By introducing a transformed pupil vector into the aberration expansions of an axially symmetric optical system, the aberration coefficients through third order of a pupil decentered off-axis optical system are obtained. Nodal aberration characteristics are revealed only by means of the pupil decentration vector and the aberration coefficients of the axially symmetric system, which shows great convenience since parameters of individual surface such as radius of curvature, decenter as well as the shifted center of the aberration field are not used in the analysis.
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