Abstract

With the classical fermion molecular dynamics model (FMD), we investigated electron emissions from H2+ by circularly polarized laser pulses. The obtained electron momentum distribution clearly shows an angular shift relative to the expected direction for H2+ aligned parallel to the polarization plane, which is in good agreement with the recent experimental result. By tracing the classical trajectory, we provide direct evidence for the electron delayed emission with respect to the instant when the electric field is parallel to the molecular axis, which was regarded as the origin of the angular shift in the electron momentum distribution. Furthermore, we find that the angular shift decreases with increasing the laser wavelength.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
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  36. G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, “Imaging electron molecular orbitals via ionization by intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 033415 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  37. Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Complex sub-laser-cycle electron dynamics in strong-field nonsequential triple ionizaion,” Opt. Express 18, 16025–16034 (2010).
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  39. Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ioniza-tion by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 2301–2308 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511–R2514 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Wu, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, M. Kunitski, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, A. Czasch, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Coulomb asymmetry in strong field multielectron ionization of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 14, 013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

M. Odenweller, N. Takemoto, A. Vredenborg, K. Cole, K. Pahl, J. Titze, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, and A. Becker, “Strong field electron emission from fixed in space H2+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Telnov and S. I. Chu, “Low-energy structure of above-threshold-ionization electron spectra: role of the coulomb threshold effect,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Lötstedt, T. Kato, and K. Yamanouchi, “Classical dynamics of laser-driven D3+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Control the revisit time of the electron wave packet,” Opt. Letters 36, 2758–2760 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ioniza-tion by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 2301–2308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express 19, 5627–5634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Complex sub-laser-cycle electron dynamics in strong-field nonsequential triple ionizaion,” Opt. Express 18, 16025–16034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollisions and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Takemoto and A. Becker, “Multiple ionization bursts in laser-driven hydrogen molecular ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 203004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Origin of unexpected low energy structure in photoelectron spectra induced by midinfrared strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 113003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Martiny, M. Abu-samha, and L. B. Madsen, “Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 161001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Effects of elliptical polarization on strong-field short-pulse double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, “Imaging electron molecular orbitals via ionization by intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 033415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Electron diffraction in above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 051404(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. S. Cohen, “Molecular effects on antiproton capture by H2 and the states of pp¯ formed,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3583–3596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511–R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seideman, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2819–2822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. B. Lerner, K. J. LaGattuta, and J. S. Cohen, “Ionization of helium by a short pulse of radiation: a fermi molecular-dynamics calculation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R12–R15 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1989 (2)

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Wasson and S. E. Koonin, “Molecular-dynamics simulations of atomic ionization by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5676–5685 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

C. L. Kirschbaum and L. Wilets, “Classical many-body model for atomic collisions incorporating the Heisenberg and Pauli principles,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 834–841 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

L. Wilets, E. M. Henley, M. Kraft, and A. D. MacKellar, “Classical many-body model for heavy-ion collisions incorporating the pauli principle,” Nucl. Phys. A 282, 341–350 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abu-samha, M.

C. P. J. Martiny, M. Abu-samha, and L. B. Madsen, “Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 161001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arissian, L.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, “Imaging electron molecular orbitals via ionization by intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 033415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511–R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandulet, H. C.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

M. Odenweller, N. Takemoto, A. Vredenborg, K. Cole, K. Pahl, J. Titze, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, and A. Becker, “Strong field electron emission from fixed in space H2+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Takemoto and A. Becker, “Multiple ionization bursts in laser-driven hydrogen molecular ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 203004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blaga, C. I.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Breen, L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunel, F.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, “Above-threshold ionization in the long-wavelength limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259–1262 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catoire, F.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chandre, C.

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollisions and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S. I.

D. A. Telnov and S. I. Chu, “Low-energy structure of above-threshold-ionization electron spectra: role of the coulomb threshold effect,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, J. S.

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Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
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J. Wu, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, M. Kunitski, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, A. Czasch, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Coulomb asymmetry in strong field multielectron ionization of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043002 (2012).
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P. B. Lerner, K. J. LaGattuta, and J. S. Cohen, “Ionization of helium by a short pulse of radiation: a fermi molecular-dynamics calculation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R12–R15 (1994).
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S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
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H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922 (2002).
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P. B. Lerner, K. J. LaGattuta, and J. S. Cohen, “Ionization of helium by a short pulse of radiation: a fermi molecular-dynamics calculation,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R12–R15 (1994).
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Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 14, 013001 (2012).
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C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express 19, 5627–5634 (2011).
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Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Control the revisit time of the electron wave packet,” Opt. Letters 36, 2758–2760 (2011).
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Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ioniza-tion by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 2301–2308 (2011).
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Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Complex sub-laser-cycle electron dynamics in strong-field nonsequential triple ionizaion,” Opt. Express 18, 16025–16034 (2010).
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Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
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Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
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S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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C. Liu and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Origin of unexpected low energy structure in photoelectron spectra induced by midinfrared strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 113003 (2010).
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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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E. Lötstedt, T. Kato, and K. Yamanouchi, “Classical dynamics of laser-driven D3+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203001 (2011).
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Lu, P.

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 14, 013001 (2012).
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C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express 19, 5627–5634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Control the revisit time of the electron wave packet,” Opt. Letters 36, 2758–2760 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ioniza-tion by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 2301–2308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Complex sub-laser-cycle electron dynamics in strong-field nonsequential triple ionizaion,” Opt. Express 18, 16025–16034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacKellar, A. D.

L. Wilets, E. M. Henley, M. Kraft, and A. D. MacKellar, “Classical many-body model for heavy-ion collisions incorporating the pauli principle,” Nucl. Phys. A 282, 341–350 (1977).
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C. P. J. Martiny, M. Abu-samha, and L. B. Madsen, “Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 161001 (2009).
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P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
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M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Electron diffraction in above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 051404(R) (2002).
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C. P. J. Martiny, M. Abu-samha, and L. B. Madsen, “Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 161001 (2009).
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J. Wu, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, M. Kunitski, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, A. Czasch, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Coulomb asymmetry in strong field multielectron ionization of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergel, V.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
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S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
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Muller, H. G.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
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G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922 (2002).
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Odenweller, M.

M. Odenweller, N. Takemoto, A. Vredenborg, K. Cole, K. Pahl, J. Titze, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, and A. Becker, “Strong field electron emission from fixed in space H2+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143004 (2011).
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Pahl, K.

M. Odenweller, N. Takemoto, A. Vredenborg, K. Cole, K. Pahl, J. Titze, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, and A. Becker, “Strong field electron emission from fixed in space H2+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143004 (2011).
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Paulus, G. G.

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
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G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pavicic, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
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Pépin, H.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
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P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, and G. Petite, “Free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sann, H.

J. Wu, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, M. Kunitski, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, A. Czasch, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Coulomb asymmetry in strong field multielectron ionization of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043002 (2012).
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Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
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Schmidt, L. Ph. H.

J. Wu, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, M. Kunitski, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, A. Czasch, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Coulomb asymmetry in strong field multielectron ionization of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043002 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Odenweller, N. Takemoto, A. Vredenborg, K. Cole, K. Pahl, J. Titze, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, and A. Becker, “Strong field electron emission from fixed in space H2+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143004 (2011).
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Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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T. Seideman, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2819–2822 (1995).
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S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smeenk, C.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
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Smith, Z. S.

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
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Sokolov, A. V.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
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Spielberger, L.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
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M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takemoto, N.

M. Odenweller, N. Takemoto, A. Vredenborg, K. Cole, K. Pahl, J. Titze, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, and A. Becker, “Strong field electron emission from fixed in space H2+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Takemoto and A. Becker, “Multiple ionization bursts in laser-driven hydrogen molecular ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 203004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Telnov, D. A.

D. A. Telnov and S. I. Chu, “Low-energy structure of above-threshold-ionization electron spectra: role of the coulomb threshold effect,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Titze, J.

M. Odenweller, N. Takemoto, A. Vredenborg, K. Cole, K. Pahl, J. Titze, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, and A. Becker, “Strong field electron emission from fixed in space H2+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, A.

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
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Trallero, C.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, F.

L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
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F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollisions and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
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L. Arissian, C. Smeenk, F. Turner, C. Trallero, A. V. Sokolov, D. M. Villeneuve, A. Staudte, and P. B. Corkum, “Direct test of laser tunneling with electron momentum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 133002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
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Voss, S.

J. Wu, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, M. Kunitski, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, A. Czasch, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Coulomb asymmetry in strong field multielectron ionization of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043002 (2012).
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Vredenborg, A.

M. Odenweller, N. Takemoto, A. Vredenborg, K. Cole, K. Pahl, J. Titze, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, and A. Becker, “Strong field electron emission from fixed in space H2+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143004 (2011).
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Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
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D. A. Wasson and S. E. Koonin, “Molecular-dynamics simulations of atomic ionization by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5676–5685 (1989).
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Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
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Weckenbrock, M.

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
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C. L. Kirschbaum and L. Wilets, “Classical many-body model for atomic collisions incorporating the Heisenberg and Pauli principles,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 834–841 (1980).
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L. Wilets, E. M. Henley, M. Kraft, and A. D. MacKellar, “Classical many-body model for heavy-ion collisions incorporating the pauli principle,” Nucl. Phys. A 282, 341–350 (1977).
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S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
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Wu, J.

J. Wu, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, M. Kunitski, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, A. Czasch, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. Dörner, “Coulomb asymmetry in strong field multielectron ionization of diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 043002 (2012).
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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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Xiong, H.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
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Xu, Z.

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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E. Lötstedt, T. Kato, and K. Yamanouchi, “Classical dynamics of laser-driven D3+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 203001 (2011).
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Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulanderc, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

M. Meckel, D. Comtois, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, D. Pavičić, H. C. Bandulet, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, R. Dörner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Laser-induced electron tunneling and diffraction,” Science 320, 1478–1482 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z. X.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 14, 013001 (2012).
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C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express 19, 5627–5634 (2011).
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Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Control the revisit time of the electron wave packet,” Opt. Letters 36, 2758–2760 (2011).
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Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ioniza-tion by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 2301–2308 (2011).
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Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Complex sub-laser-cycle electron dynamics in strong-field nonsequential triple ionizaion,” Opt. Express 18, 16025–16034 (2010).
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Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
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Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
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T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511–R2514 (1995).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (3)

S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B 41, 211002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model,” J. Phys. B 27, L703–L708 (1994).
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C. P. J. Martiny, M. Abu-samha, and L. B. Madsen, “Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 161001 (2009).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

C. I. Blaga, F. Catoire, P. Colosimo, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Strong-field photoionization revisited,” Nat. Phys. 5, 335–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, A. D. Bandrauk, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics,” Nature 417, 917–922 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 14, 013001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Phys. A (1)

L. Wilets, E. M. Henley, M. Kraft, and A. D. MacKellar, “Classical many-body model for heavy-ion collisions incorporating the pauli principle,” Nucl. Phys. A 282, 341–350 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Letters (1)

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Control the revisit time of the electron wave packet,” Opt. Letters 36, 2758–2760 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (11)

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
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D. A. Telnov and S. I. Chu, “Low-energy structure of above-threshold-ionization electron spectra: role of the coulomb threshold effect,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 063406 (2011).
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D. A. Wasson and S. E. Koonin, “Molecular-dynamics simulations of atomic ionization by strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 5676–5685 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Kamta and A. D. Bandrauk, “Imaging electron molecular orbitals via ionization by intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 033415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Kirschbaum and L. Wilets, “Classical many-body model for atomic collisions incorporating the Heisenberg and Pauli principles,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 834–841 (1980).
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J. S. Cohen, “Molecular effects on antiproton capture by H2 and the states of pp¯ formed,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3583–3596 (1997).
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Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Electron diffraction in above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 051404(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511–R2514 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (15)

T. Seideman, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2819–2822 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Quan, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Kang, H. Liu, X. Liu, J. Chen, J. Liu, X. He, S. Chen, H. Xiong, L. Guo, H. Xu, Y. Fu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Classical aspects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Takemoto and A. Becker, “Multiple ionization bursts in laser-driven hydrogen molecular ion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 203004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Odenweller, N. Takemoto, A. Vredenborg, K. Cole, K. Pahl, J. Titze, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, R. Dörner, and A. Becker, “Strong field electron emission from fixed in space H2+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Origin of unexpected low energy structure in photoelectron spectra induced by midinfrared strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 113003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photoelectron momentum distributions from H 2 + aligned along z axis for a clockwise circularly polarized 800 nm laser pulse at a peak intensity of 6×1014 W/cm2. (a) and (b) show the two-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions in x-y and z-y planes, respectively. (c) is the photoelectron radial momentum distribution. The electric field E(t) rotates in x-y plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoelectron momentum distributions from H 2 + aligned along x axis for a clockwise circularly polarized 800 nm laser pulse at a peak intensity of 6×1014 W/cm2. (a) and (b) show the two-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions in x-y and z-y planes, respectively. (c) is the photoelectron radial momentum distribution. The electric field E(t) rotates in x-y plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A sample trajectory from Fig. 2. Panels (a), (b) and (c) show the electron energy, the electron coordinate x and y, and the electron momentum px and py versus time in unit of laser cycle, respectively. Panel (d) displays the electron trajectory in x-y plane. The arrows mark the ionization time. The black dash-dot curve is the sketch of the electric field along the molecular axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Panels (a) and (b) show the ionization yield versus the ionization time in unit of laser cycle for the cases of Figs. 1 and 2, respectively. The vertical blue dashed curves mark those instants when the electric field is parallel to the molecular axis. The green dash-dot curve is the sketch of the electric field along the molecular axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The two-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions from H 2 + aligned along x axis for a clockwise circularly polarized laser pulse at I=6×1014 W/cm2, λ=1200 nm (a) and 1600 nm (c). (b) and (d) show the ionization yield versus the ionization time in unit of laser cycle for the cases of (a) and (c) respectively. The vertical red dashed curves mark those instants when the electric field is parallel to the molecular axis. The electric field E(t) rotates in x-y plane.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the tilt angle on the laser wavelength.

Equations (9)

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H = H 0 + V H + V m 1
H 0 = T + V Coul
r i j = r j r i ,
p i j = m i p j m j p i m i + m j ,
μ i j = m i m j m i + m j ,
H = 1 2 m p p b 2 + 1 2 m p p c 2 + 1 2 m e p 1 2 1 r b 1 1 r c 1 + 1 r b c + 1 μ b 1 r b 1 2 f ( r b 1 p b 1 ; ξ H ) + 1 μ c 1 r c 1 2 f ( r c 1 p c 1 ; ξ H ) + 1 μ o 1 r b c 2 f ( r o 1 p o 1 ; ξ m 1 ) .
f ( r p ; ξ ) = ξ 2 4 α exp { α [ 1 ( r p ξ ) 4 ] } .
d r i d t = H p i ,
d p i d t = H r i + q E ( t ) .

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