.

C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, T. Dartigalongue, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron pulse characterization using laser ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3517–3519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, C. T. Hebeisen, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Carrier Relaxation and Lattice Heating Dynamics in Silicon Revealed by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25308–25313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “An Atomic-Level View of Melting Using Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Science 302, 1382–1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapitza, P. L.

P. L. Kapitza and P. A. M. Dirac, “The reflection of electrons from standing light waves,” Math. Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 29, 297–300 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Kassier, G. H.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

King, W. E.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kirchner, F. O.

M. Aidelsburger, F. O. Kirchner, F. Krausz, and P. Baum, “Single-electron pulses for ultrafast diffraction,” PNAS 107, 19714–19719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Aidelsburger, F. O. Kirchner, F. Krausz, and P. Baum, “Single-electron pulses for ultrafast diffraction,” PNAS 107, 19714–19719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Reckenthaeler, M. Centurion, W. Fu, S. A. Trushin, F. Krausz, and E. E. Fill, “Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction from Selectively Aligned Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krejcik, P.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruglik, S. G.

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumova, M.

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagally, M. G.

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Larsson, J.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R. W.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, M.

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindenberg, A. M.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loos, M. J. d.

T. v. Oudheusden, P. L. E. M. Pasmans, S. B. v. d. Geer, M. J. d. Loos, M. J. v. d. Wiel, and O. J. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lowney, D. P.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

Luening, K.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luiten, O. J.

T. v. Oudheusden, P. L. E. M. Pasmans, S. B. v. d. Geer, M. J. d. Loos, M. J. v. d. Wiel, and O. J. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. v. Oudheusden, E. F. d. Jong, S. B. v. d. Geer, W. P. E. M. O. t. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” Appl J.. Phys. 102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacPhee, A. G.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, T.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, R. J. D.

G. Sciaini and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron diffraction: heralding the era of atomically resolved dynamics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 096101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, T. Dartigalongue, and R. J. D. Miller, “The Formation of Warm Dense Matter: Experimental Evidence for Electronic Bond Hardening in Gold,” Science 323, 1033–1037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, T. Dartigalongue, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron pulse characterization using laser ponderomotive scattering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3517–3519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, C. T. Hebeisen, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Carrier Relaxation and Lattice Heating Dynamics in Silicon Revealed by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25308–25313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “An Atomic-Level View of Melting Using Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Science 302, 1382–1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moriena, G.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murooka, Y.

Y. Murooka, N. Naruse, S. Sakakihara, M. Ishimaru, J. Yang, and K. Tanimura, “Transmission-electron diffraction by MeV electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naruse, N.

Y. Murooka, N. Naruse, S. Sakakihara, M. Ishimaru, J. Yang, and K. Tanimura, “Transmission-electron diffraction by MeV electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishoji, T.

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Inoue, T. Nishoji, K. Otani, and S. Sakabe, “Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction with Laser-Accelerated Electrons: Experimental Demonstration of Electron Pulse Compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Olson, J. S.

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otani, K.

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Inoue, T. Nishoji, K. Otani, and S. Sakabe, “Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction with Laser-Accelerated Electrons: Experimental Demonstration of Electron Pulse Compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oudheusden, T. v.

T. v. Oudheusden, P. L. E. M. Pasmans, S. B. v. d. Geer, M. J. d. Loos, M. J. v. d. Wiel, and O. J. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. v. Oudheusden, E. F. d. Jong, S. B. v. d. Geer, W. P. E. M. O. t. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” Appl J.. Phys. 102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pahl, R.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasmans, P. L. E. M.

T. v. Oudheusden, P. L. E. M. Pasmans, S. B. v. d. Geer, M. J. d. Loos, M. J. v. d. Wiel, and O. J. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Payer, T.

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, W.

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Phillips, G. N.

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reckenthaeler, P.

P. Reckenthaeler, M. Centurion, W. Fu, S. A. Trushin, F. Krausz, and E. E. Fill, “Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction from Selectively Aligned Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reed, B.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reis, D. A.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohwer, E. G.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Root, W. P. E. M. O. t.

T. v. Oudheusden, E. F. d. Jong, S. B. v. d. Geer, W. P. E. M. O. t. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” Appl J.. Phys. 102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rudati, J.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakabe, S.

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Inoue, T. Nishoji, K. Otani, and S. Sakabe, “Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction with Laser-Accelerated Electrons: Experimental Demonstration of Electron Pulse Compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakakihara, S.

Y. Murooka, N. Naruse, S. Sakakihara, M. Ishimaru, J. Yang, and K. Tanimura, “Transmission-electron diffraction by MeV electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, H.

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlarb, H.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmerge, J. F.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schotte, F.

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulte-Schrepping, H.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwoerer, H.

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sciaini, G.

G. Sciaini and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron diffraction: heralding the era of atomically resolved dynamics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 096101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, T. Dartigalongue, and R. J. D. Miller, “The Formation of Warm Dense Matter: Experimental Evidence for Electronic Bond Hardening in Gold,” Science 323, 1033–1037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Grating enhanced ponderomotive scattering for visualization and full characterization of femtosecond electron pulses,” Opt. Express 16, 3334–3341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sette, F.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, J.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siddons, D. P.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siders, C. W.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tth, C. W. Siders, and J. A. Squier, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siwick, B. J.

T. v. Oudheusden, E. F. d. Jong, S. B. v. d. Geer, W. P. E. M. O. t. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” Appl J.. Phys. 102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “An Atomic-Level View of Melting Using Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Science 302, 1382–1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A. V.

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soman, J.

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tth, C. W. Siders, and J. A. Squier, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuart, B. C.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Synnergren, O.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanimura, K.

Y. Murooka, N. Naruse, S. Sakakihara, M. Ishimaru, J. Yang, and K. Tanimura, “Transmission-electron diffraction by MeV electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Techert, S.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timneanu, N.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokita, S.

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Inoue, T. Nishoji, K. Otani, and S. Sakabe, “Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction with Laser-Accelerated Electrons: Experimental Demonstration of Electron Pulse Compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trushin, S. A.

P. Reckenthaeler, M. Centurion, W. Fu, S. A. Trushin, F. Krausz, and E. E. Fill, “Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction from Selectively Aligned Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschentscher, Th.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tth, C.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tth, C. W. Siders, and J. A. Squier, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Spoel, D.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von der Linde, D.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wark, J. S.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, P. M.

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Dudek and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast diffraction imaging of the electrocyclic ring-opening reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadiene,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4167–4171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, D.

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiel, M. J. v. d.

T. v. Oudheusden, P. L. E. M. Pasmans, S. B. v. d. Geer, M. J. d. Loos, M. J. v. d. Wiel, and O. J. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wulff, M.

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Y. Murooka, N. Naruse, S. Sakakihara, M. Ishimaru, J. Yang, and K. Tanimura, “Transmission-electron diffraction by MeV electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zewail, A. H.

A. H. Zewail, “4D Ultrafast Electron Diffraction, Crystallography, and Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 65–103 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A (1)

R. J. D. Miller, R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, M. Gao, C. T. Hebeisen, H. Jean-Ruel, C. Lu, G. Moriena, and G. Sciaini, “‘Making the molecular movie’: first frames,” Acta. Crystallogr. Sect. A A66, 135–156 (2010).

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

A. H. Zewail, “4D Ultrafast Electron Diffraction, Crystallography, and Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 65–103 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl J.. Phys. (1)

T. v. Oudheusden, E. F. d. Jong, S. B. v. d. Geer, W. P. E. M. O. t. Root, O. J. Luiten, and B. J. Siwick, “Electron source concept for single-shot sub-100 fs electron diffraction in the 100 keV range,” Appl J.. Phys. 102, 093501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Murooka, N. Naruse, S. Sakakihara, M. Ishimaru, J. Yang, and K. Tanimura, “Transmission-electron diffraction by MeV electron pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 251903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast electron optics: Propagation dynamics of femtosecond electron packets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 1643–1648 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. E. King, G. H. Campbell, A. Frank, B. Reed, J. F. Schmerge, B. J. Siwick, B. C. Stuart, and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Kassier, K. Haupt, N. Erasmus, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Schwoerer, “Achromatic reflectron compressor design for bright pulses in femtosecond electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 113111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

R. C. Dudek and P. M. Weber, “Ultrafast diffraction imaging of the electrocyclic ring-opening reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadiene,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4167–4171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. Harb, R. Ernstorfer, T. Dartigalongue, C. T. Hebeisen, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “Carrier Relaxation and Lattice Heating Dynamics in Silicon Revealed by Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25308–25313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Math. Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. (1)

P. L. Kapitza and P. A. M. Dirac, “The reflection of electrons from standing light waves,” Math. Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 29, 297–300 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

D. L. Freimund, K. Affatooni, and H. Batelaan, “Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac Effect,” Nature 413, 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sciaini, M. Harb, S. G. Kruglik, T. Payer, C. T. Hebeisen, F.-J. M. z. Heringdorf, M. Yamaguchi, M. H.-v. Hoegen, R. Ernstorfer, and R. J. D. Miller, “Electronic acceleration of atomic motions and disordering in bismuth,” Nature 458, 56–59 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichberger, H. Schafer, M. Krumova, M. Beyer, J. Demsar, H. Berger, G. Moriena, G. Sciaini, and R. J. D. Miller, “Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves,” Nature 468, 799–802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Harb, W. Peng, G. Sciaini, C. T. Hebeisen, R. Ernstorfer, M. A. Eriksson, M. G. Lagally, S. G. Kruglik, and R. J. D. Miller, “Excitation of longitudinal and transverse coherent acoustic phonons in nanometer free-standing films of (001) Si,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 094301 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. Cavalleri, C. Tth, C. W. Siders, and J. A. Squier, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Reckenthaeler, M. Centurion, W. Fu, S. A. Trushin, F. Krausz, and E. E. Fill, “Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction from Selectively Aligned Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. v. Oudheusden, P. L. E. M. Pasmans, S. B. v. d. Geer, M. J. d. Loos, M. J. v. d. Wiel, and O. J. Luiten, “Compression of Subrelativistic Space-Charge-Dominated Electron Bunches for Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 264801 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokita, M. Hashida, S. Inoue, T. Nishoji, K. Otani, and S. Sakabe, “Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction with Laser-Accelerated Electrons: Experimental Demonstration of Electron Pulse Compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 215004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

PNAS (1)

M. Aidelsburger, F. O. Kirchner, F. Krausz, and P. Baum, “Single-electron pulses for ultrafast diffraction,” PNAS 107, 19714–19719 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

G. Sciaini and R. J. D. Miller, “Femtosecond electron diffraction: heralding the era of atomically resolved dynamics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 096101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

F. Schotte, M. Lim, T. A. Jackson, A. V. Smirnov, J. Soman, J. S. Olson, G. N. Phillips, M. Wulff, and P. A. Annrud, “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300, 1944–1947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ernstorfer, M. Harb, C. T. Hebeisen, G. Sciaini, T. Dartigalongue, and R. J. D. Miller, “The Formation of Warm Dense Matter: Experimental Evidence for Electronic Bond Hardening in Gold,” Science 323, 1033–1037 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Siwick, J. R. Dwyer, R. E. Jordan, and R. J. D. Miller, “An Atomic-Level View of Melting Using Femtosecond Electron Diffraction,” Science 302, 1382–1385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Lindenberg, J. Larsson, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. J. Gaffney, C. Blome, O. Synnergren, J. Sheppard, C. Caleman, A. G. MacPhee, D. Weinstein, D. P. Lowney, T. K. Allison, T. Matthews, R. W. Falcone, A. L. Cavalieri, D. M. Fritz, S. H. Lee, P. H. Bucksbaum, D. A. Reis, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, C. C. Kao, D. P. Siddons, R. Pahl, J. Als-Nielsen, S. Duesterer, R. Ischebeck, H. Schlarb, H. Schulte-Schrepping, Th. Tschentscher, J. Schneider, D. von der Linde, O. Hignette, F. Sette, H. N. Chapman, R. W. Lee, T. N. Hansen, S. Techert, J. S. Wark, M. Bergh, G. Huldt, D. van der Spoel, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, R. A. Akre, E. Bong, P. Krejcik, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, K. Luening, and J. B. Hastings, “Atomic-Scale Visualization of Inertial Dynamics,” Science 308, 392–395 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

“General Particle Tracer,” http://www.pulsar.nl/gpt .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General Schematic of the Two Lens Hybrid DC-RF Pulse Compression System. A 270 nm UV pulse back-illuminates a gold photo-cathode and generates an electron pulse with a bunch charge up to 200 fC. The electron bunch is accelerated through a 95 keV extraction field, collimated by the first magnetic lens, rebunched in the 3 GHz RF cavity, and then collimated again towards the sample by a second magnetic lens. The electron-optic elements are labelled and their respective distances are given in cm from the cathode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Compact Grating Enhanced Ponderomotive Cross Correlation Setup. This compact system allows in situ measurements of the electron pulse duration and timing jitter in the t=0 position, essential to fully determining the true time resolution in the use of electron probes to atomically resolve structural dynamics (DL = motorized delay line; BS = beam splitter).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The ponderomotive signal for a 200 fC bunch charge stripped by a 30 μm slit at various time delays, as indicated (−500 fs to +500 fs). The field amplitude inside the cavity is 0.67 MV/m. At optimal temporal overlap between the ponderomotive grating and the electron beam (0 fs), the electron are almost entirely depleted from the center and scattered in the transverse direction. The color code is chosen to provide a difference map of the electron spatial distribution with and without laser excitation; where the intensity in the blue color represents a negative change in density and the red color represents positive change in density. The slit appears slightly tilted due to the detector orientation. These images are scaled to fit the margins of the paper and do not represent the scale of the original data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The time averaged scattering signal S(τ) is obtained with 200 shots per point for a 200 fC bunch charge. This results in an IRF of 430 ± 75 fs FWHM following de-convolution using Eq. (4). The field amplitude is 0.67 MV/m. (b) The IRF measured by ponderomotive scattering vs field amplitude at Ez(0, r = 0). The minimum in the field dependence corresponds to the cross correlation shown in (a). The red line is a smoothing curve to illustrate the shape of the focus.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of Temperature Stability on Timing Jitter. Successive ponderomotive traces were taken on 3 minute intervals. The top plot shows temperature instabilities leading to a large overall phase drift of 2 ps over the course 1.5 hours. The bottom plot shows that after temperature stabilizing the RF electronics and cables, we were able to maintain average t0 stability of 70 fs RMS (Root Mean Squared) over the course of the same period of time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Timing Jitter Measurement. (a) simulated distributions fY (y) for the scattering signal at t = 0 for a given ratio of the jitter to the pulse width α = σj/σt and setting σ eff 2 = σ t 2 + σ j 2. (b) The measured distribution for a given time t normalized such that the maximum signal is 1. The least squares fit (red line) gives α = 0.28 ± 0.05 and t = 238 ± 30 fs

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Femtosecond Electron Diffraction Study of Photocarrier-Lattice Relaxation Dynamics in Si(001).(a) Diffraction pattern of single crystal silicon collected from 10 shots (40 fC per shot), 200 ± 20 μm FWHM electron beam. (b)Photocarrier relaxation into lattice phonons is clearly observed as a decrease in the intensity of the (400) peak with increased RMS motion of the atoms.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E z = E 0 sin ( 2 π f t + ϕ 0 ) .
F ( r , t ) = e 2 λ 2 8 π 2 m e ɛ 0 c 3 I ( r , t ) ;
S ( t ) = | X | D t ( X , Y ) d X d Y .
σ eff 2 = σ S 2 σ t laser 2 σ w laser 2 / v electron 2 ;
Y ( t ) = A e ( t J ) 2 2 σ t 2 ;

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