Abstract

In this study, we demonstrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation using p-GaN photoelectrodes associated with immersed finger-type indium tin oxide (IF-ITO) ohmic contacts. The IF-ITO/p-GaN photoelectrode scheme exhibits higher photocurrent and gas generation rate compared with p-GaN photoelectrodes without IF-ITO ohmic contacts. In addition, the critical external bias for detectable hydrogen generation can be effectively reduced by the use of IF-ITO ohmic contacts. This finding can be attributed to the greatly uniform distribution of the IF-ITO/p-GaN photoelectrode applied fields over the whole working area. As a result, the collection efficiency of photo-generated holes by electrode contacts is higher than that of p-GaN photoelectrodes without IF-ITO contacts. Microscopy revealed a tiny change on the p-GaN surfaces before and after hydrogen generation. In contrast, photoelectrodes composed of n-GaN have a short lifetime due to n-GaN corrosion during hydrogen generation. Findings of this study indicate that the ITO finger contacts on p-GaN layer is a potential candidate as photoelectrodes for PEC hydrogen generation.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. J. Nozik and R. Memming, “Physical chemistry of semiconductor-liquid interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem.100(31), 13061–13078 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Turner, “A realizable renewable energy future,” Science285(5428), 687–689 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Fujishima and K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature238(5358), 37–38 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. J. Nozik, “Electrode materials for photoelectrochemical devices,” J. Cryst. Growth39(1), 200–209 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Kainthla and B. Zelenay, “Significant efficiency increase in self-driven photoelectrochemical cell for water photoelectrolysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc.134(4), 841 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, and R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 262110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 162107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, and K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc.154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 052110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093519 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Dimitrova, L. Catalan, D. Alexandrov, and A. Chen, “Evaluation of GaN and In0.2Ga0.8N semiconductors as potentiometric anion selective electrodes,” Electroanalysis19(17), 1799–1806 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6446–6473 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Fujii and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical properties of p-Type GaN in comparison with n-Type GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(28), L909–L911 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, C. K. Tseng, J. C. Ye, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Improved hydrogen gas generation rate of n-GaN photoelectrode with SiO2 protection layer on the ohmic contacts from the electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), B266–B268 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, and C. C. Liu, “Indium tin oxide ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron.43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

2010 (4)

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6446–6473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, C. K. Tseng, J. C. Ye, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Improved hydrogen gas generation rate of n-GaN photoelectrode with SiO2 protection layer on the ohmic contacts from the electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), B266–B268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, and R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, and K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc.154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Dimitrova, L. Catalan, D. Alexandrov, and A. Chen, “Evaluation of GaN and In0.2Ga0.8N semiconductors as potentiometric anion selective electrodes,” Electroanalysis19(17), 1799–1806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. Fujii and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical properties of p-Type GaN in comparison with n-Type GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(28), L909–L911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. A. Turner, “A realizable renewable energy future,” Science285(5428), 687–689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, and C. C. Liu, “Indium tin oxide ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron.43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. J. Nozik and R. Memming, “Physical chemistry of semiconductor-liquid interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem.100(31), 13061–13078 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. C. Kainthla and B. Zelenay, “Significant efficiency increase in self-driven photoelectrochemical cell for water photoelectrolysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc.134(4), 841 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. J. Nozik, “Electrode materials for photoelectrochemical devices,” J. Cryst. Growth39(1), 200–209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. Fujishima and K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature238(5358), 37–38 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abare, A. C.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, D.

R. Dimitrova, L. Catalan, D. Alexandrov, and A. Chen, “Evaluation of GaN and In0.2Ga0.8N semiconductors as potentiometric anion selective electrodes,” Electroanalysis19(17), 1799–1806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aryal, K.

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6446–6473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchinsky, O.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Casey, H. C.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

Catalan, L.

R. Dimitrova, L. Catalan, D. Alexandrov, and A. Chen, “Evaluation of GaN and In0.2Ga0.8N semiconductors as potentiometric anion selective electrodes,” Electroanalysis19(17), 1799–1806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. M.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, and C. C. Liu, “Indium tin oxide ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron.43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. H.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, C. K. Tseng, J. C. Ye, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Improved hydrogen gas generation rate of n-GaN photoelectrode with SiO2 protection layer on the ohmic contacts from the electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), B266–B268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

R. Dimitrova, L. Catalan, D. Alexandrov, and A. Chen, “Evaluation of GaN and In0.2Ga0.8N semiconductors as potentiometric anion selective electrodes,” Electroanalysis19(17), 1799–1806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, and R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, and C. C. Liu, “Indium tin oxide ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron.43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. A.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

Dimitrova, R.

R. Dimitrova, L. Catalan, D. Alexandrov, and A. Chen, “Evaluation of GaN and In0.2Ga0.8N semiconductors as potentiometric anion selective electrodes,” Electroanalysis19(17), 1799–1806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, K.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, and K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc.154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujii and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical properties of p-Type GaN in comparison with n-Type GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(28), L909–L911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, A.

A. Fujishima and K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature238(5358), 37–38 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haller, E. E.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hirako, A.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, and K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc.154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Honda, K.

A. Fujishima and K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature238(5358), 37–38 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. K.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, and K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc.154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwaki, Y.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, and K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc.154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jou, M. J.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, and C. C. Liu, “Indium tin oxide ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron.43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kainthla, R. C.

R. C. Kainthla and B. Zelenay, “Significant efficiency increase in self-driven photoelectrochemical cell for water photoelectrolysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc.134(4), 841 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Keller, B. P.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

Kolbas, R. M.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

Kuo, C. H.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, C. K. Tseng, J. C. Ye, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Improved hydrogen gas generation rate of n-GaN photoelectrode with SiO2 protection layer on the ohmic contacts from the electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), B266–B268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lal, R.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

Lee, M. L.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, C. K. Tseng, J. C. Ye, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Improved hydrogen gas generation rate of n-GaN photoelectrode with SiO2 protection layer on the ohmic contacts from the electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), B266–B268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6446–6473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, and R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, and R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. C.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, and C. C. Liu, “Indium tin oxide ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron.43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. Y.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, C. K. Tseng, J. C. Ye, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Improved hydrogen gas generation rate of n-GaN photoelectrode with SiO2 protection layer on the ohmic contacts from the electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), B266–B268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, and R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Margalith, T.

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McKone, J. R.

M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6446–6473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Memming, R.

A. J. Nozik and R. Memming, “Physical chemistry of semiconductor-liquid interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem.100(31), 13061–13078 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Q.

M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6446–6473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishra, U.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

Muth, J. F.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

Nakamura, S.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nozik, A. J.

A. J. Nozik and R. Memming, “Physical chemistry of semiconductor-liquid interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem.100(31), 13061–13078 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Nozik, “Electrode materials for photoelectrochemical devices,” J. Cryst. Growth39(1), 200–209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ohkawa, K.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, and K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc.154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujii and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical properties of p-Type GaN in comparison with n-Type GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(28), L909–L911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ono, M.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, and K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc.154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pantha, B. N.

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santori, E. A.

M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6446–6473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaff, W. J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, C. K. Tseng, J. C. Ye, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Improved hydrogen gas generation rate of n-GaN photoelectrode with SiO2 protection layer on the ohmic contacts from the electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), B266–B268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, and C. C. Liu, “Indium tin oxide ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron.43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shmagin, I. K.

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

Su, Y. K.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, and C. C. Liu, “Indium tin oxide ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron.43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, C. K.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, C. K. Tseng, J. C. Ye, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Improved hydrogen gas generation rate of n-GaN photoelectrode with SiO2 protection layer on the ohmic contacts from the electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), B266–B268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J. A.

J. A. Turner, “A realizable renewable energy future,” Science285(5428), 687–689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waki, I.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walter, M. G.

M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6446–6473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Warren, E. L.

M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6446–6473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, and R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. C.

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, C. K. Tseng, J. C. Ye, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Improved hydrogen gas generation rate of n-GaN photoelectrode with SiO2 protection layer on the ohmic contacts from the electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), B266–B268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. M.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zelenay, B.

R. C. Kainthla and B. Zelenay, “Significant efficiency increase in self-driven photoelectrochemical cell for water photoelectrolysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc.134(4), 841 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, and R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Z.

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, and R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, and R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Margalith, O. Buchinsky, D. A. Cohen, A. C. Abare, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and L. A. Coldren, “Indium tin oxide contacts to gallium nitride optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(26), 3930 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Muth, J. H. Lee, I. K. Shmagin, R. M. Kolbas, H. C. Casey, B. P. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Absorption coefficient, energy gap, exciton binding energy, and recombination lifetime of GaN obtained from transmission measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(18), 2572 (1997).

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. G. Walter, E. L. Warren, J. R. McKone, S. W. Boettcher, Q. Mi, E. A. Santori, and N. S. Lewis, “Solar water splitting cells,” Chem. Rev.110(11), 6446–6473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electroanalysis (1)

R. Dimitrova, L. Catalan, D. Alexandrov, and A. Chen, “Evaluation of GaN and In0.2Ga0.8N semiconductors as potentiometric anion selective electrodes,” Electroanalysis19(17), 1799–1806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

A. J. Nozik, “Electrode materials for photoelectrochemical devices,” J. Cryst. Growth39(1), 200–209 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (4)

R. C. Kainthla and B. Zelenay, “Significant efficiency increase in self-driven photoelectrochemical cell for water photoelectrolysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc.134(4), 841 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, and K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc.154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, C. K. Hsu, M. L. Lee, C. H. Kuo, and W. C. Lai, “Characterization of n-GaN with naturally textured surface for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(12), H1106–H1109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, J. K. Sheu, C. K. Tseng, J. C. Ye, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, and W. C. Lai, “Improved hydrogen gas generation rate of n-GaN photoelectrode with SiO2 protection layer on the ohmic contacts from the electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(2), B266–B268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

A. J. Nozik and R. Memming, “Physical chemistry of semiconductor-liquid interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem.100(31), 13061–13078 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Fujii and K. Ohkawa, “Photoelectrochemical properties of p-Type GaN in comparison with n-Type GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(28), L909–L911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Fujishima and K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature238(5358), 37–38 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. A. Turner, “A realizable renewable energy future,” Science285(5428), 687–689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, and C. C. Liu, “Indium tin oxide ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron.43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the photoelectrochemical cells (a) PEC1, (c) PEC2. Figure 1(b) shows the schematic structure of ITO/SiO2 staked layers on the p-GaN.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical photocurrent density-bias curves of the experimental PEC cells.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photocurrent and dark current densities as a function of applied bias VCE of PEC1, PEC3, and PEC4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of the surface of PEC1 (a) before and (b) after photoelectrochemical measurements. The insets of Fig. 4(a) and 4(b) show the top-view of the AFM images of PEC1 before and after photoelectrochemical measurements, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Critical Bias for Hydrogen Generation of the Experimental PEC Cells

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