Abstract

We present herein the results of a study of the reflective polarizing photovoltaic (PV) effects in an aligned polymer bulk-heterojunction PV layer. The PV layer consisted of a composite of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerene (P3HT:PCBM) and the fairly uniform in-plane alignment of the P3HT:PCBM PV layer was achieved by means of a simple rubbing technique. The macroscopic axial orientation of the P3HT polymer in the aligned PV layer was observed to be significantly increased in the direction of rubbing with an axial orientational order parameter of 0.40. Moreover, it was also found that the reflective polarizing polymer solar cells (PSCs) that contained the aligned P3HT:PCBM layers exhibited a greater degree of anisotropy of 1.60 for the PV efficiencies under polarized illumination along the two principal axes. These reflective polarizing PSCs were applied to new reflective type solar cell-liquid crystal displays (Solar-LCDs), which exhibited a contrast ratio of 1.7. These results form a promising foundation for various energy-harvesting polarization-dependent opto-electrical Solar-LCD device applications.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, and J. C. Shin, “In-plane anisotropy of photovoltaic effects in aligned polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3543–3549 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Zhu, A. Kumar, and Y. Yang, “Polarizing organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(36), 4193–4198 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103306 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

V. Pryamitsyn and V. Ganesan, “Self-assembly of rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(12), 5824–5838 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “A new reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display mode with large cell gap for direct view applications,” SID 01 Digest, 32, 874–877 (2001).

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, Z. Bao, and J. T. Groves, “Langmuir−Blodgett films of regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) as field-effect transistors,” Langmuir 16(4), 1834–1841 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films 284, 636–639 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met. 57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

J. F. Schetzina, “Photovoltaic properties of anisotropic relaxation semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 12(8), 3339–3352 (1975).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

1951 (1)

Abe, H.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films 284, 636–639 (1996).
[Crossref]

Alstrup, J.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Z.

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, Z. Bao, and J. T. Groves, “Langmuir−Blodgett films of regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) as field-effect transistors,” Langmuir 16(4), 1834–1841 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bechgaard, K.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brabec, C. J.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brown, P. J.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chan, R.

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “A new reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display mode with large cell gap for direct view applications,” SID 01 Digest, 32, 874–877 (2001).

Chen, X. L.

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chu, C.-W.

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103306 (2008).
[Crossref]

de Leeuw, D. M.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dyreklev, P.

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met. 57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ganesan, V.

V. Pryamitsyn and V. Ganesan, “Self-assembly of rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(12), 5824–5838 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gevorgyan, S. A.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gong, X.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[Crossref]

Groves, J. T.

G. Xu, Z. Bao, and J. T. Groves, “Langmuir−Blodgett films of regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) as field-effect transistors,” Langmuir 16(4), 1834–1841 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gustafsson, G.

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met. 57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[Crossref]

Heeger, A. J.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[Crossref]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herwig, P.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hou, W.-J.

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huh, Y. H.

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, and J. C. Shin, “In-plane anisotropy of photovoltaic effects in aligned polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3543–3549 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hummelen, J. C.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[Crossref]

Inbasekaran, M.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inganäs, O.

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met. 57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ishida, K.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films 284, 636–639 (1996).
[Crossref]

Janssen, R. A. J.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jayaraman, M.

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kawase, T.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

R. Zhu, A. Kumar, and Y. Yang, “Polarizing organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(36), 4193–4198 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwok, H.-S.

J. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “A new reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display mode with large cell gap for direct view applications,” SID 01 Digest, 32, 874–877 (2001).

Land, E. H.

Langeveld-Voss, B. M. W.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. I.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103306 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lim, J. S.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lovinger, A. J.

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lowe, R. D.

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ma, W.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[Crossref]

Makas, A. S.

McCullough, R. D.

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[Crossref]

Meijer, E. W.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, M.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films 284, 636–639 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, M. M.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ogata, N.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films 284, 636–639 (1996).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, and J. C. Shin, “In-plane anisotropy of photovoltaic effects in aligned polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3543–3549 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pryamitsyn, V.

V. Pryamitsyn and V. Ganesan, “Self-assembly of rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(12), 5824–5838 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, C.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rikukawa, M.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films 284, 636–639 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sanui, K.

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films 284, 636–639 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sapjeta, J.

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sariciftci, N. S.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schetzina, J. F.

J. F. Schetzina, “Photovoltaic properties of anisotropic relaxation semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 12(8), 3339–3352 (1975).
[Crossref]

Shimoda, T.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J. C.

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, and J. C. Shin, “In-plane anisotropy of photovoltaic effects in aligned polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3543–3549 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shrotriya, V.

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sirringhaus, H.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Smilowitz, L.

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiering, A. J. H.

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stubb, H.

P. Dyreklev, G. Gustafsson, O. Inganäs, and H. Stubb, “Polymeric field effect transistors using oriented polymers,” Synth. Met. 57(1), 4093–4098 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tristram-Nagle, S.

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tsai, S.-T.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, R. J.

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tung, V. C.

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[Crossref]

Williams, S. P.

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[Crossref]

Woo, E. P.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wudl, F.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[Crossref]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, J.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

G. Xu, Z. Bao, and J. T. Groves, “Langmuir−Blodgett films of regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) as field-effect transistors,” Langmuir 16(4), 1834–1841 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103306 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

R. Zhu, A. Kumar, and Y. Yang, “Polarizing organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(36), 4193–4198 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103306 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S. C.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, R.

R. Zhu, A. Kumar, and Y. Yang, “Polarizing organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(36), 4193–4198 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (3)

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, and A. J. Heeger, “Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Li, Y. Yao, H. Yang, V. Shrotriya, G. Yang, and Y. Yang, “Solvent annealing effect in polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerenes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(10), 1636–1644 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (3)

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, and L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung, and Y. Yang, “Anisotropy in organic single-crystal photovoltaic characteristics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 435–438 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Zhu, A. Kumar, and Y. Yang, “Polarizing organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(36), 4193–4198 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-W. Chu, H. Yang, W.-J. Hou, J. Huang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Control of the nanoscale crystallinity and phase separation in polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

X. L. Chen, A. J. Lovinger, Z. Bao, and J. Sapjeta, “Morphological and transistor studies of organic molecular semiconductors with anisotropic electrical characteristics,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1341–1348 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. D. McCullough, S. Tristram-Nagle, S. P. Williams, R. D. Lowe, and M. Jayaraman, “Self-orienting head-to-tail poly(3-alkylthiophenes): new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115(11), 4910–4911 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

V. Pryamitsyn and V. Ganesan, “Self-assembly of rod-coil block copolymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(12), 5824–5838 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Langmuir (1)

G. Xu, Z. Bao, and J. T. Groves, “Langmuir−Blodgett films of regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) as field-effect transistors,” Langmuir 16(4), 1834–1841 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H.-Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, and G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. F. Schetzina, “Photovoltaic properties of anisotropic relaxation semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 12(8), 3339–3352 (1975).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

H. Sirringhaus, T. Kawase, R. H. Friend, T. Shimoda, M. Inbasekaran, W. Wu, and E. P. Woo, “High-resolution inkjet printing of all-polymer transistor circuits,” Science 290(5499), 2123–2126 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
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SID 01 Digest, (1)

J. Chen and H.-S. Kwok, “A new reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display mode with large cell gap for direct view applications,” SID 01 Digest, 32, 874–877 (2001).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, and J. C. Shin, “In-plane anisotropy of photovoltaic effects in aligned polymer solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3543–3549 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. H. Huh, J. S. Lim, S. C. Yoon, and B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[Crossref]

Synth. Met. (1)

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[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Rikukawa, M. Nakagawa, K. Ishida, H. Abe, K. Sanui, and N. Ogata, “Electrical properties of conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films comprised of head-to-tail poly (3-hexylthiophene),” Thin Solid Films 284, 636–639 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

P. G. De Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Clarendon Press, 1993).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of rubbing process for in-plane aligned PV layers. (b) AFM images of the reference layer (Left panel) and the rubbed sample layer (Right panel). The x-axis represents the direction of rubbing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Polarized transmission and absorption (inset) spectra of the reference and sample layers for incident light polarized parallel (||) and perpendicular (┴) to the x-direction of the layers. (b) Polarizing microscopic textures of the sample layer at four angles of rotation of the layers under an optical polarizing microscope. The white arrows indicate the rubbing (x-) direction and the orientation of the crossed polarizers is shown by the crossed arrows (A, P).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic structure of the reflective polarizing PSC containing an in-plane aligned PV layer. The red arrows indicate the polarization of the propagating light. (b) J-V characteristics of the reference and sample cells in the dark and under illumination. The inset shows a semilogarithmic plot of the performance of the sample cell in the dark and under illumination. (c) IPCE spectra of the reference and sample cells. (d) Polarization-dependent J-V characteristics of the PSCs under polarized illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Structure of the reflective Solar-LCD pixels (dark and bright), consisting of a linear sheet polarizer, TN-LC pixels, and a reflective polarizing PSC with normal black mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Voltage-dependent ION/IOFF of reflective Solar-LCD in the normal black condition. (b) Photograph of reflective Solar-LCD in operation displaying “12:00” in the normal black mode using a reflective polarizing PSC (inside dotted square) under ambient room light illumination. The inset figure shows that the polarizing PSC generated electricity (*) from ambient illumination.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Device performance of reference and sample BHJ PSCs studied in this work.

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