Abstract

We present herein the results of a study of the reflective polarizing photovoltaic (PV) effects in an aligned polymer bulk-heterojunction PV layer. The PV layer consisted of a composite of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerene (P3HT:PCBM) and the fairly uniform in-plane alignment of the P3HT:PCBM PV layer was achieved by means of a simple rubbing technique. The macroscopic axial orientation of the P3HT polymer in the aligned PV layer was observed to be significantly increased in the direction of rubbing with an axial orientational order parameter of 0.40. Moreover, it was also found that the reflective polarizing polymer solar cells (PSCs) that contained the aligned P3HT:PCBM layers exhibited a greater degree of anisotropy of 1.60 for the PV efficiencies under polarized illumination along the two principal axes. These reflective polarizing PSCs were applied to new reflective type solar cell-liquid crystal displays (Solar-LCDs), which exhibited a contrast ratio of 1.7. These results form a promising foundation for various energy-harvesting polarization-dependent opto-electrical Solar-LCD device applications.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, and J. C. Shin, “In-plane anisotropy of photovoltaic effects in aligned polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(12), 3543–3549 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhu, A. Kumar, and Y. Yang, “Polarizing organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(36), 4193–4198 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem.19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

V. Pryamitsyn and V. Ganesan, “Self-assembly of rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Chem. Phys.120(12), 5824–5838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater.13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “A new reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display mode with large cell gap for direct view applications,” SID 01 Digest,32, 874–877 (2001).

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Xu, Z. Bao, and J. T. Groves, “Langmuir−Blodgett films of regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) as field-effect transistors,” Langmuir16(4), 1834–1841 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films284, 636–639 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met.57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

J. F. Schetzina, “Photovoltaic properties of anisotropic relaxation semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B12(8), 3339–3352 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

1951 (1)

Abe, H.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films284, 636–639 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alstrup, J.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem.19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater.13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Xu, Z. Bao, and J. T. Groves, “Langmuir−Blodgett films of regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) as field-effect transistors,” Langmuir16(4), 1834–1841 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bechgaard, K.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, P. J.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, R.

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “A new reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display mode with large cell gap for direct view applications,” SID 01 Digest,32, 874–877 (2001).

Chen, X. L.

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater.13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-W.

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Leeuw, D. M.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dyreklev, P.

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met.57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ganesan, V.

V. Pryamitsyn and V. Ganesan, “Self-assembly of rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Chem. Phys.120(12), 5824–5838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gevorgyan, S. A.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem.19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Groves, J. T.

G. Xu, Z. Bao, and J. T. Groves, “Langmuir−Blodgett films of regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) as field-effect transistors,” Langmuir16(4), 1834–1841 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, G.

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met.57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herwig, P.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.-J.

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huh, Y. H.

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, and J. C. Shin, “In-plane anisotropy of photovoltaic effects in aligned polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(12), 3543–3549 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inbasekaran, M.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inganäs, O.

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met.57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films284, 636–639 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jayaraman, M.

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, T.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem.19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

R. Zhu, A. Kumar, and Y. Yang, “Polarizing organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(36), 4193–4198 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, H.-S.

J. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “A new reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display mode with large cell gap for direct view applications,” SID 01 Digest,32, 874–877 (2001).

Land, E. H.

Langeveld-Voss, B. M. W.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. I.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. S.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lovinger, A. J.

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater.13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, R. D.

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Makas, A. S.

McCullough, R. D.

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, E. W.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, M.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films284, 636–639 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. M.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, N.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films284, 636–639 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, and J. C. Shin, “In-plane anisotropy of photovoltaic effects in aligned polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(12), 3543–3549 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pryamitsyn, V.

V. Pryamitsyn and V. Ganesan, “Self-assembly of rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Chem. Phys.120(12), 5824–5838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, C.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rikukawa, M.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films284, 636–639 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sanui, K.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films284, 636–639 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sapjeta, J.

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater.13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schetzina, J. F.

J. F. Schetzina, “Photovoltaic properties of anisotropic relaxation semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B12(8), 3339–3352 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, T.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, J. C.

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, and J. C. Shin, “In-plane anisotropy of photovoltaic effects in aligned polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(12), 3543–3549 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shrotriya, V.

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sirringhaus, H.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smilowitz, L.

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spiering, A. J. H.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stubb, H.

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met.57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tristram-Nagle, S.

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, S.-T.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, R. J.

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tung, V. C.

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, S. P.

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woo, E. P.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wudl, F.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, J.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

G. Xu, Z. Bao, and J. T. Groves, “Langmuir−Blodgett films of regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) as field-effect transistors,” Langmuir16(4), 1834–1841 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

R. Zhu, A. Kumar, and Y. Yang, “Polarizing organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(36), 4193–4198 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. C.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, R.

R. Zhu, A. Kumar, and Y. Yang, “Polarizing organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(36), 4193–4198 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (3)

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (3)

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhu, A. Kumar, and Y. Yang, “Polarizing organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(36), 4193–4198 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 103306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater.13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

V. Pryamitsyn and V. Ganesan, “Self-assembly of rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Chem. Phys.120(12), 5824–5838 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem.19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Langmuir (1)

G. Xu, Z. Bao, and J. T. Groves, “Langmuir−Blodgett films of regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) as field-effect transistors,” Langmuir16(4), 1834–1841 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. F. Schetzina, “Photovoltaic properties of anisotropic relaxation semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B12(8), 3339–3352 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

SID 01 Digest, (1)

J. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “A new reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display mode with large cell gap for direct view applications,” SID 01 Digest,32, 874–877 (2001).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, and J. C. Shin, “In-plane anisotropy of photovoltaic effects in aligned polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(12), 3543–3549 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met.57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films284, 636–639 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. G. De Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Clarendon Press, 1993).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of rubbing process for in-plane aligned PV layers. (b) AFM images of the reference layer (Left panel) and the rubbed sample layer (Right panel). The x-axis represents the direction of rubbing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Polarized transmission and absorption (inset) spectra of the reference and sample layers for incident light polarized parallel (||) and perpendicular (┴) to the x-direction of the layers. (b) Polarizing microscopic textures of the sample layer at four angles of rotation of the layers under an optical polarizing microscope. The white arrows indicate the rubbing (x-) direction and the orientation of the crossed polarizers is shown by the crossed arrows (A, P).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic structure of the reflective polarizing PSC containing an in-plane aligned PV layer. The red arrows indicate the polarization of the propagating light. (b) J-V characteristics of the reference and sample cells in the dark and under illumination. The inset shows a semilogarithmic plot of the performance of the sample cell in the dark and under illumination. (c) IPCE spectra of the reference and sample cells. (d) Polarization-dependent J-V characteristics of the PSCs under polarized illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Structure of the reflective Solar-LCD pixels (dark and bright), consisting of a linear sheet polarizer, TN-LC pixels, and a reflective polarizing PSC with normal black mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Voltage-dependent ION/IOFF of reflective Solar-LCD in the normal black condition. (b) Photograph of reflective Solar-LCD in operation displaying “12:00” in the normal black mode using a reflective polarizing PSC (inside dotted square) under ambient room light illumination. The inset figure shows that the polarizing PSC generated electricity (*) from ambient illumination.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Device performance of reference and sample BHJ PSCs studied in this work.

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