Abstract

The combined deposition of structured and homogenous layers for the device setup of OLEDs results in a structured display visible with a gray scale impression. These permanently imprinted structures are only visible during the application of an electrical field and almost invisible in the off state. Most intriguing applications of such devices are security marks, electronic watermarks but also for advertising and design applications the creation of gray scale structures might have interesting applications.

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References

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. L.-E. Devices, Synthesis, Properties and Applications, K. Müllen and U. Scherf, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).
  4. M. Riede, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Organic Semiconductors,” in Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology, P. Bhattacharya, R. Fornari, and H. Kamimura eds. (Elsevier 2011) Vol. 4 pp.448–507.
  5. C. Zhong, C. Duan, F. Huang, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, “Materials and devices toward fully solution processable organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.23(3), 326–340 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Fischer, S. Kreissl, and A. Wedel, “OLED Sicherheitselement,” German Patent Application DE 10 2009 053 955.
  7. O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart ionic sol-gel-based azobenzene materials for optical generation of microstructures,” Chem. Mater.20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. “Brilliant Counterfeit Protection,” Science Daily (July 14, 2010), http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100614093627.htm?ut .
  9. R. L. Optical Document Security, van Renesse ed. (Artech House, 1998).
  10. D. C. Ranasinghe and P. H. Cole, eds., (Springer, 2008).
  11. J. Fischer, ‟Displays on Smartcards,” in Handbook of eID Security, W. Fumy and M. Paeschke eds. (Bundesdruckerei, 2011), www.publics.de/books .

2011 (1)

C. Zhong, C. Duan, F. Huang, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, “Materials and devices toward fully solution processable organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.23(3), 326–340 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart ionic sol-gel-based azobenzene materials for optical generation of microstructures,” Chem. Mater.20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burns, R. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

C. Zhong, C. Duan, F. Huang, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, “Materials and devices toward fully solution processable organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.23(3), 326–340 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duan, C.

C. Zhong, C. Duan, F. Huang, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, “Materials and devices toward fully solution processable organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.23(3), 326–340 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Goldenberg, L. M.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart ionic sol-gel-based azobenzene materials for optical generation of microstructures,” Chem. Mater.20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

C. Zhong, C. Duan, F. Huang, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, “Materials and devices toward fully solution processable organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.23(3), 326–340 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kulikovska, O.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart ionic sol-gel-based azobenzene materials for optical generation of microstructures,” Chem. Mater.20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kulikovsky, L.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart ionic sol-gel-based azobenzene materials for optical generation of microstructures,” Chem. Mater.20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart ionic sol-gel-based azobenzene materials for optical generation of microstructures,” Chem. Mater.20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

van Slyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

C. Zhong, C. Duan, F. Huang, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, “Materials and devices toward fully solution processable organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.23(3), 326–340 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, C.

C. Zhong, C. Duan, F. Huang, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, “Materials and devices toward fully solution processable organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.23(3), 326–340 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

O. Kulikovska, L. M. Goldenberg, L. Kulikovsky, and J. Stumpe, “Smart ionic sol-gel-based azobenzene materials for optical generation of microstructures,” Chem. Mater.20(10), 3528–3534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhong, C. Duan, F. Huang, H. Wu, and Y. Cao, “Materials and devices toward fully solution processable organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.23(3), 326–340 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, R. H. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

O. L.-E. Devices, Synthesis, Properties and Applications, K. Müllen and U. Scherf, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2006).

M. Riede, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Organic Semiconductors,” in Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology, P. Bhattacharya, R. Fornari, and H. Kamimura eds. (Elsevier 2011) Vol. 4 pp.448–507.

“Brilliant Counterfeit Protection,” Science Daily (July 14, 2010), http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100614093627.htm?ut .

R. L. Optical Document Security, van Renesse ed. (Artech House, 1998).

D. C. Ranasinghe and P. H. Cole, eds., (Springer, 2008).

J. Fischer, ‟Displays on Smartcards,” in Handbook of eID Security, W. Fumy and M. Paeschke eds. (Bundesdruckerei, 2011), www.publics.de/books .

B. Fischer, S. Kreissl, and A. Wedel, “OLED Sicherheitselement,” German Patent Application DE 10 2009 053 955.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic device setup (shown without backside encapsulation, not drawn to scale). The structured inkjet printed layer could either be a hole injection layer or an emitting layer (drawn in red), the hole injection and emitting can be either spin coated or applied by other uniform coating techniques such as inkjet printing or slot die coating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multi-layer printed OLED in the on mode, the structure is permanently written in by inkjet printing a second hole injection layer. In the off-mode the structure is not visible. The left hand picture shows the logo of the Institute, the right hand picture shows a detail of a sketch. Around the printed contours (blue arrows) several points (black arrows) are visible showing failure of the print head with not accurately printing nozzles leading to a contrast outside the wanted contour lines of the image layout.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Printed image in using a blue and red fluorescent polymer as emitting layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Printed image with a green emitting layer in the on- (left) and off-mode (right). Almost no contrast variations are visible in the off-state, in contrast to the pixel structure resulting from the photolithographic structuring of the ITO-electrode.

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