Abstract

A parallelized 3D FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) solver has been used to study the near-field electromagnetic intensity upon plasmonics nanostructures. The studied structures are obtained from AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) topography measured on real disordered gold layers deposited by thermal evaporation under ultra-high vacuum. The simulation results obtained with these 3D metallic nanostructures are in good agreement with previous experimental results: the localization of the electromagnetic intensity in subwavelength areas (“hot spots”) is demonstrated; the spectral and polarization dependences of the position of these “hot spots” are also satisfactory; the enhancement factors obtained are realistic compared to the experimental ones. These results could be useful to further our understanding of the electromagnetic behavior of random metal layers.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

C. Awada, G. Barbillon, F. Charra, L. Douillard, and J.-J. Greffet, “Experimental study of hot spots in gold/glass nanocomposite films by photoemission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045438 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. D. Thoreson, J. Fang, A. V. Kildishev, L. J. Prokopeva, P. Nyga, U. K. Chettiar, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Fabrication and realistic modeling of three-dimensional metal-dielectric composites,” J. Nanophotonics5(1), 051513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Word, J. Fitzgerald, and R. Könenkamp, “Photoelectron emission control with polarized light in plasmonics metal random structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Krachmalnicoff, E. Castanié, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Fluctuations of the local density of states probe localized surface plasmons on disordered metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(18), 183901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Wei, F. Hao, Y. Huang, W. Wang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Polarization dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold nanoparticle-nanowire systems,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2497–2502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Buil, J. Aubineau, J. Laverdant, and X. Quélin, “Local field intensity enhancements on gold semicontinuous films investigated with an aperture near-field optical microscope in collection mode,” J. Appl. Phys.100(6), 063530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-field intensity correlations in semi-continuous metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

H. Xu and M. Käll, “Polarization-dependent surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of isolated silver nanoaggregates,” ChemPhysChem4(9), 1001–1005 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmon localization and local field distribution in metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Coello, “Statistics of local field intensity enhancements at nanostructured surfaces investigated with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. B64(11), 115414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Localization versus delocalization of surface plasmons in nanosystems: can one state have both characteristics?” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(16), 167401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rep.335(6), 275–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B58(17), 11441–11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev and A. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B57(20), 13265–13288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and J. V. Garcia-Ramos, “Calculations of the direct electromagnetic enhancement in surface enhanced Raman scattering on random self-affine fractal metal surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys.108(1), 317–325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(5), 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(15), 2486–2489 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic scattering of waves by random rough surface: a finite-difference time-domain approach,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.4(9), 355–359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980

P. Sheng, “Theory of the dielectric function of granular composite media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.45(1), 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Aigouy, L.

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. L.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(5), 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubineau, J.

S. Buil, J. Aubineau, J. Laverdant, and X. Quélin, “Local field intensity enhancements on gold semicontinuous films investigated with an aperture near-field optical microscope in collection mode,” J. Appl. Phys.100(6), 063530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Awada, C.

C. Awada, G. Barbillon, F. Charra, L. Douillard, and J.-J. Greffet, “Experimental study of hot spots in gold/glass nanocomposite films by photoemission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045438 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, K.

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbillon, G.

C. Awada, G. Barbillon, F. Charra, L. Douillard, and J.-J. Greffet, “Experimental study of hot spots in gold/glass nanocomposite films by photoemission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045438 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baro, A. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Localization versus delocalization of surface plasmons in nanosystems: can one state have both characteristics?” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(16), 167401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, B.

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Botet, R.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Coello, “Statistics of local field intensity enhancements at nanostructured surfaces investigated with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. B64(11), 115414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B58(17), 11441–11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bragg, W. D.

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buil, S.

S. Buil, J. Aubineau, J. Laverdant, and X. Quélin, “Local field intensity enhancements on gold semicontinuous films investigated with an aperture near-field optical microscope in collection mode,” J. Appl. Phys.100(6), 063530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cang, H.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-field intensity correlations in semi-continuous metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carminati, R.

V. Krachmalnicoff, E. Castanié, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Fluctuations of the local density of states probe localized surface plasmons on disordered metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(18), 183901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castanié, E.

V. Krachmalnicoff, E. Castanié, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Fluctuations of the local density of states probe localized surface plasmons on disordered metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(18), 183901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C. H.

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic scattering of waves by random rough surface: a finite-difference time-domain approach,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.4(9), 355–359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Charra, F.

C. Awada, G. Barbillon, F. Charra, L. Douillard, and J.-J. Greffet, “Experimental study of hot spots in gold/glass nanocomposite films by photoemission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045438 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

M. D. Thoreson, J. Fang, A. V. Kildishev, L. J. Prokopeva, P. Nyga, U. K. Chettiar, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Fabrication and realistic modeling of three-dimensional metal-dielectric composites,” J. Nanophotonics5(1), 051513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Coello, V.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Coello, “Statistics of local field intensity enhancements at nanostructured surfaces investigated with a near-field optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. B64(11), 115414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B58(17), 11441–11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colchero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Wilde, Y.

V. Krachmalnicoff, E. Castanié, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Fluctuations of the local density of states probe localized surface plasmons on disordered metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(18), 183901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desmarest, C.

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Douillard, L.

C. Awada, G. Barbillon, F. Charra, L. Douillard, and J.-J. Greffet, “Experimental study of hot spots in gold/glass nanocomposite films by photoemission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045438 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

M. D. Thoreson, J. Fang, A. V. Kildishev, L. J. Prokopeva, P. Nyga, U. K. Chettiar, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Fabrication and realistic modeling of three-dimensional metal-dielectric composites,” J. Nanophotonics5(1), 051513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ducourtieux, S.

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Faleev, S. V.

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Localization versus delocalization of surface plasmons in nanosystems: can one state have both characteristics?” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(16), 167401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, J.

M. D. Thoreson, J. Fang, A. V. Kildishev, L. J. Prokopeva, P. Nyga, U. K. Chettiar, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Fabrication and realistic modeling of three-dimensional metal-dielectric composites,” J. Nanophotonics5(1), 051513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, R.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, J.

R. C. Word, J. Fitzgerald, and R. Könenkamp, “Photoelectron emission control with polarized light in plasmonics metal random structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gadenne, P.

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Ramos, J. V.

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and J. V. Garcia-Ramos, “Calculations of the direct electromagnetic enhancement in surface enhanced Raman scattering on random self-affine fractal metal surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys.108(1), 317–325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-field intensity correlations in semi-continuous metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmon localization and local field distribution in metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, T. F.

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(15), 2486–2489 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladden, C.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez-Herrero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez-Rodríguez, J. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greffet, J.-J.

C. Awada, G. Barbillon, F. Charra, L. Douillard, and J.-J. Greffet, “Experimental study of hot spots in gold/glass nanocomposite films by photoemission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045438 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grésillon, S.

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hao, F.

H. Wei, F. Hao, Y. Huang, W. Wang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Polarization dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold nanoparticle-nanowire systems,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2497–2502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horcas, I.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

H. Wei, F. Hao, Y. Huang, W. Wang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Polarization dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold nanoparticle-nanowire systems,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2497–2502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

H. Xu and M. Käll, “Polarization-dependent surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of isolated silver nanoaggregates,” ChemPhysChem4(9), 1001–1005 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

M. D. Thoreson, J. Fang, A. V. Kildishev, L. J. Prokopeva, P. Nyga, U. K. Chettiar, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Fabrication and realistic modeling of three-dimensional metal-dielectric composites,” J. Nanophotonics5(1), 051513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B58(17), 11441–11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(5), 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Könenkamp, R.

R. C. Word, J. Fitzgerald, and R. Könenkamp, “Photoelectron emission control with polarized light in plasmonics metal random structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic scattering of waves by random rough surface: a finite-difference time-domain approach,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.4(9), 355–359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, J.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krachmalnicoff, V.

V. Krachmalnicoff, E. Castanié, Y. De Wilde, and R. Carminati, “Fluctuations of the local density of states probe localized surface plasmons on disordered metal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(18), 183901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labno, A.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laverdant, J.

S. Buil, J. Aubineau, J. Laverdant, and X. Quélin, “Local field intensity enhancements on gold semicontinuous films investigated with an aperture near-field optical microscope in collection mode,” J. Appl. Phys.100(6), 063530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lou, S. H.

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic scattering of waves by random rough surface: a finite-difference time-domain approach,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.4(9), 355–359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markel, V. A.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B58(17), 11441–11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(5), 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskovits, M.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muratov, L. S.

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(15), 2486–2489 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noh, H.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-field intensity correlations in semi-continuous metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

H. Wei, F. Hao, Y. Huang, W. Wang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Polarization dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold nanoparticle-nanowire systems,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2497–2502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyga, P.

M. D. Thoreson, J. Fang, A. V. Kildishev, L. J. Prokopeva, P. Nyga, U. K. Chettiar, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Fabrication and realistic modeling of three-dimensional metal-dielectric composites,” J. Nanophotonics5(1), 051513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pandey, L. N.

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(15), 2486–2489 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prokopeva, L. J.

M. D. Thoreson, J. Fang, A. V. Kildishev, L. J. Prokopeva, P. Nyga, U. K. Chettiar, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Fabrication and realistic modeling of three-dimensional metal-dielectric composites,” J. Nanophotonics5(1), 051513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quélin, X.

S. Buil, J. Aubineau, J. Laverdant, and X. Quélin, “Local field intensity enhancements on gold semicontinuous films investigated with an aperture near-field optical microscope in collection mode,” J. Appl. Phys.100(6), 063530 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rivoal, J.-C.

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, V. P.

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

J. A. Sánchez-Gil and J. V. Garcia-Ramos, “Calculations of the direct electromagnetic enhancement in surface enhanced Raman scattering on random self-affine fractal metal surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys.108(1), 317–325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A.

V. M. Shalaev and A. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B57(20), 13265–13288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-field intensity correlations in semi-continuous metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmon localization and local field distribution in metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rep.335(6), 275–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seal, K.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-field intensity correlations in semi-continuous metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

M. D. Thoreson, J. Fang, A. V. Kildishev, L. J. Prokopeva, P. Nyga, U. K. Chettiar, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Fabrication and realistic modeling of three-dimensional metal-dielectric composites,” J. Nanophotonics5(1), 051513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-field intensity correlations in semi-continuous metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Genov, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmon localization and local field distribution in metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.67(5), 056611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ducourtieux, V. A. Podolskiy, S. Grésillon, S. Buil, B. Berini, P. Gadenne, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, W. D. Bragg, K. Banerjee, V. P. Safonov, V. P. Drachev, Z. C. Ying, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field optical studies of semicontinuous metal films,” Phys. Rev. B64(16), 165403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rep.335(6), 275–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B58(17), 11441–11448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev and A. Sarychev, “Nonlinear optics of random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. B57(20), 13265–13288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(5), 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, P.

P. Sheng, “Theory of the dielectric function of granular composite media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.45(1), 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, V. A.

S. Grésillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J.-C. Rivoal, X. Quélin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stechel, E. B.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. I. linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(5), 2425–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, S. V. Faleev, and D. J. Bergman, “Localization versus delocalization of surface plasmons in nanosystems: can one state have both characteristics?” Phys. Rev. Lett.87(16), 167401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(15), 2486–2489 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J. S.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoreson, M. D.

M. D. Thoreson, J. Fang, A. V. Kildishev, L. J. Prokopeva, P. Nyga, U. K. Chettiar, V. M. Shalaev, and V. P. Drachev, “Fabrication and realistic modeling of three-dimensional metal-dielectric composites,” J. Nanophotonics5(1), 051513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, P. Nyga, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “FDTD modeling of realistic semicontinuous metal films,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 159–168 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, L.

C. H. Chan, S. H. Lou, L. Tsang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic scattering of waves by random rough surface: a finite-difference time-domain approach,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.4(9), 355–359 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

H. Wei, F. Hao, Y. Huang, W. Wang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Polarization dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold nanoparticle-nanowire systems,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2497–2502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning tunneling microscopy images of optical excitations of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(26), 4149–4152 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, H.

H. Wei, F. Hao, Y. Huang, W. Wang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Polarization dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold nanoparticle-nanowire systems,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2497–2502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Word, R. C.

R. C. Word, J. Fitzgerald, and R. Könenkamp, “Photoelectron emission control with polarized light in plasmonics metal random structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(4), 041106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Wei, F. Hao, Y. Huang, W. Wang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Polarization dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold nanoparticle-nanowire systems,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2497–2502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu and M. Käll, “Polarization-dependent surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of isolated silver nanoaggregates,” ChemPhysChem4(9), 1001–1005 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamilov, A.

K. Seal, A. K. Sarychev, H. Noh, D. A. Genov, A. Yamilov, V. M. Shalaev, Z. C. Ying, and H. Cao, “Near-field intensity correlations in semi-continuous metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(22), 226101 (2005).
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