Abstract

We propose an ultrafast nematic liquid crystal (LC) device without alignment layers, where both the dark and bright states can be realized by applying an electric field. A vertical electric field is applied to vertically align the LCs for the dark state, whereas an in-plane electric field is applied to homogeneously align the LCs for the bright state. We achieved a total response time of less than 3 ms in the proposed device. This device may contribute, not only to a significant improvement of the switching speed in liquid crystal devices, but also to the simplification of the device fabrication by the omission of the alignment layer coating and the rubbing process.

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  1. K. Fujimori, Y. Narutaki, Y. Itoh, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii, and M. Hijikigawa, “New color filter structures for transflective TFT - LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 33, 1382–1385 (2002).
  2. S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A multimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel-rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 8), 5127–5132 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Wang and S. Kumar, “Submillisecond switching of nematic liquid crystal in cells fabricated by anisotropic phase-separation of liquid crystal and polymer mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071119 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nagata, E. Takeda, Y. Nanno, T. Kawaguchi, Y. Mino, A. Otsuka, and S. Ishihara, “Capacitively coupled driving of TFT-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 20, 242–245 (1989).
  5. P. Bos, “Fast-switching liquid-crystal effects for displays,” Inf. Disp. 23(9), 20–25 (2007).
  6. I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
  7. P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “The π-cell, a fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113, 329–339 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. G. Fonseca and Y. Galerne, “Simple method for measuring the azimuthal anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2910–2912 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Nakajima, Y. Sugiyama, H. Ichinose, H. Numata, S. Naemura, and A. Manabe, “Novel liquid-crystal materials with high birefringence and low rotational-viscosity for the field-sequential color TN-LCDs,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 31, 242–245 (2000).
  14. N. Koma, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, and K. Yoneda, “Using an OCB-mode TFT-LCD for high-speed transition from splay to bend alignment,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 30, 28–31 (1999).
  15. T. Takahashi, H. Furue, M. Shikada, N. Matsuda, T. Miyama, and S. Kobayashi, “Preliminary study of field sequential full color liquid crystal display using polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 5A), L534–L536 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. R. Lee, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, J. D. Noh, D. H. Suh, and J. Y. Lee, “Double-pulse scan of field sequential color driving of optically compensated bend cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2683–2688 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. Bos, “Fast-switching liquid-crystal effects for displays,” Inf. Disp. 23(9), 20–25 (2007).

2006 (1)

S. R. Lee, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, J. D. Noh, D. H. Suh, and J. Y. Lee, “Double-pulse scan of field sequential color driving of optically compensated bend cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2683–2688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Q. Wang and S. Kumar, “Submillisecond switching of nematic liquid crystal in cells fabricated by anisotropic phase-separation of liquid crystal and polymer mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A multimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel-rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 8), 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. G. Fonseca and Y. Galerne, “Simple method for measuring the azimuthal anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2910–2912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Takahashi, H. Furue, M. Shikada, N. Matsuda, T. Miyama, and S. Kobayashi, “Preliminary study of field sequential full color liquid crystal display using polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 5A), L534–L536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “The π-cell, a fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113, 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-I.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P.

P. Bos, “Fast-switching liquid-crystal effects for displays,” Inf. Disp. 23(9), 20–25 (2007).

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “The π-cell, a fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113, 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L. C.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fonseca, J. G.

J. G. Fonseca and Y. Galerne, “Simple method for measuring the azimuthal anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2910–2912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Furue, H.

T. Takahashi, H. Furue, M. Shikada, N. Matsuda, T. Miyama, and S. Kobayashi, “Preliminary study of field sequential full color liquid crystal display using polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 5A), L534–L536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Galerne, Y.

J. G. Fonseca and Y. Galerne, “Simple method for measuring the azimuthal anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2910–2912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gwag, J. S.

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A multimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel-rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 8), 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jhun, C. G.

S. R. Lee, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, J. D. Noh, D. H. Suh, and J. Y. Lee, “Double-pulse scan of field sequential color driving of optically compensated bend cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2683–2688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. C.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lee, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, J. D. Noh, D. H. Suh, and J. Y. Lee, “Double-pulse scan of field sequential color driving of optically compensated bend cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2683–2688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A multimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel-rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 8), 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-H.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

T. Takahashi, H. Furue, M. Shikada, N. Matsuda, T. Miyama, and S. Kobayashi, “Preliminary study of field sequential full color liquid crystal display using polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 5A), L534–L536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koehler-Beran, K. R.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “The π-cell, a fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113, 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Q. Wang and S. Kumar, “Submillisecond switching of nematic liquid crystal in cells fabricated by anisotropic phase-separation of liquid crystal and polymer mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

S. R. Lee, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, J. D. Noh, D. H. Suh, and J. Y. Lee, “Double-pulse scan of field sequential color driving of optically compensated bend cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2683–2688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A multimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel-rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 8), 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

S. R. Lee, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, J. D. Noh, D. H. Suh, and J. Y. Lee, “Double-pulse scan of field sequential color driving of optically compensated bend cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2683–2688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, N.

T. Takahashi, H. Furue, M. Shikada, N. Matsuda, T. Miyama, and S. Kobayashi, “Preliminary study of field sequential full color liquid crystal display using polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 5A), L534–L536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyama, T.

T. Takahashi, H. Furue, M. Shikada, N. Matsuda, T. Miyama, and S. Kobayashi, “Preliminary study of field sequential full color liquid crystal display using polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 5A), L534–L536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noh, J. D.

S. R. Lee, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, J. D. Noh, D. H. Suh, and J. Y. Lee, “Double-pulse scan of field sequential color driving of optically compensated bend cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2683–2688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A multimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel-rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 8), 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shikada, M.

T. Takahashi, H. Furue, M. Shikada, N. Matsuda, T. Miyama, and S. Kobayashi, “Preliminary study of field sequential full color liquid crystal display using polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 5A), L534–L536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. T.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Souk, J. H.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suh, D. H.

S. R. Lee, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, J. D. Noh, D. H. Suh, and J. Y. Lee, “Double-pulse scan of field sequential color driving of optically compensated bend cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2683–2688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, H. Furue, M. Shikada, N. Matsuda, T. Miyama, and S. Kobayashi, “Preliminary study of field sequential full color liquid crystal display using polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 5A), L534–L536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang and S. Kumar, “Submillisecond switching of nematic liquid crystal in cells fabricated by anisotropic phase-separation of liquid crystal and polymer mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woo, H. S.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. G.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lee, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, J. D. Noh, D. H. Suh, and J. Y. Lee, “Double-pulse scan of field sequential color driving of optically compensated bend cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2683–2688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A multimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel-rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 8), 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Q. Wang and S. Kumar, “Submillisecond switching of nematic liquid crystal in cells fabricated by anisotropic phase-separation of liquid crystal and polymer mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fonseca and Y. Galerne, “Simple method for measuring the azimuthal anchoring strength of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2910–2912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Inf. Disp. (1)

P. Bos, “Fast-switching liquid-crystal effects for displays,” Inf. Disp. 23(9), 20–25 (2007).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

S. H. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. S. Gwag, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “A multimode-type transflective liquid crystal display using the hybrid-aligned nematic and parallel-rubbed vertically aligned modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 8), 5127–5132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Takahashi, H. Furue, M. Shikada, N. Matsuda, T. Miyama, and S. Kobayashi, “Preliminary study of field sequential full color liquid crystal display using polymer stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 5A), L534–L536 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lee, C. G. Jhun, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, J. D. Noh, D. H. Suh, and J. Y. Lee, “Double-pulse scan of field sequential color driving of optically compensated bend cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2683–2688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, “The π-cell, a fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113, 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).

K. Fujimori, Y. Narutaki, Y. Itoh, N. Kimura, S. Mizushima, Y. Ishii, and M. Hijikigawa, “New color filter structures for transflective TFT - LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 33, 1382–1385 (2002).

S. Nagata, E. Takeda, Y. Nanno, T. Kawaguchi, Y. Mino, A. Otsuka, and S. Ishihara, “Capacitively coupled driving of TFT-LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 20, 242–245 (1989).

S. Nakajima, Y. Sugiyama, H. Ichinose, H. Numata, S. Naemura, and A. Manabe, “Novel liquid-crystal materials with high birefringence and low rotational-viscosity for the field-sequential color TN-LCDs,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 31, 242–245 (2000).

N. Koma, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, and K. Yoneda, “Using an OCB-mode TFT-LCD for high-speed transition from splay to bend alignment,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 30, 28–31 (1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Operational principle of the proposed LC cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structure of the proposed LC cell without alignment layers. An in-plane as well as a vertical electric field can be applied by using 3T electrodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The electro-optical characteristics of a conventional 2T cell, a 3T cell with non-rubbed homogeneous alignment layers, and a 3T cell without alignment layers, (a) the voltage-transmittance curves, (b) the temporal response.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The electro-optical characteristics of a RM-doped 3T cell and a 3T cell doped with HTAB and RM, (a) the voltage-transmittance curves, (b) the temporal response.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarizing microscopy images of a conventional 2T cell and 3T cells without alignment layers. Each images show the initial, dark, and bright states.

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