Abstract

A scalable multi-channel optical regenerative bus architecture based on the use of polymer waveguides is presented for the first time. The architecture offers high-speed interconnection between electrical cards allowing regenerative bus extension with multiple segments and therefore connection of an arbitrary number of cards onto the bus. In a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 4-channel 3-card polymeric bus module is designed and fabricated on standard FR4 substrates. Low insertion losses (≤ −15 dB) and low crosstalk values (< −30 dB) are achieved for the fabricated samples while better than ± 6 µm −1 dB alignment tolerances are obtained. 10 Gb/s data communication with a bit-error-rate (BER) lower than 10−12 is demonstrated for the first time between card interfaces on two different bus modules using a prototype 3R regenerator.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

H.-H. Hsu, Y. Hirobe, and T. Ishigure, “Fabrication and inter-channel crosstalk analysis of polymer optical waveguides with W-shaped index profile for high-density optical interconnections,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14018–14030 (2011).
[PubMed]

P. Lafata and J. Vodrazka, “Application of passive optical network with optimized bus topology for local backbone data network,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2351–2355 (2011).

2010

X. Dou, A. X. Wang, X. Lin, H. Haiyu, and R. T. Chen, “Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45° micro-mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 76070P (2010).

2009

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

A. Suzuki, T. Ishikawa, Y. Wakazono, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. i. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, and T. Mikawa, “Vertically pluggable and compact 10-Gb/s×12-channel optical modules with anisotropic conductive film for over 100-Gb/s optical interconnect systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3249–3258 (2009).

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415–424 (2009).

H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

2008

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-Cost, Precision, Self-Alignment Technique for Coupling Laser and Photodiode Arrays to Polymer Waveguide Arrays on Multilayer PCBs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502–511 (2008).

I.-K. Cho, J.-H. Ryu, and M.-Y. Jeong, “Interchip link system using an optical wiring method,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1881–1883 (2008).
[PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Wei, W. Li, B. Hai, and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board-level optical interconnects from waveguide fabrication to device integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 243–250 (2008).

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

2007

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 822–824 (2007).

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete out-of-plane coupling components for printed circuit board-level optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1753–1755 (2007).

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Engineer. 46, 015403 (2007).

2006

2003

H. Xuliang, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 512–517 (2003).

2000

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).

D. V. Plant and A. G. Kirk, “Optical interconnects at the chip and board level: challenges and solutions,” Proc. IEEE 88, 806–818 (2000).

Aoyagi, M.

Bamiedakis, N.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415–424 (2009).

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

Beals, J.

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415–424 (2009).

Berger, C.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Beyeler, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Chen, R. T.

X. Dou, A. X. Wang, X. Lin, H. Haiyu, and R. T. Chen, “Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45° micro-mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 76070P (2010).

X. Wang, J. Wei, W. Li, B. Hai, and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board-level optical interconnects from waveguide fabrication to device integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 243–250 (2008).

H. Xuliang, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 512–517 (2003).

Cho, I.-K.

Clapp, T.

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

Clapp, T. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415–424 (2009).

Dangel, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Debaes, C.

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete out-of-plane coupling components for printed circuit board-level optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1753–1755 (2007).

DeGroot, J.

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

DeGroot, J. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415–424 (2009).

Dellmann, L.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Dou, X.

X. Dou, A. X. Wang, X. Lin, H. Haiyu, and R. T. Chen, “Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45° micro-mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 76070P (2010).

Glebov, A. L.

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Engineer. 46, 015403 (2007).

Glick, M.

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

Gmur, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Hai, B.

Haiyu, H.

X. Dou, A. X. Wang, X. Lin, H. Haiyu, and R. T. Chen, “Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45° micro-mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 76070P (2010).

Hamelin, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Hashimoto, Y.

Hendrickx, N.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 822–824 (2007).

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete out-of-plane coupling components for printed circuit board-level optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1753–1755 (2007).

Hirobe, Y.

Horst, F.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Hsu, H.-H.

Hueston, K.

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

Ishigure, T.

Ishikawa, T.

Jahns, J.

Jarczynski, M.

Jeong, M.-Y.

Jouppi, N.

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

Kikuchi, K.

Kim, G.

H. Xuliang, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 512–517 (2003).

Kirk, A. G.

D. V. Plant and A. G. Kirk, “Optical interconnects at the chip and board level: challenges and solutions,” Proc. IEEE 88, 806–818 (2000).

Kiyama, L.

H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

Kuo, H.

H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

Lafata, P.

P. Lafata and J. Vodrazka, “Application of passive optical network with optimized bus topology for local backbone data network,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2351–2355 (2011).

Lamprecht, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Lee, M. G.

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Engineer. 46, 015403 (2007).

Li, W.

Lin, X.

X. Dou, A. X. Wang, X. Lin, H. Haiyu, and R. T. Chen, “Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45° micro-mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 76070P (2010).

Lipovski, G. J.

H. Xuliang, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 512–517 (2003).

Masuda, H.

Mathai, S.

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

McLaren, M.

H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

Mikawa, T.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).

Milward, D.

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-Cost, Precision, Self-Alignment Technique for Coupling Laser and Photodiode Arrays to Polymer Waveguide Arrays on Multilayer PCBs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502–511 (2008).

Morf, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Morris, T.

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

Nakagawa, H.

Offrein, B. J.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Oggioni, S.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Papakonstantinou, I.

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-Cost, Precision, Self-Alignment Technique for Coupling Laser and Photodiode Arrays to Polymer Waveguide Arrays on Multilayer PCBs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502–511 (2008).

Penty, R.

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

Penty, R. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415–424 (2009).

Pitwon, R.

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-Cost, Precision, Self-Alignment Technique for Coupling Laser and Photodiode Arrays to Polymer Waveguide Arrays on Multilayer PCBs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502–511 (2008).

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D. V. Plant and A. G. Kirk, “Optical interconnects at the chip and board level: challenges and solutions,” Proc. IEEE 88, 806–818 (2000).

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H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

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I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-Cost, Precision, Self-Alignment Technique for Coupling Laser and Photodiode Arrays to Polymer Waveguide Arrays on Multilayer PCBs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502–511 (2008).

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R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

Straznicky, J.

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

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H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

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N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 822–824 (2007).

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete out-of-plane coupling components for printed circuit board-level optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1753–1755 (2007).

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J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete out-of-plane coupling components for printed circuit board-level optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1753–1755 (2007).

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 822–824 (2007).

Van Erps, J.

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete out-of-plane coupling components for printed circuit board-level optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1753–1755 (2007).

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 822–824 (2007).

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N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 822–824 (2007).

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P. Lafata and J. Vodrazka, “Application of passive optical network with optimized bus topology for local backbone data network,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 53, 2351–2355 (2011).

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H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

Wang, A. X.

X. Dou, A. X. Wang, X. Lin, H. Haiyu, and R. T. Chen, “Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45° micro-mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 7607, 76070P (2010).

Wang, S.-Y.

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

Wang, X.

Wei, J.

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J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

White, I. H.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415–424 (2009).

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J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

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M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

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M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, H. Kuo, J. Straznicky, N. Jouppi, and S.-Y. Wang, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 945–953 (2009).

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

H. Kuo, P. Rosenberg, R. Walmsley, S. Mathai, L. Kiyama, J. Straznicky, M. McLaren, M. Tan, and S.-Y. Wang, “Free-space optical links for board-to-board interconnects,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 955–965 (2009).

J. Beals, N. Bamiedakis, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, I. White, J. DeGroot, K. Hueston, T. Clapp, and M. Glick, “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 983–988 (2009).

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N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 415–424 (2009).

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H. Xuliang, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 512–517 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 822–824 (2007).

J. Van Erps, N. Hendrickx, C. Debaes, P. Van Daele, and H. Thienpont, “Discrete out-of-plane coupling components for printed circuit board-level optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1753–1755 (2007).

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R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 759–767 (2008).

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-Cost, Precision, Self-Alignment Technique for Coupling Laser and Photodiode Arrays to Polymer Waveguide Arrays on Multilayer PCBs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 31, 502–511 (2008).

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D. Jubin, R. Dangel, N. Meier, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, J. Weiss, R. Beyeler, B. J. Offrein, M. Halter, R. Stieger, and F. Betschon, “Polymer waveguide-based multilayer optical connector,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX, (SPIE, 2010), 76070K–76079.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustration of the proposed multi-channel regenerative backplane architecture and (b) schematic diagram of a bus segment showing the main features and the bus repeating unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Waveguide layout of an N-channel M-card optical bus repeating unit, (b) optical bus link model and (c) number of cards that can be connected to the bus before regeneration is required as a function of the bus optical loss components B and C (P0 = 2 dBm, RS = −13 dBm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Illustration of the implemented backplane architecture and (b) corresponding waveguide layout of the bus repeating unit to achieve a reduced module length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of 4-channel 3-card bus module with port notation and highlighted waveguide paths shown in (d), (b) design details of main bus, (c) images of fabricated waveguide components at noted locations: A: optical tap, B: combiner, C: 90° crossings and (d) photograph of fabricated optical bus module with 2 inputs illuminated with red and green light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Insertion loss of all waveguide paths and (b) total loss for all bus inputs for a VCSEL and a 50 µm MMF launch. (c) Image of a 1 × 4 VCSEL array butt-coupled with the bus inputs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalised (to the input power) received power at all bus outputs when light is launched in various inputs for a (a) VCSEL and a (b) 50 µm MMF launch. (c) Bus module schematic with worst-case crosstalk between opposite-located Tx and Rx arrays highlighted.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a, b) Normalised (to maximum) received optical power at all respective bus outputs for bus input 2 (regenerator input) as a function of the launch position for a VCSEL input and (c) normalised total received power at all respective bus outputs for the bus input 2 as a function of launch position when a butt-coupled VCSEL array and a 50 µm MMF are used.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Setup for data transmission experiments on optical bus module, (b) sample 10 Gb/s received eye diagrams for optical paths on the bus module with varying insertion losses: P44' = −7.9 dBm, P5e = −12.9 dBm, P7k = −15.8 dBm, P142' = −6.9 dBm (time scale: 20 ps/div) and (c) BER measurement on various optical paths with BER curve of back-to-back link shown for reference.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Experimental setup for the demonstration of the regenerative backplane architecture using a prototype regenerator module and 2 polymeric bus modules. Operating optical links for input Tx2 are indicated with red lines and a schematic diagram of the 3R regenerator is shown. (b) Received 10 Gb/s eye diagrams at the outputs of the 2nd bus module for the Tx2 input on the 1st bus module (time scale: 20 ps/div). (c) Back-to-back link configuration used as a reference for BER measurements on the regenerative architecture and (d) obtained BER curves for all operating links of the regenerative system.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured −1 dB Alignment Tolerances for Transverse Offsets for Each Type of Bus Input (Regenerator-Card) and for Both Launch Conditions (VCSEL and 50 µm MMF Input)

Metrics