Abstract

We demonstrate the ability to image multiple nanoparticle-based contrast agents simultaneously using a nanophosphor platform excited by either radiopharmaceutical or X-ray irradiation. These radioluminescent nanoparticles emit optical light at unique wavelengths depending on their lanthanide dopant, enabling multiplexed imaging. This study demonstrates the separation of two distinct nanophosphor contrast agents in gelatin phantoms with a recovered phosphor separation correlation of −0.98. The ability to distinguish the two nanophosphors and a Cerenkov component is then demonstrated in a small animal phantom. Combined with the high-resolution potential of low-scattering X-ray excitation, this imaging technique may be a promising method to probe molecular processes in living organisms.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. G. Blankenberg, “In vivo detection of apoptosis,” J. Nucl. Med.49(Suppl 2), 81S–95S (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 532–537 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 435–446 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, “Quantum dots as cellular probes,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.7(1), 55–76 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, “Facile Synthesis of Amine-Functionalized Eu3+-Doped La(OH)3 Nanophosphors for Bioimaging,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(24), (2011).
  9. H. Chander, “Development of nanophosphors - A review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.49(5), 113–155 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Shen, L.-D. Sun, and C.-H. Yan, “Luminescent rare earth nanomaterials for bioprobe applications,” Dalton Trans.24(42), 5687–5697 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, “Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: characterization of experimental conditions,” Med. Phys.37(8), 4011–4018 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, “X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging29(12), 1992–1999 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Sun, G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, S. S. Gambhir, and L. Xing, “Synthesis and radioluminescence of PEGylated Eu(3+) -doped nanophosphors as bioimaging probes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(24), H195–H199 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Xing, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Radiation-luminescence-excited quantum dots for in vivo multiplexed optical imaging,” Small6(10), 1087–1091 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. S. Dothager, R. J. Goiffon, E. Jackson, S. Harpstrite, and D. Piwnica-Worms, “Cerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) imaging: a novel method for optical imaging of PET isotopes in biological systems,” PLoS ONE5(10), e13300 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. A. Lewis, V. D. Kodibagkar, O. K. Öz, and R. P. Mason, “On the potential for molecular imaging with Cerenkov luminescence,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 3889–3891 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, “Facile Synthesis of Amine-Functionalized Eu3+-Doped La(OH)3 Nanophosphors for Bioimaging,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(24), (2011).

C. Sun, G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, S. S. Gambhir, and L. Xing, “Synthesis and radioluminescence of PEGylated Eu(3+) -doped nanophosphors as bioimaging probes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(24), H195–H199 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. A. Lewis, V. D. Kodibagkar, O. K. Öz, and R. P. Mason, “On the potential for molecular imaging with Cerenkov luminescence,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 3889–3891 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Xing, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Radiation-luminescence-excited quantum dots for in vivo multiplexed optical imaging,” Small6(10), 1087–1091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Dothager, R. J. Goiffon, E. Jackson, S. Harpstrite, and D. Piwnica-Worms, “Cerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) imaging: a novel method for optical imaging of PET isotopes in biological systems,” PLoS ONE5(10), e13300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, “Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: characterization of experimental conditions,” Med. Phys.37(8), 4011–4018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, “X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging29(12), 1992–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Shen, L.-D. Sun, and C.-H. Yan, “Luminescent rare earth nanomaterials for bioprobe applications,” Dalton Trans.24(42), 5687–5697 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Blankenberg, “In vivo detection of apoptosis,” J. Nucl. Med.49(Suppl 2), 81S–95S (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chander, “Development of nanophosphors - A review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.49(5), 113–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, “Quantum dots as cellular probes,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.7(1), 55–76 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 532–537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, “Quantum dots as cellular probes,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.7(1), 55–76 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Axelsson, J.

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blankenberg, F. G.

F. G. Blankenberg, “In vivo detection of apoptosis,” J. Nucl. Med.49(Suppl 2), 81S–95S (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E. B.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruchez, M. P.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Q.

W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, C.

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, “Facile Synthesis of Amine-Functionalized Eu3+-Doped La(OH)3 Nanophosphors for Bioimaging,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(24), (2011).

Carpenter, C. M.

C. Sun, G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, S. S. Gambhir, and L. Xing, “Synthesis and radioluminescence of PEGylated Eu(3+) -doped nanophosphors as bioimaging probes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(24), H195–H199 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, “X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging29(12), 1992–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, “Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: characterization of experimental conditions,” Med. Phys.37(8), 4011–4018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W. C. W.

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 532–537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chander, H.

H. Chander, “Development of nanophosphors - A review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.49(5), 113–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

C. Sun, G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, S. S. Gambhir, and L. Xing, “Synthesis and radioluminescence of PEGylated Eu(3+) -doped nanophosphors as bioimaging probes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(24), H195–H199 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Xing, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Radiation-luminescence-excited quantum dots for in vivo multiplexed optical imaging,” Small6(10), 1087–1091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, K. S.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dothager, R. S.

R. S. Dothager, R. J. Goiffon, E. Jackson, S. Harpstrite, and D. Piwnica-Worms, “Cerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) imaging: a novel method for optical imaging of PET isotopes in biological systems,” PLoS ONE5(10), e13300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duda, D. G.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

C. Sun, G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, S. S. Gambhir, and L. Xing, “Synthesis and radioluminescence of PEGylated Eu(3+) -doped nanophosphors as bioimaging probes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(24), H195–H199 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Xing, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Radiation-luminescence-excited quantum dots for in vivo multiplexed optical imaging,” Small6(10), 1087–1091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, X.

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 532–537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ge, N.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gheysens, O.

W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladstone, D. J.

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goiffon, R. J.

R. S. Dothager, R. J. Goiffon, E. Jackson, S. Harpstrite, and D. Piwnica-Worms, “Cerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) imaging: a novel method for optical imaging of PET isotopes in biological systems,” PLoS ONE5(10), e13300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, E. R.

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, W.

A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, “Quantum dots as cellular probes,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.7(1), 55–76 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haley, K. N.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, P.

H. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Xing, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Radiation-luminescence-excited quantum dots for in vivo multiplexed optical imaging,” Small6(10), 1087–1091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harpstrite, S.

R. S. Dothager, R. J. Goiffon, E. Jackson, S. Harpstrite, and D. Piwnica-Worms, “Cerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) imaging: a novel method for optical imaging of PET isotopes in biological systems,” PLoS ONE5(10), e13300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, E.

R. S. Dothager, R. J. Goiffon, E. Jackson, S. Harpstrite, and D. Piwnica-Worms, “Cerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) imaging: a novel method for optical imaging of PET isotopes in biological systems,” PLoS ONE5(10), e13300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodibagkar, V. D.

Larabell, C.

A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, “Quantum dots as cellular probes,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.7(1), 55–76 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, J. P.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levchenko, T. S.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, M. A.

Liu, H.

C. Sun, G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, S. S. Gambhir, and L. Xing, “Synthesis and radioluminescence of PEGylated Eu(3+) -doped nanophosphors as bioimaging probes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(24), H195–H199 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Xing, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Radiation-luminescence-excited quantum dots for in vivo multiplexed optical imaging,” Small6(10), 1087–1091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, R. P.

Mattoussi, H.

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medintz, I. L.

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 532–537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Öz, O. K.

Peale, F.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piwnica-Worms, D.

R. S. Dothager, R. J. Goiffon, E. Jackson, S. Harpstrite, and D. Piwnica-Worms, “Cerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) imaging: a novel method for optical imaging of PET isotopes in biological systems,” PLoS ONE5(10), e13300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pratx, G.

C. Sun, G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, S. S. Gambhir, and L. Xing, “Synthesis and radioluminescence of PEGylated Eu(3+) -doped nanophosphors as bioimaging probes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(24), H195–H199 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, “Facile Synthesis of Amine-Functionalized Eu3+-Doped La(OH)3 Nanophosphors for Bioimaging,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(24), (2011).

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, “X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging29(12), 1992–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, “Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: characterization of experimental conditions,” Med. Phys.37(8), 4011–4018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, R.

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, “Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: characterization of experimental conditions,” Med. Phys.37(8), 4011–4018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scadden, D. T.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J.

J. Shen, L.-D. Sun, and C.-H. Yan, “Luminescent rare earth nanomaterials for bioprobe applications,” Dalton Trans.24(42), 5687–5697 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D.-W.

W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroh, M.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, “Facile Synthesis of Amine-Functionalized Eu3+-Doped La(OH)3 Nanophosphors for Bioimaging,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(24), (2011).

C. Sun, G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, S. S. Gambhir, and L. Xing, “Synthesis and radioluminescence of PEGylated Eu(3+) -doped nanophosphors as bioimaging probes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(24), H195–H199 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, “X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging29(12), 1992–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, “Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: characterization of experimental conditions,” Med. Phys.37(8), 4011–4018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, L.-D.

J. Shen, L.-D. Sun, and C.-H. Yan, “Luminescent rare earth nanomaterials for bioprobe applications,” Dalton Trans.24(42), 5687–5697 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torchilin, V. P.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treadway, J. A.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uyeda, H. T.

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. X.

W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, B.

H. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Xing, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Radiation-luminescence-excited quantum dots for in vivo multiplexed optical imaging,” Small6(10), 1087–1091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, L.

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, “Facile Synthesis of Amine-Functionalized Eu3+-Doped La(OH)3 Nanophosphors for Bioimaging,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(24), (2011).

C. Sun, G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, S. S. Gambhir, and L. Xing, “Synthesis and radioluminescence of PEGylated Eu(3+) -doped nanophosphors as bioimaging probes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(24), H195–H199 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, “X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging29(12), 1992–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, “Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: characterization of experimental conditions,” Med. Phys.37(8), 4011–4018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, C.-H.

J. Shen, L.-D. Sun, and C.-H. Yan, “Luminescent rare earth nanomaterials for bioprobe applications,” Dalton Trans.24(42), 5687–5697 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Xing, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Radiation-luminescence-excited quantum dots for in vivo multiplexed optical imaging,” Small6(10), 1087–1091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmer, J. P.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

C. Sun, G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, H. Liu, Z. Cheng, S. S. Gambhir, and L. Xing, “Synthesis and radioluminescence of PEGylated Eu(3+) -doped nanophosphors as bioimaging probes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(24), H195–H199 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, “Quantum dots as cellular probes,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.7(1), 55–76 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton Trans.

J. Shen, L.-D. Sun, and C.-H. Yan, “Luminescent rare earth nanomaterials for bioprobe applications,” Dalton Trans.24(42), 5687–5697 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

G. Pratx, C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, “X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging29(12), 1992–1999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

X. Gao, W. C. W. Chan, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(4), 532–537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nucl. Med.

F. G. Blankenberg, “In vivo detection of apoptosis,” J. Nucl. Med.49(Suppl 2), 81S–95S (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.

H. Chander, “Development of nanophosphors - A review,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.49(5), 113–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, “Hybrid x-ray/optical luminescence imaging: characterization of experimental conditions,” Med. Phys.37(8), 4011–4018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Axelsson, S. C. Davis, D. J. Gladstone, and B. W. Pogue, “Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4127–4132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

W. Cai, D.-W. Shin, K. Chen, O. Gheysens, Q. Cao, S. X. Wang, S. S. Gambhir, and X. Chen, “Peptide-labeled near-infrared quantum dots for imaging tumor vasculature in living subjects,” Nano Lett.6(4), 669–676 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett.

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, “Facile Synthesis of Amine-Functionalized Eu3+-Doped La(OH)3 Nanophosphors for Bioimaging,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.6(24), (2011).

Nat. Biotechnol.

X. Wu, H. Liu, J. Liu, K. N. Haley, J. A. Treadway, J. P. Larson, N. Ge, F. Peale, and M. P. Bruchez, “Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(1), 41–46 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, and H. Mattoussi, “Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing,” Nat. Mater.4(6), 435–446 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

M. Stroh, J. P. Zimmer, D. G. Duda, T. S. Levchenko, K. S. Cohen, E. B. Brown, D. T. Scadden, V. P. Torchilin, M. G. Bawendi, D. Fukumura, and R. K. Jain, “Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo,” Nat. Med.11(6), 678–682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

PLoS ONE

R. S. Dothager, R. J. Goiffon, E. Jackson, S. Harpstrite, and D. Piwnica-Worms, “Cerenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) imaging: a novel method for optical imaging of PET isotopes in biological systems,” PLoS ONE5(10), e13300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small

H. Liu, X. Zhang, B. Xing, P. Han, S. S. Gambhir, and Z. Cheng, “Radiation-luminescence-excited quantum dots for in vivo multiplexed optical imaging,” Small6(10), 1087–1091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Radioluminecent spectrum of the Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Tb3+ particles, which emit primarily in the green. (b) Radioluminecent spectrum of the Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Eu3+ particles, which emit primarily in the red and near-infrared. (c) Transmission electron microscopy image of the RLNPs. (d) Hydrodynamic size distribution of the RLNPs as determined by dynamic light scattering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Shown are the Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Tb3+ and Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Eu3+ phosphor concentrations with increasing/decreasing concentration (top-to-bottom) of Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Tb3+ / Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Eu3+, respectively. (b) The raw signal detected for each respective nanophosphor. (c) The relative median recovered concentration in each ROI plotted with respect to concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray Luminescence: (a) Schematic of the locations of each type of RLNP. The inactive particles are indicated with the abbreviation (Ctrl). (b,c) The unmixed signal from the Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Tb and Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Eu particles, respectively. (d) The unmixed multiplexed image with colorbars for the relative concentrations of Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Tb and Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Eu.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radiopharmaceutical luminescence: (a) Positron emission tomography image of the relevant RLNPs. (b) The unmixed signal from Cerenkov emission. (c,d) Unmixed signal from the Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Tb3+ particles and Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Eu3+particles, respectively. (e) Unmixed multiplexed image with colorbars for the relative contributions of Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Tb3+, Ba0.55Y0.3F2:Eu3+, and Cerenkov emission.

Metrics