Abstract

We present experimental and theoretical studies of two dimensional periodic arrays of elliptical plasmonic patch nanoantennas. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the azimuthal symmetry breaking of the metal patches leads to the occurrence of even and odd resonant cavity modes and the excitation geometries dependent on their modal symmetries. We show that the cavity modes can be described by the product of radial and angular Mathieu functions with excellent agreements with both simulations and experiments. The effects of the patch periodicity on the excitation of the surface plasmon and its coupling with the cavity modes are also discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
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  5. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(6), 061101 (2006).
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  6. L. Qin, S. Zou, C. Xue, A. Atkinson, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Designing, fabricating, and imaging Raman hot spots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13300–13303 (2006).
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  7. T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
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  9. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
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  13. M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
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  23. P. Chen and A. Alu, “Sub-wavelength elliptical patch antenna loaded with µ-negative metamaterials,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(9), 2909–2919 (2010).
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  24. A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J. L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ³/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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  34. H. E. Kamchouchi and A. A. Zaky, “A direct method for the calculation of the edge capacitance of thick electrodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(12), 1365–1371 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, Y. M. Liu, T. Zentgraf, and X. Zhang, “Far-field measurement of ultra-small plasmonic mode volume,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6048–6055 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012 (1)

2011 (9)

Y. Chu, D. Wang, W. Zhu, and K. B. Crozier, “Double resonance surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates: an intuitive coupled oscillator model,” Opt. Express 19(16), 14919–14928 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Q. Hao, B. Kiraly, I. C. Khoo, S. Chen, and T. J. Huang, “Polarization-independent dual-band infrared perfect absorber based on a metal-dielectric-metal elliptical nanodisk array,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15221–15228 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chu, W. Zhu, D. Wang, and K. B. Crozier, “Beamed Raman: directional excitation and emission enhancement in a plasmonic crystal double resonance SERS substrate,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20054–20068 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat Commun 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J. L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ³/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, J. Ng, S. B. Wang, Z. F. Lin, Z. H. Hang, C. T. Chan, and S. N. Zhu, “Strong light-induced negative optical pressure arising from kinetic energy of conduction electrons in plasmon-type cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 087401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (10)

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Joshi, A. Chakrabarty, and Q.-H. Wei, “Numerical studies of metal-dielectric-metal nanoantennas,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 701–707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chu, M. G. Banaee, and K. B. Crozier, “Double-resonance plasmon substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with enhancement at excitation and stokes frequencies,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2804–2810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmon resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chen and A. Alu, “Sub-wavelength elliptical patch antenna loaded with µ-negative metamaterials,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(9), 2909–2919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, Y. M. Liu, T. Zentgraf, and X. Zhang, “Far-field measurement of ultra-small plasmonic mode volume,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6048–6055 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Pakizeh and M. Käll, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2343–2349 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. Billaud, J. R. Huntzinger, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, M. Pellarin, L. Arnaud, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Optical extinction spectroscopy of single silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 43(1-3), 271–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(6), 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Qin, S. Zou, C. Xue, A. Atkinson, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Designing, fabricating, and imaging Raman hot spots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13300–13303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, R. M. Rodriguez-Dagnino, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and S. Chavez-Cerda, “Mathieu functions, a visual approach,” Am. J. Phys. 71(3), 233–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Mythili and A. Das, “Simple approach to determine resonant frequencies of microstrip antennas,” IEE Proc., Microw. Antennas Propag. 145(2), 159–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Raether, “Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings,” Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 111, 1–133 (1988).

1975 (1)

H. E. Kamchouchi and A. A. Zaky, “A direct method for the calculation of the edge capacitance of thick electrodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(12), 1365–1371 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Alu, A.

P. Chen and A. Alu, “Sub-wavelength elliptical patch antenna loaded with µ-negative metamaterials,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(9), 2909–2919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ambekar, R.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnaud, L.

P. Billaud, J. R. Huntzinger, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, M. Pellarin, L. Arnaud, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Optical extinction spectroscopy of single silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 43(1-3), 271–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aslan, K.

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, A.

L. Qin, S. Zou, C. Xue, A. Atkinson, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Designing, fabricating, and imaging Raman hot spots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13300–13303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Banaee, M. G.

Y. Chu, M. G. Banaee, and K. B. Crozier, “Double-resonance plasmon substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with enhancement at excitation and stokes frequencies,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2804–2810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Billaud, P.

P. Billaud, J. R. Huntzinger, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, M. Pellarin, L. Arnaud, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Optical extinction spectroscopy of single silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 43(1-3), 271–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broyer, M.

P. Billaud, J. R. Huntzinger, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, M. Pellarin, L. Arnaud, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Optical extinction spectroscopy of single silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 43(1-3), 271–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W.

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cattoni, A.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J. L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ³/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakrabarty, A.

B. Joshi, A. Chakrabarty, and Q.-H. Wei, “Numerical studies of metal-dielectric-metal nanoantennas,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 701–707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. Liu, J. Ng, S. B. Wang, Z. F. Lin, Z. H. Hang, C. T. Chan, and S. N. Zhu, “Strong light-induced negative optical pressure arising from kinetic energy of conduction electrons in plasmon-type cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 087401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavez-Cerda, S.

J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, R. M. Rodriguez-Dagnino, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and S. Chavez-Cerda, “Mathieu functions, a visual approach,” Am. J. Phys. 71(3), 233–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J. L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ³/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

P. Chen and A. Alu, “Sub-wavelength elliptical patch antenna loaded with µ-negative metamaterials,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(9), 2909–2919 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y.

Collin, S.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J. L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ³/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cottancin, E.

P. Billaud, J. R. Huntzinger, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, M. Pellarin, L. Arnaud, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Optical extinction spectroscopy of single silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 43(1-3), 271–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, A.

P. Mythili and A. Das, “Simple approach to determine resonant frequencies of microstrip antennas,” IEE Proc., Microw. Antennas Propag. 145(2), 159–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Decanini, D.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J. L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ³/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Fatti, N.

P. Billaud, J. R. Huntzinger, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, M. Pellarin, L. Arnaud, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Optical extinction spectroscopy of single silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 43(1-3), 271–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorfmüller, J.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat Commun 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dregely, D.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat Commun 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Esteban, R.

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmon resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S. H.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N. X.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 61–65 (2011).
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D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(6), 061101 (2006).
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K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 61–65 (2011).
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M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
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T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
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K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
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Gutierrez-Vega, J. C.

J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, R. M. Rodriguez-Dagnino, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and S. Chavez-Cerda, “Mathieu functions, a visual approach,” Am. J. Phys. 71(3), 233–242 (2003).
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A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J. L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ³/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
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H. Liu, J. Ng, S. B. Wang, Z. F. Lin, Z. H. Hang, C. T. Chan, and S. N. Zhu, “Strong light-induced negative optical pressure arising from kinetic energy of conduction electrons in plasmon-type cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 087401 (2011).
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J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
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Hentschel, M.

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
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P. Billaud, J. R. Huntzinger, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, M. Pellarin, L. Arnaud, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Optical extinction spectroscopy of single silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 43(1-3), 271–274 (2007).
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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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T. Pakizeh and M. Käll, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2343–2349 (2009).
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H. E. Kamchouchi and A. A. Zaky, “A direct method for the calculation of the edge capacitance of thick electrodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(12), 1365–1371 (1975).
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D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat Commun 2, 267 (2011).
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Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(6), 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(6), 061101 (2006).
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Kiraly, B.

Ko, K. D.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kratzer, K.

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
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Kumar, A.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 61–65 (2011).
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Kurokawa, Y.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuttge, M.

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
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Lermé, J.

P. Billaud, J. R. Huntzinger, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, M. Pellarin, L. Arnaud, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Optical extinction spectroscopy of single silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 43(1-3), 271–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z. F.

H. Liu, J. Ng, S. B. Wang, Z. F. Lin, Z. H. Hang, C. T. Chan, and S. N. Zhu, “Strong light-induced negative optical pressure arising from kinetic energy of conduction electrons in plasmon-type cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 087401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippitz, M.

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, J. Ng, S. B. Wang, Z. F. Lin, Z. H. Hang, C. T. Chan, and S. N. Zhu, “Strong light-induced negative optical pressure arising from kinetic energy of conduction electrons in plasmon-type cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 087401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
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Liu, Y. M.

Malicka, J.

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matveeva, E.

K. Aslan, I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, E. Matveeva, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Metal-enhanced fluorescence: an emerging tool in biotechnology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 55–62 (2005).
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J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, R. M. Rodriguez-Dagnino, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and S. Chavez-Cerda, “Mathieu functions, a visual approach,” Am. J. Phys. 71(3), 233–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

L. Qin, S. Zou, C. Xue, A. Atkinson, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Designing, fabricating, and imaging Raman hot spots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13300–13303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, H. T.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(6), 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molnar, D.

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
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H. Liu, J. Ng, S. B. Wang, Z. F. Lin, Z. H. Hang, C. T. Chan, and S. N. Zhu, “Strong light-induced negative optical pressure arising from kinetic energy of conduction electrons in plasmon-type cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 087401 (2011).
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L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
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J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
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T. Pakizeh and M. Käll, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2343–2349 (2009).
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Park, Y. S.

Pellarin, M.

P. Billaud, J. R. Huntzinger, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, M. Pellarin, L. Arnaud, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Optical extinction spectroscopy of single silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 43(1-3), 271–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelouard, J. L.

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J. L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ³/1000 plasmonic nanocavities for biosensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

M. Kuttge, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Ultrasmall mode volume plasmonic nanodisk resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1537–1541 (2010).
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J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
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L. Qin, S. Zou, C. Xue, A. Atkinson, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Designing, fabricating, and imaging Raman hot spots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13300–13303 (2006).
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Qiu, M.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
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J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, R. M. Rodriguez-Dagnino, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and S. Chavez-Cerda, “Mathieu functions, a visual approach,” Am. J. Phys. 71(3), 233–242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

L. Qin, S. Zou, C. Xue, A. Atkinson, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Designing, fabricating, and imaging Raman hot spots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13300–13303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(6), 061101 (2006).
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Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schumacher, T.

T. Schumacher, K. Kratzer, D. Molnar, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Nanoantenna-enhanced ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle,” Nat. Commun. 2, 333 (2011).
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Soref, R.

Sundaramurthy, A.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, A. Kinkhabwala, P. J. Schuck, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(6), 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat Commun 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teperik, T. V.

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmon resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toussaint, K. C.

K. D. Ko, A. Kumar, K. H. Fung, R. Ambekar, G. L. Liu, N. X. Fang, and K. C. Toussaint., “Nonlinear optical response from arrays of Au bowtie nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallée, F.

P. Billaud, J. R. Huntzinger, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, M. Pellarin, L. Arnaud, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Optical extinction spectroscopy of single silver nanoparticles,” Eur. Phys. J. D 43(1-3), 271–274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat Commun 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
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Wang, D.

Wang, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. B.

H. Liu, J. Ng, S. B. Wang, Z. F. Lin, Z. H. Hang, C. T. Chan, and S. N. Zhu, “Strong light-induced negative optical pressure arising from kinetic energy of conduction electrons in plasmon-type cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 087401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.-H.

B. Joshi, A. Chakrabarty, and Q.-H. Wei, “Numerical studies of metal-dielectric-metal nanoantennas,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 701–707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, C.

L. Qin, S. Zou, C. Xue, A. Atkinson, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Designing, fabricating, and imaging Raman hot spots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13300–13303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z. F.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zaky, A. A.

H. E. Kamchouchi and A. A. Zaky, “A direct method for the calculation of the edge capacitance of thick electrodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(12), 1365–1371 (1975).
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Zhang, B.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, L.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. N.

H. Liu, J. Ng, S. B. Wang, Z. F. Lin, Z. H. Hang, C. T. Chan, and S. N. Zhu, “Strong light-induced negative optical pressure arising from kinetic energy of conduction electrons in plasmon-type cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(8), 087401 (2011).
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Zhu, W.

Zou, S.

L. Qin, S. Zou, C. Xue, A. Atkinson, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Designing, fabricating, and imaging Raman hot spots,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13300–13303 (2006).
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ACS Nano (1)

Y. Chu, M. G. Banaee, and K. B. Crozier, “Double-resonance plasmon substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with enhancement at excitation and stokes frequencies,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2804–2810 (2010).
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Am. J. Phys. (1)

J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, R. M. Rodriguez-Dagnino, M. A. Meneses-Nava, and S. Chavez-Cerda, “Mathieu functions, a visual approach,” Am. J. Phys. 71(3), 233–242 (2003).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic elliptical plasmonic patch nanoantennas. The sky blue layers represent Ag, and the dark blue represents Al2O3. Grey is the silicon substrate. (b) An SEM image of a 2D array of plasmonic patch nanoantennas with a period of 500nm and two major axis radii a = 72nm, b = 52nm. The long axis of the patches is tilted about 22° from vertical direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The measured and simulated reflection spectra for two representative patch sizes: a = 93nm, b = 74nm (blue) and a = 72nm, and b = 52nm (red). The polarization of the incident light is parallel to the long (a, b) and short axes (c, d) of the patches respectively. The dotted curves in b and d are the local field enhancement spectra calculated at the cavity edges. The cavity modes are indicated with the mode indices. The e02 cavity mode is hard to locate for the smaller patch antennas (red curves) and thus not labeled.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation configurations and the snapshots of simulated electrical field (Ez) distributions for different cavity modes for the 93nm × 74nm patches: (a) modes symmetrical to x-axis and anti-symmetric to y-axis; (b) modes symmetrical to y-axis and anti-symmetric to x-axis; (c) modes symmetric to both x- and y-axes; (d) modes anti-symmetric to both x- and y-axes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Snapshots of electrical field distributions for different cavity modes calculated using the Mathieu functions (Eq. (3) for the 93nm × 74nm patches.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Data points represent the measured cavity resonant frequencies versus the gap plasmon wave vector calculated using Eq. (6) for real patch sizes (a) and for the effective patch sizes a´ = a + h, b´ = b + h (b). The blue solid curves represent the dispersion curve for the gap plasmons calculated using Eq. (1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Snapshots of the z-component Ezd of the electric field calculated at the middle plane through the dielectric layer at the resonant wavelength 540 nm for two different patch radii: 72nm × 52nm (a) and 93nm × 74nm (b). The illumination is normal to the plane.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated reflection spectra for different periods with the elliptical patch size: a = 70 nm; b = 50 nm. a) and c): periods vary between 300nm to 500nm; b) and d): periods vary between 600nm to 900nm. a) and b): Incident polarization is along the long axis of elliptical patches for; c) and d): Incident polarization is along the short axis of elliptical patches.

Equations (6)

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k zm ε d k zd ε m = 1+ r 1 + r 2 + r 1 r 2 1+ r 1 + r 2 + r 1 r 2 ,
1 f 2 ( sinh 2 ξ+ sin 2 η) [ d 2 E zd d ξ 2 + d 2 E zd d η 2 ]+ d 2 E zd d z 2 + k d 2 E zd =0,
d 2 R d ξ 2 (c2qcosh2ξ)R=0, d 2 Φ d η 2 +(c2qcos2η)Φ=0,
E zd m J e m (ξ,q)C e m (η,q),m0(even) J o m (ξ,q)S e m (η,q),m1(odd) ,
(even): J e m (ξ,q)C e m (η,q) (odd): J o m (ξ,q)S e m (η,q) =0,
k gsp =( 4 q mn e,o / f 2 ) 1/2 ,

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