Abstract

Portable, low cost and real-time gas sensors have a considerable potential in various biomedical and industrial applications. For such applications, nano-photonic gas sensors based on standard silicon fabrication technology offer attractive opportunities. Deposition of high surface area nano-porous coatings on silicon photonic sensors is a means to achieve selective, highly sensitive and multiplexed gas detection on an optical chip. Here we demonstrate selective and reversible ammonia gas detection with functionalized silicon-on-insulator optical micro-ring resonators. The micro-ring resonators are coated with acidic nano-porous aluminosilicate films for specific ammonia sensing, which results in a reversible response to NH3 with selectivity relative to CO2. The ammonia detection limit is estimated at about 5 ppm. The detectors reach a steady response to NH3 within 30 and return to their base level within 60 to 90 seconds. The work opens perspectives on development of nano-photonic sensors for real-time, non-invasive, low cost and light weight biomedical and industrial sensing applications.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

P. H. Rogers and S. Semancik, “Development of optimization procedures for application-specific chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.163(1), 8–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Sathitwitayakul, M. V. Kuznetsov, I. P. Parkin, and R. Binions, “The gas sensing properties of some complex metal oxides prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis,” Mater. Lett.75, 36–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, T. I. Korányi, G. Vanbutsele, K. Houthoofd, D. Deduytsche, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Aluminium atomic layer deposition applied to mesoporous zeolites for acid catalytic activity enhancement,” Catal. Sci. Technol.1(2), 218–221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Detavernier, J. Dendooven, S. Pulinthanathu Sree, K. F. Ludwig, and J. A. Martens, “Tailoring nanoporous materials by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5242–5253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. M. George, “Atomic layer deposition: an overview,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 111–131 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Yebo, P. Lommens, Z. Hens, and R. Baets, “An integrated optic ethanol vapor sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator coated with a porous ZnO film,” Opt. Express18(11), 11859–11866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. H. Tran, H. P. Chan, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection System,” IEEE Sens. J.10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, “A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT),” Sensors (Basel)10(7), 6788–6795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Yebo, D. Taillaert, J. Roels, D. Lahem, M. Debliquy, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ring resonator based integrated optical hydrogen sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 960–962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193nm optical lithography,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(18), 4076–4083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Kanu and H. H. Hill., “Ion mobility spectrometry detection for gas chromatography,” J. Chromatogr. A1177(1), 12–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wang and A. B. Surampudi, “An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(10), 105604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Aguilar, E. S. Forzani, L. A. Nagahara, I. Amlani, R. Tsui, and N. J. Tao, “A breath ammonia sensor based on conducting polymer nanojunctions,” IEEE Sens. J.8(3), 269–273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Eslava, M. R. Baklanov, C. E. A. Kirschhock, F. Iacopi, S. Aldea, K. Maex, and J. A. Martens, “Characterization of a molecular sieve coating using ellipsometric porosimetry,” Langmuir23(26), 12811–12816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

V. Ruzsanyi, J. I. Baumbach, S. Sielemann, P. Litterst, M. Westhoff, and L. Freitag, “Detection of human metabolites using multi-capillary columns coupled to ion mobility spectrometers,” J. Chromatogr. A1084(1-2), 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. M. Doyle, G. Rupprechter, N. Pfänder, R. Schlögl, C. E. A. Kirschhock, J. A. Martens, and H.-J. Freund, “Ultra-thin zeolite films prepared by spin-coating silicalite-1 precursor solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3–4), 404–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(8), 4617–4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

X. Wang, N. Miura, and N. Yamazoe, “Study of WO3-based sensing material for NH3 and NO detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.66(1–3), 74–76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Heiduschka, M. Preschel, M. Rosch, and W. Gopel, “Regeneration of an electropolymerised polypyrrole layer for the amperometric detection of ammonia,” Biosens. Bioelectron.12(12), 1227–1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

G. J. Kramer, R. A. Van Santen, C. A. Emeis, and A. K. Nowak, “Understanding the acid behavior of zeolites from theory and experiments,” Nature363(6429), 529–531 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984

F. Winquist, A. Spetz, I. Lundstrom, and B. Danielsson, “Determination of ammonia in air and aqueous samples with a gas-sensitive semiconductor capacitor,” Anal. Chim. Acta164, 127–138 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aerts, A.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, A. D.

A. D. Aguilar, E. S. Forzani, L. A. Nagahara, I. Amlani, R. Tsui, and N. J. Tao, “A breath ammonia sensor based on conducting polymer nanojunctions,” IEEE Sens. J.8(3), 269–273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aldea, S.

S. Eslava, M. R. Baklanov, C. E. A. Kirschhock, F. Iacopi, S. Aldea, K. Maex, and J. A. Martens, “Characterization of a molecular sieve coating using ellipsometric porosimetry,” Langmuir23(26), 12811–12816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amlani, I.

A. D. Aguilar, E. S. Forzani, L. A. Nagahara, I. Amlani, R. Tsui, and N. J. Tao, “A breath ammonia sensor based on conducting polymer nanojunctions,” IEEE Sens. J.8(3), 269–273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

N. A. Yebo, P. Lommens, Z. Hens, and R. Baets, “An integrated optic ethanol vapor sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator coated with a porous ZnO film,” Opt. Express18(11), 11859–11866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193nm optical lithography,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(18), 4076–4083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Yebo, D. Taillaert, J. Roels, D. Lahem, M. Debliquy, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ring resonator based integrated optical hydrogen sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 960–962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baklanov, M. R.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Eslava, M. R. Baklanov, C. E. A. Kirschhock, F. Iacopi, S. Aldea, K. Maex, and J. A. Martens, “Characterization of a molecular sieve coating using ellipsometric porosimetry,” Langmuir23(26), 12811–12816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumbach, J. I.

V. Ruzsanyi, J. I. Baumbach, S. Sielemann, P. Litterst, M. Westhoff, and L. Freitag, “Detection of human metabolites using multi-capillary columns coupled to ion mobility spectrometers,” J. Chromatogr. A1084(1-2), 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, G.

V. H. Tran, H. P. Chan, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection System,” IEEE Sens. J.10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Binions, R.

T. Sathitwitayakul, M. V. Kuznetsov, I. P. Parkin, and R. Binions, “The gas sensing properties of some complex metal oxides prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis,” Mater. Lett.75, 36–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Burgmeier, J.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, “A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT),” Sensors (Basel)10(7), 6788–6795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buschmann, V.

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. P.

V. H. Tran, H. P. Chan, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection System,” IEEE Sens. J.10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S. T.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claes, T.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, J.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danielsson, B.

F. Winquist, A. Spetz, I. Lundstrom, and B. Danielsson, “Determination of ammonia in air and aqueous samples with a gas-sensitive semiconductor capacitor,” Anal. Chim. Acta164, 127–138 (1984).
[CrossRef]

De Koninck, Y.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Debliquy, M.

N. A. Yebo, D. Taillaert, J. Roels, D. Lahem, M. Debliquy, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ring resonator based integrated optical hydrogen sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 960–962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deduytsche, D.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, T. I. Korányi, G. Vanbutsele, K. Houthoofd, D. Deduytsche, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Aluminium atomic layer deposition applied to mesoporous zeolites for acid catalytic activity enhancement,” Catal. Sci. Technol.1(2), 218–221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dendooven, J.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, T. I. Korányi, G. Vanbutsele, K. Houthoofd, D. Deduytsche, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Aluminium atomic layer deposition applied to mesoporous zeolites for acid catalytic activity enhancement,” Catal. Sci. Technol.1(2), 218–221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Detavernier, J. Dendooven, S. Pulinthanathu Sree, K. F. Ludwig, and J. A. Martens, “Tailoring nanoporous materials by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5242–5253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detavernier, C.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, T. I. Korányi, G. Vanbutsele, K. Houthoofd, D. Deduytsche, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Aluminium atomic layer deposition applied to mesoporous zeolites for acid catalytic activity enhancement,” Catal. Sci. Technol.1(2), 218–221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Detavernier, J. Dendooven, S. Pulinthanathu Sree, K. F. Ludwig, and J. A. Martens, “Tailoring nanoporous materials by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5242–5253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, A. M.

A. M. Doyle, G. Rupprechter, N. Pfänder, R. Schlögl, C. E. A. Kirschhock, J. A. Martens, and H.-J. Freund, “Ultra-thin zeolite films prepared by spin-coating silicalite-1 precursor solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3–4), 404–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Emeis, C. A.

G. J. Kramer, R. A. Van Santen, C. A. Emeis, and A. K. Nowak, “Understanding the acid behavior of zeolites from theory and experiments,” Nature363(6429), 529–531 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eslava, S.

S. Eslava, M. R. Baklanov, C. E. A. Kirschhock, F. Iacopi, S. Aldea, K. Maex, and J. A. Martens, “Characterization of a molecular sieve coating using ellipsometric porosimetry,” Langmuir23(26), 12811–12816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fathpour, S.

Flood, E. M.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forzani, E. S.

A. D. Aguilar, E. S. Forzani, L. A. Nagahara, I. Amlani, R. Tsui, and N. J. Tao, “A breath ammonia sensor based on conducting polymer nanojunctions,” IEEE Sens. J.8(3), 269–273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, L.

V. Ruzsanyi, J. I. Baumbach, S. Sielemann, P. Litterst, M. Westhoff, and L. Freitag, “Detection of human metabolites using multi-capillary columns coupled to ion mobility spectrometers,” J. Chromatogr. A1084(1-2), 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freund, H.-J.

A. M. Doyle, G. Rupprechter, N. Pfänder, R. Schlögl, C. E. A. Kirschhock, J. A. Martens, and H.-J. Freund, “Ultra-thin zeolite films prepared by spin-coating silicalite-1 precursor solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3–4), 404–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

George, S. M.

S. M. George, “Atomic layer deposition: an overview,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 111–131 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, D.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girones, J.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goad, D.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, W.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(8), 4617–4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopel, W.

P. Heiduschka, M. Preschel, M. Rosch, and W. Gopel, “Regeneration of an electropolymerised polypyrrole layer for the amperometric detection of ammonia,” Biosens. Bioelectron.12(12), 1227–1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grobet, P. J.

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, H.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, “A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT),” Sensors (Basel)10(7), 6788–6795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heiduschka, P.

P. Heiduschka, M. Preschel, M. Rosch, and W. Gopel, “Regeneration of an electropolymerised polypyrrole layer for the amperometric detection of ammonia,” Biosens. Bioelectron.12(12), 1227–1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hens, Z.

Hill, H. H.

A. B. Kanu and H. H. Hill., “Ion mobility spectrometry detection for gas chromatography,” J. Chromatogr. A1177(1), 12–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houssin, C. J. Y.

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Houthoofd, K.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, T. I. Korányi, G. Vanbutsele, K. Houthoofd, D. Deduytsche, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Aluminium atomic layer deposition applied to mesoporous zeolites for acid catalytic activity enhancement,” Catal. Sci. Technol.1(2), 218–221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iacopi, F.

S. Eslava, M. R. Baklanov, C. E. A. Kirschhock, F. Iacopi, S. Aldea, K. Maex, and J. A. Martens, “Characterization of a molecular sieve coating using ellipsometric porosimetry,” Langmuir23(26), 12811–12816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ja, S. J.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, P.

V. H. Tran, H. P. Chan, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection System,” IEEE Sens. J.10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, P. A.

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jaenen, P.

Jäger, W.

Jalali, B.

Kanu, A. B.

A. B. Kanu and H. H. Hill., “Ion mobility spectrometry detection for gas chromatography,” J. Chromatogr. A1177(1), 12–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, O.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirschhock, C. E. A.

S. Eslava, M. R. Baklanov, C. E. A. Kirschhock, F. Iacopi, S. Aldea, K. Maex, and J. A. Martens, “Characterization of a molecular sieve coating using ellipsometric porosimetry,” Langmuir23(26), 12811–12816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Doyle, G. Rupprechter, N. Pfänder, R. Schlögl, C. E. A. Kirschhock, J. A. Martens, and H.-J. Freund, “Ultra-thin zeolite films prepared by spin-coating silicalite-1 precursor solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3–4), 404–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knobbe, E.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, J.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, “A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT),” Sensors (Basel)10(7), 6788–6795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korányi, T. I.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, T. I. Korányi, G. Vanbutsele, K. Houthoofd, D. Deduytsche, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Aluminium atomic layer deposition applied to mesoporous zeolites for acid catalytic activity enhancement,” Catal. Sci. Technol.1(2), 218–221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, G. J.

G. J. Kramer, R. A. Van Santen, C. A. Emeis, and A. K. Nowak, “Understanding the acid behavior of zeolites from theory and experiments,” Nature363(6429), 529–531 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, S.

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M. V.

T. Sathitwitayakul, M. V. Kuznetsov, I. P. Parkin, and R. Binions, “The gas sensing properties of some complex metal oxides prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis,” Mater. Lett.75, 36–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lahem, D.

N. A. Yebo, D. Taillaert, J. Roels, D. Lahem, M. Debliquy, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ring resonator based integrated optical hydrogen sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 960–962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C.

V. H. Tran, H. P. Chan, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection System,” IEEE Sens. J.10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Litterst, P.

V. Ruzsanyi, J. I. Baumbach, S. Sielemann, P. Litterst, M. Westhoff, and L. Freitag, “Detection of human metabolites using multi-capillary columns coupled to ion mobility spectrometers,” J. Chromatogr. A1084(1-2), 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lommens, P.

Ludwig, K. F.

C. Detavernier, J. Dendooven, S. Pulinthanathu Sree, K. F. Ludwig, and J. A. Martens, “Tailoring nanoporous materials by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5242–5253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundstrom, I.

F. Winquist, A. Spetz, I. Lundstrom, and B. Danielsson, “Determination of ammonia in air and aqueous samples with a gas-sensitive semiconductor capacitor,” Anal. Chim. Acta164, 127–138 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lützow, P.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, “A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT),” Sensors (Basel)10(7), 6788–6795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maex, K.

S. Eslava, M. R. Baklanov, C. E. A. Kirschhock, F. Iacopi, S. Aldea, K. Maex, and J. A. Martens, “Characterization of a molecular sieve coating using ellipsometric porosimetry,” Langmuir23(26), 12811–12816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manne, J.

Martens, J. A.

C. Detavernier, J. Dendooven, S. Pulinthanathu Sree, K. F. Ludwig, and J. A. Martens, “Tailoring nanoporous materials by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5242–5253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, T. I. Korányi, G. Vanbutsele, K. Houthoofd, D. Deduytsche, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Aluminium atomic layer deposition applied to mesoporous zeolites for acid catalytic activity enhancement,” Catal. Sci. Technol.1(2), 218–221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Eslava, M. R. Baklanov, C. E. A. Kirschhock, F. Iacopi, S. Aldea, K. Maex, and J. A. Martens, “Characterization of a molecular sieve coating using ellipsometric porosimetry,” Langmuir23(26), 12811–12816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Doyle, G. Rupprechter, N. Pfänder, R. Schlögl, C. E. A. Kirschhock, J. A. Martens, and H.-J. Freund, “Ultra-thin zeolite films prepared by spin-coating silicalite-1 precursor solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3–4), 404–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miura, N.

X. Wang, N. Miura, and N. Yamazoe, “Study of WO3-based sensing material for NH3 and NO detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.66(1–3), 74–76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mojet, B. L.

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nagahara, L. A.

A. D. Aguilar, E. S. Forzani, L. A. Nagahara, I. Amlani, R. Tsui, and N. J. Tao, “A breath ammonia sensor based on conducting polymer nanojunctions,” IEEE Sens. J.8(3), 269–273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Narasimhan, L. R.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(8), 4617–4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nowak, A. K.

G. J. Kramer, R. A. Van Santen, C. A. Emeis, and A. K. Nowak, “Understanding the acid behavior of zeolites from theory and experiments,” Nature363(6429), 529–531 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Orghici, R.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, “A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT),” Sensors (Basel)10(7), 6788–6795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parkin, I. P.

T. Sathitwitayakul, M. V. Kuznetsov, I. P. Parkin, and R. Binions, “The gas sensing properties of some complex metal oxides prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis,” Mater. Lett.75, 36–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(8), 4617–4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfänder, N.

A. M. Doyle, G. Rupprechter, N. Pfänder, R. Schlögl, C. E. A. Kirschhock, J. A. Martens, and H.-J. Freund, “Ultra-thin zeolite films prepared by spin-coating silicalite-1 precursor solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3–4), 404–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Popelka, S.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Preschel, M.

P. Heiduschka, M. Preschel, M. Rosch, and W. Gopel, “Regeneration of an electropolymerised polypyrrole layer for the amperometric detection of ammonia,” Biosens. Bioelectron.12(12), 1227–1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pulinthanathu Sree, S.

C. Detavernier, J. Dendooven, S. Pulinthanathu Sree, K. F. Ludwig, and J. A. Martens, “Tailoring nanoporous materials by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5242–5253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramachandran, A.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravishankar, R.

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roels, J.

N. A. Yebo, D. Taillaert, J. Roels, D. Lahem, M. Debliquy, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ring resonator based integrated optical hydrogen sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 960–962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, P. H.

P. H. Rogers and S. Semancik, “Development of optimization procedures for application-specific chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.163(1), 8–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rosch, M.

P. Heiduschka, M. Preschel, M. Rosch, and W. Gopel, “Regeneration of an electropolymerised polypyrrole layer for the amperometric detection of ammonia,” Biosens. Bioelectron.12(12), 1227–1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rupprechter, G.

A. M. Doyle, G. Rupprechter, N. Pfänder, R. Schlögl, C. E. A. Kirschhock, J. A. Martens, and H.-J. Freund, “Ultra-thin zeolite films prepared by spin-coating silicalite-1 precursor solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3–4), 404–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruzsanyi, V.

V. Ruzsanyi, J. I. Baumbach, S. Sielemann, P. Litterst, M. Westhoff, and L. Freitag, “Detection of human metabolites using multi-capillary columns coupled to ion mobility spectrometers,” J. Chromatogr. A1084(1-2), 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sathitwitayakul, T.

T. Sathitwitayakul, M. V. Kuznetsov, I. P. Parkin, and R. Binions, “The gas sensing properties of some complex metal oxides prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis,” Mater. Lett.75, 36–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schade, W.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, “A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT),” Sensors (Basel)10(7), 6788–6795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlögl, R.

A. M. Doyle, G. Rupprechter, N. Pfänder, R. Schlögl, C. E. A. Kirschhock, J. A. Martens, and H.-J. Freund, “Ultra-thin zeolite films prepared by spin-coating silicalite-1 precursor solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3–4), 404–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S. K.

Semancik, S.

P. H. Rogers and S. Semancik, “Development of optimization procedures for application-specific chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.163(1), 8–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. W.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sielemann, S.

V. Ruzsanyi, J. I. Baumbach, S. Sielemann, P. Litterst, M. Westhoff, and L. Freitag, “Detection of human metabolites using multi-capillary columns coupled to ion mobility spectrometers,” J. Chromatogr. A1084(1-2), 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smeets, D.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spetz, A.

F. Winquist, A. Spetz, I. Lundstrom, and B. Danielsson, “Determination of ammonia in air and aqueous samples with a gas-sensitive semiconductor capacitor,” Anal. Chim. Acta164, 127–138 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sree, S. P.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, T. I. Korányi, G. Vanbutsele, K. Houthoofd, D. Deduytsche, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Aluminium atomic layer deposition applied to mesoporous zeolites for acid catalytic activity enhancement,” Catal. Sci. Technol.1(2), 218–221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, O.

Surampudi, A. B.

C. Wang and A. B. Surampudi, “An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(10), 105604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

N. A. Yebo, D. Taillaert, J. Roels, D. Lahem, M. Debliquy, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ring resonator based integrated optical hydrogen sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 960–962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tao, N. J.

A. D. Aguilar, E. S. Forzani, L. A. Nagahara, I. Amlani, R. Tsui, and N. J. Tao, “A breath ammonia sensor based on conducting polymer nanojunctions,” IEEE Sens. J.8(3), 269–273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Temst, K.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P. S.

V. H. Tran, H. P. Chan, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection System,” IEEE Sens. J.10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thurston, M.

V. H. Tran, H. P. Chan, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection System,” IEEE Sens. J.10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tran, V. H.

V. H. Tran, H. P. Chan, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection System,” IEEE Sens. J.10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, R.

A. D. Aguilar, E. S. Forzani, L. A. Nagahara, I. Amlani, R. Tsui, and N. J. Tao, “A breath ammonia sensor based on conducting polymer nanojunctions,” IEEE Sens. J.8(3), 269–273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tulip, J.

van Santen, R. A.

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Kramer, R. A. Van Santen, C. A. Emeis, and A. K. Nowak, “Understanding the acid behavior of zeolites from theory and experiments,” Nature363(6429), 529–531 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

N. A. Yebo, D. Taillaert, J. Roels, D. Lahem, M. Debliquy, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ring resonator based integrated optical hydrogen sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 960–962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Fabrication of photonic wire and crystal circuits in silicon-on-insulator using 193nm optical lithography,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(18), 4076–4083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vanbutsele, G.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, T. I. Korányi, G. Vanbutsele, K. Houthoofd, D. Deduytsche, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Aluminium atomic layer deposition applied to mesoporous zeolites for acid catalytic activity enhancement,” Catal. Sci. Technol.1(2), 218–221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vanstreels, K.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vantomme, A.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wald, L.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldvogel, S.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, “A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT),” Sensors (Basel)10(7), 6788–6795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

C. Wang and A. B. Surampudi, “An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(10), 105604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, N. Miura, and N. Yamazoe, “Study of WO3-based sensing material for NH3 and NO detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.66(1–3), 74–76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Welschoff, N.

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, “A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT),” Sensors (Basel)10(7), 6788–6795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westhoff, M.

V. Ruzsanyi, J. I. Baumbach, S. Sielemann, P. Litterst, M. Westhoff, and L. Freitag, “Detection of human metabolites using multi-capillary columns coupled to ion mobility spectrometers,” J. Chromatogr. A1084(1-2), 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winquist, F.

F. Winquist, A. Spetz, I. Lundstrom, and B. Danielsson, “Determination of ammonia in air and aqueous samples with a gas-sensitive semiconductor capacitor,” Anal. Chim. Acta164, 127–138 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yamazoe, N.

X. Wang, N. Miura, and N. Yamazoe, “Study of WO3-based sensing material for NH3 and NO detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.66(1–3), 74–76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yates, D.

V. H. Tran, H. P. Chan, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection System,” IEEE Sens. J.10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yebo, N. A.

N. A. Yebo, P. Lommens, Z. Hens, and R. Baets, “An integrated optic ethanol vapor sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator coated with a porous ZnO film,” Opt. Express18(11), 11859–11866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Yebo, D. Taillaert, J. Roels, D. Lahem, M. Debliquy, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ring resonator based integrated optical hydrogen sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 960–962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

F. Winquist, A. Spetz, I. Lundstrom, and B. Danielsson, “Determination of ammonia in air and aqueous samples with a gas-sensitive semiconductor capacitor,” Anal. Chim. Acta164, 127–138 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.

C. E. A. Kirschhock, V. Buschmann, S. Kremer, R. Ravishankar, C. J. Y. Houssin, B. L. Mojet, R. A. van Santen, P. J. Grobet, P. A. Jacobs, and J. A. Martens, “Zeosil Nanoslabs: Building Blocks in nPr4N+- Mediated Synthesis of MFI Zeolite,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.40(14), 2637–2640 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biosens. Bioelectron.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Heiduschka, M. Preschel, M. Rosch, and W. Gopel, “Regeneration of an electropolymerised polypyrrole layer for the amperometric detection of ammonia,” Biosens. Bioelectron.12(12), 1227–1231 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Catal. Sci. Technol.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, T. I. Korányi, G. Vanbutsele, K. Houthoofd, D. Deduytsche, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Aluminium atomic layer deposition applied to mesoporous zeolites for acid catalytic activity enhancement,” Catal. Sci. Technol.1(2), 218–221 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

A. M. Doyle, G. Rupprechter, N. Pfänder, R. Schlögl, C. E. A. Kirschhock, J. A. Martens, and H.-J. Freund, “Ultra-thin zeolite films prepared by spin-coating silicalite-1 precursor solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.382(3–4), 404–409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

S. M. George, “Atomic layer deposition: an overview,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 111–131 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev.

C. Detavernier, J. Dendooven, S. Pulinthanathu Sree, K. F. Ludwig, and J. A. Martens, “Tailoring nanoporous materials by atomic layer deposition,” Chem. Soc. Rev.40(11), 5242–5253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. A. Yebo, D. Taillaert, J. Roels, D. Lahem, M. Debliquy, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) ring resonator based integrated optical hydrogen sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(14), 960–962 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics J.1(4), 225–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

V. H. Tran, H. P. Chan, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection System,” IEEE Sens. J.10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Aguilar, E. S. Forzani, L. A. Nagahara, I. Amlani, R. Tsui, and N. J. Tao, “A breath ammonia sensor based on conducting polymer nanojunctions,” IEEE Sens. J.8(3), 269–273 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chromatogr. A

A. B. Kanu and H. H. Hill., “Ion mobility spectrometry detection for gas chromatography,” J. Chromatogr. A1177(1), 12–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ruzsanyi, J. I. Baumbach, S. Sielemann, P. Litterst, M. Westhoff, and L. Freitag, “Detection of human metabolites using multi-capillary columns coupled to ion mobility spectrometers,” J. Chromatogr. A1084(1-2), 145–151 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Mater. Chem.

S. P. Sree, J. Dendooven, D. Smeets, D. Deduytsche, A. Aerts, K. Vanstreels, M. R. Baklanov, J. W. Seo, K. Temst, A. Vantomme, C. Detavernier, and J. A. Martens, “Spacious and mechanically flexible mesoporous silica thin film composed of an open network of interlinked nanoslabs,” J. Mater. Chem.21(21), 7692–7699 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

S. Eslava, M. R. Baklanov, C. E. A. Kirschhock, F. Iacopi, S. Aldea, K. Maex, and J. A. Martens, “Characterization of a molecular sieve coating using ellipsometric porosimetry,” Langmuir23(26), 12811–12816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Lett.

T. Sathitwitayakul, M. V. Kuznetsov, I. P. Parkin, and R. Binions, “The gas sensing properties of some complex metal oxides prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis,” Mater. Lett.75, 36–38 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. Wang and A. B. Surampudi, “An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations,” Meas. Sci. Technol.19(10), 105604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

G. J. Kramer, R. A. Van Santen, C. A. Emeis, and A. K. Nowak, “Understanding the acid behavior of zeolites from theory and experiments,” Nature363(6429), 529–531 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98(8), 4617–4621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

P. H. Rogers and S. Semancik, “Development of optimization procedures for application-specific chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.163(1), 8–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Miura, and N. Yamazoe, “Study of WO3-based sensing material for NH3 and NO detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.66(1–3), 74–76 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (Basel)

R. Orghici, P. Lützow, J. Burgmeier, J. Koch, H. Heidrich, W. Schade, N. Welschoff, and S. Waldvogel, “A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT),” Sensors (Basel)10(7), 6788–6795 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. W. Hunter, J. Xu, P. G. Neudeck, D. B. Makel, B. Ward, and C. C. Liu, “Intelligent chemical sensor systems for in-space safety applications,” 42nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conf. and Exhibit, Rep AIAA-06–58419(2006).

R. Lewicki, A. A. Kosterev, D. M. Thomazy, T. H. Risby, S. Solga, T. B. Schwartz, and F. K. Tittel, “Real time ammonia detection in exhaled human breath using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser based sensor,” Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices VIII, Proc. of SPIE 7945, 79450K.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) schematic representation of an SOI microring resonator cross section coated with a porous gas sensitive film (not drawn to scale) (b) Scanning Electron Micrograph of a 5µm radius MRR coated by a mesoporous silica film (thickness ~100 nm);Inset:magnified view of the coated MRR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

response from a microporous acidic film coated MRR (a) resonance shift with respect to NH3 and CO2 concentrations (b) response and recovery with time at NH3 concentrations of 50,100,200 and 400 ppm introduced for two minutes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) measured response from mesoporous silica coated MRR upon saturation with NH3 and CO2 gases, (b) comparison of NH3 sensitivity of microporous aluminosilicate film, and mesoporous silica film with and without Al-ALD

Equations (1)

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Δλ λ = Δ n eff n g + ΔL L

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