Abstract

Surface laser damage limits the lifetime of optics for systems guiding high fluence pulses, particularly damage in silica optics used for inertial confinement fusion-class lasers (nanosecond-scale high energy pulses at 355 nm/3.5 eV). The density of damage precursors at low fluence has been measured using large beams (1-3 cm); higher fluences cannot be measured easily since the high density of resulting damage initiation sites results in clustering. We developed automated experiments and analysis that allow us to damage test thousands of sites with small beams (10-30 µm), and automatically image the test sites to determine if laser damage occurred. We developed an analysis method that provides a rigorous connection between these small beam damage test results of damage probability versus laser pulse energy and the large beam damage results of damage precursor densities versus fluence. We find that for uncoated and coated fused silica samples, the distribution of precursors nearly flattens at very high fluences, up to 150 J/cm2, providing important constraints on the physical distribution and nature of these precursors.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011 (5)

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Moses, “The National Ignition Facility and the promise of inertial fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 11–16 (2011).

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A859–A864 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Cross and C. W. Carr, “Analysis of 1ω bulk laser damage in KDP,” Appl. Opt. 50(22), D7–D11 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

M. J. Matthews and M. D. Feit, “Effect of random clustering on surface damage density estimates,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67201J (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Lamaignère, S. Bouillet, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, M. Josse, J. C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “An accurate, repeatable, and well characterized measurement of laser damage density of optical materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(Phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD 2PO 4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. E. Wolfe and S. E. Schrauth, “Automated laser damage test system with real-time damage event imaging and detection,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 640328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. C. Ness and A. D. Streater, “Automated system for laser damage testing of coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912B, 59912B-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, and P. Whitman, “Effect of humidity during the coating of Stober silica sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 368–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, R. Courchinoux, G. Raze, C. Sudre, M. Josse, T. Donval, and H. Bercegol, “Automatic damage test benches: From samples to large-aperture optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 412–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. B. Glebov, “Intrinsic laser-induced breakdown of silicate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 321–331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Schwartz, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. P. Mouser, “Current 3ω large optic test procedures and data analysis for the quality assurance of National Ignition Facility optics,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 314–321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, and L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 1–9 (1999).

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

D. S. Bunch, D. M. Gay, and R. E. Welsch, “Algorithm-717 subroutines for maximum-likelihood and quasi-likelihood estimation of parameters in nonlinear-regression models,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 19(1), 109–130 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1975 (2)

Y. R. Shen, “Self-focusing: experimental,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1–34 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11(2), 431–441 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J. J.

Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2538–2540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(Phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD 2PO 4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amendt, P.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Anklam, T.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Auerbach, J.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bayramian, A.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Bercegol, H.

L. Lamaignère, S. Bouillet, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, M. Josse, J. C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “An accurate, repeatable, and well characterized measurement of laser damage density of optical materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, R. Courchinoux, G. Raze, C. Sudre, M. Josse, T. Donval, and H. Bercegol, “Automatic damage test benches: From samples to large-aperture optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 412–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, E.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Bouillet, S.

L. Lamaignère, S. Bouillet, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, M. Josse, J. C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “An accurate, repeatable, and well characterized measurement of laser damage density of optical materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bude, J. D.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bunch, D. S.

D. S. Bunch, D. M. Gay, and R. E. Welsch, “Algorithm-717 subroutines for maximum-likelihood and quasi-likelihood estimation of parameters in nonlinear-regression models,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 19(1), 109–130 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C. W.

D. A. Cross and C. W. Carr, “Analysis of 1ω bulk laser damage in KDP,” Appl. Opt. 50(22), D7–D11 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A859–A864 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2538–2540 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chromy, B. A.

T. A. Laurence and B. A. Chromy, “Efficient maximum likelihood estimator fitting of histograms,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 338–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courchinoux, R.

L. Lamaignère, S. Bouillet, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, M. Josse, J. C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “An accurate, repeatable, and well characterized measurement of laser damage density of optical materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, R. Courchinoux, G. Raze, C. Sudre, M. Josse, T. Donval, and H. Bercegol, “Automatic damage test benches: From samples to large-aperture optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 412–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cross, D. A.

de la Rubia, T. D.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Debs, B.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Deri, R.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Do, B. T.

Donval, T.

L. Lamaignère, S. Bouillet, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, M. Josse, J. C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “An accurate, repeatable, and well characterized measurement of laser damage density of optical materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, R. Courchinoux, G. Raze, C. Sudre, M. Josse, T. Donval, and H. Bercegol, “Automatic damage test benches: From samples to large-aperture optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 412–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dunne, M.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

El-Dasher, B.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Farmer, J. C.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Feit, M. D.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

J. J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(Phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD 2PO 4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Matthews and M. D. Feit, “Effect of random clustering on surface damage density estimates,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67201J (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Schwartz, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. P. Mouser, “Current 3ω large optic test procedures and data analysis for the quality assurance of National Ignition Facility optics,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 314–321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, and L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 1–9 (1999).

Feldman, T.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flowers, D.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Gay, D. M.

D. S. Bunch, D. M. Gay, and R. E. Welsch, “Algorithm-717 subroutines for maximum-likelihood and quasi-likelihood estimation of parameters in nonlinear-regression models,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 19(1), 109–130 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Genin, F. Y.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, and L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 1–9 (1999).

Glebov, L. B.

L. B. Glebov, “Intrinsic laser-induced breakdown of silicate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 321–331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, R. P.

J. J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(Phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD 2PO 4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, M. L.

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, and P. Whitman, “Effect of humidity during the coating of Stober silica sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 368–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Honig, J.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jarboe, J. A.

J. J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(Phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD 2PO 4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Josse, M.

L. Lamaignère, S. Bouillet, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, M. Josse, J. C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “An accurate, repeatable, and well characterized measurement of laser damage density of optical materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, R. Courchinoux, G. Raze, C. Sudre, M. Josse, T. Donval, and H. Bercegol, “Automatic damage test benches: From samples to large-aperture optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 412–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, and L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 1–9 (1999).

S. Schwartz, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. P. Mouser, “Current 3ω large optic test procedures and data analysis for the quality assurance of National Ignition Facility optics,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 314–321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, K. J.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Lagin, L.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Lamaignere, L.

M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, R. Courchinoux, G. Raze, C. Sudre, M. Josse, T. Donval, and H. Bercegol, “Automatic damage test benches: From samples to large-aperture optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 412–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lamaignère, L.

L. Lamaignère, S. Bouillet, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, M. Josse, J. C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “An accurate, repeatable, and well characterized measurement of laser damage density of optical materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latkowski, J. F.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Laurence, T. A.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Laurence and B. A. Chromy, “Efficient maximum likelihood estimator fitting of histograms,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 338–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

Liao, Z. M.

Lindl, J.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Loiseau, M.

M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, R. Courchinoux, G. Raze, C. Sudre, M. Josse, T. Donval, and H. Bercegol, “Automatic damage test benches: From samples to large-aperture optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 412–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luthi, R. L.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manes, K.

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, D. W.

D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11(2), 431–441 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, M. J.

M. J. Matthews and M. D. Feit, “Effect of random clustering on surface damage density estimates,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67201J (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meier, W.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Menapace, J.

Menapace, J. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

Milam, D.

Miles, R.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Miller, P. E.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monticelli, M. V.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E. I.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

E. I. Moses, “The National Ignition Facility and the promise of inertial fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 11–16 (2011).

Moses, G. A.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Mouser, R. P.

S. Schwartz, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. P. Mouser, “Current 3ω large optic test procedures and data analysis for the quality assurance of National Ignition Facility optics,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 314–321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Negres, R. A.

Ness, D. C.

D. C. Ness and A. D. Streater, “Automated system for laser damage testing of coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912B, 59912B-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norton, M. A.

C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A859–A864 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M. C.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poncetta, J. C.

L. Lamaignère, S. Bouillet, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, M. Josse, J. C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “An accurate, repeatable, and well characterized measurement of laser damage density of optical materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raze, G.

M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, R. Courchinoux, G. Raze, C. Sudre, M. Josse, T. Donval, and H. Bercegol, “Automatic damage test benches: From samples to large-aperture optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 412–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, S.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Roberts, V.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, and L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 1–9 (1999).

Sawicki, R.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Schrauth, S. E.

J. E. Wolfe and S. E. Schrauth, “Automated laser damage test system with real-time damage event imaging and detection,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 640328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, and L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 1–9 (1999).

S. Schwartz, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. P. Mouser, “Current 3ω large optic test procedures and data analysis for the quality assurance of National Ignition Facility optics,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 314–321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sell, W. D.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, L. M.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, and L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 1–9 (1999).

Shen, N.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, “Self-focusing: experimental,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1–34 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. V.

Spaeth, M.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Spaeth, M. L.

Stanley, J. A.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steele, W. A.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Storm, E.

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

Streater, A. D.

D. C. Ness and A. D. Streater, “Automated system for laser damage testing of coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912B, 59912B-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sudre, C.

M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, R. Courchinoux, G. Raze, C. Sudre, M. Josse, T. Donval, and H. Bercegol, “Automatic damage test benches: From samples to large-aperture optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 412–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, and P. Whitman, “Effect of humidity during the coating of Stober silica sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 368–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T. I.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

Thomas, I. M.

Trenholme, J. B.

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vickers, J. L.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, P. J.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weiland, T. L.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Welsch, R. E.

D. S. Bunch, D. M. Gay, and R. E. Welsch, “Algorithm-717 subroutines for maximum-likelihood and quasi-likelihood estimation of parameters in nonlinear-regression models,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 19(1), 109–130 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, P.

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, and P. Whitman, “Effect of humidity during the coating of Stober silica sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 368–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, J. E.

J. E. Wolfe and S. E. Schrauth, “Automated laser damage test system with real-time damage event imaging and detection,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 640328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L. L.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

ACM Trans. Math. Softw. (1)

D. S. Bunch, D. M. Gay, and R. E. Welsch, “Algorithm-717 subroutines for maximum-likelihood and quasi-likelihood estimation of parameters in nonlinear-regression models,” ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 19(1), 109–130 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, “Metallic-like photoluminescence and absorption in fused silica surface flaws,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fusion Sci. Tech. (2)

E. I. Moses, “The National Ignition Facility and the promise of inertial fusion energy,” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 11–16 (2011).

M. Dunne, E. I. Moses, P. Amendt, T. Anklam, A. Bayramian, E. Bliss, B. Debs, R. Deri, T. D. de la Rubia, B. El-Dasher, J. C. Farmer, D. Flowers, K. J. Kramer, L. Lagin, J. F. Latkowski, J. Lindl, W. Meier, R. Miles, G. A. Moses, S. Reyes, V. Roberts, R. Sawicki, M. Spaeth, and E. Storm, “Timely delivery of laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE),” Fusion Sci. Tech. 60, 19–27 (2011).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

T. Suratwala, M. L. Hanna, and P. Whitman, “Effect of humidity during the coating of Stober silica sols,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 368–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 11(2), 431–441 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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T. A. Laurence and B. A. Chromy, “Efficient maximum likelihood estimator fitting of histograms,” Nat. Methods 7(5), 338–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

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Proc. SPIE (10)

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. R. Kozlowski, F. Y. Genin, S. Schwartz, and L. M. Sheehan, “Extrapolation of damage test data to predict performance of large-area NIF optics at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 1–9 (1999).

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, (2009).

S. Schwartz, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, and R. P. Mouser, “Current 3ω large optic test procedures and data analysis for the quality assurance of National Ignition Facility optics,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 314–321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. D. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(Phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD 2PO 4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672014 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignere, R. Courchinoux, G. Raze, C. Sudre, M. Josse, T. Donval, and H. Bercegol, “Automatic damage test benches: From samples to large-aperture optical components,” Proc. SPIE 5252, 412–422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Ness and A. D. Streater, “Automated system for laser damage testing of coated optics,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59912B, 59912B-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Wolfe and S. E. Schrauth, “Automated laser damage test system with real-time damage event imaging and detection,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 640328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. J. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical component testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Matthews and M. D. Feit, “Effect of random clustering on surface damage density estimates,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67201J (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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L. Lamaignère, S. Bouillet, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, M. Josse, J. C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “An accurate, repeatable, and well characterized measurement of laser damage density of optical materials,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Efron and R. Tibshirani, An introduction to the bootstrap, Monographs on statistics and applied probability (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1993).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Probing the damage performance of optical surfaces with small laser beams isolates the precursors that damage at various fluences. For the densities encountered, laser damage sites will overlap for large beam studies. (b) Large beam studies measure the cumulative density of damage precursors ρ(Φ) up to 25-30 J/cm2. In these experiments we want to determine if there is either a previously unknown surface limitation to damage performance or what populations of precursors are present in this fluence range. If there is a fixed damage threshold for fused silica surfaces, we expect a rapid increase in ρ(Φ) as shown by the extrapolated black curve. If we find a shallow increase, the precursor distribution must be dominated by extrinsic, non-uniform features such as defects or contaminants.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental configuration for automated small beam damage testing and detection. (b) Damage testing pattern. Fiducials are placed along the x and y axes. The damage test proceeds by rows with increasing pulse energy. (c) After the damage test is performed, the laser shutter is closed, the microscope is put into place, and each site is automatically imaged to determine if damage occurred.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Comparison of radial distribution of circular distribution of radius 1.4 mm and Gaussian with intensity 1/e radius of a/1.915. (b) Intensification expected as a function of pulse energy for beams focused with the 10 cm (red) and 30 cm (blue) focusing lenses. Since the pulse energies used were below 2 mJ for the 30 cm lens, and below 1 mJ for the 10 cm lens, we do not expect significant intensification or self focusing in our measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beam Profiles are used to convert pulse energy to dA/dΦ, the amount of area covered by a certain fluence. Green squares are 50 μm for each image. (a) Beam profile for f = 300 mm with 50 μm box shown for scale. (b) Beam profile for f = 100 mm. (c) Calculation of dA/dΦ from images in (a) and (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The model for the cumulative distribution of the laser damage precursors is a piecewise continuous, exponentially growing function. We restrict the values of different exponential growth rates to be strictly positive. The fluence positions of transitions between ri are fixed during the fit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The uncertainty in the fitted ρ(Φ) is estimated as a bootstrapping procedure. The original extracted ρ(Φ) is shown in black, and the extracted ρ(Φ) of 11 bootstrap instances are shown as well. At each point, the standard deviation was calculated to estimated the uncertainty in the values. (b) Error bars are calculated as the standard deviation of all bootstrap instances.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Extracted ρ(Φ) for various functional forms. (a) Cubic ρ(Φ) and fit are shown in red. Exponential ρ(Φ) and fit are shown in black. (b) ρ(Φ) with exponential increases interrupted by plateaus are shown in red and black. Corresponding fits are shown by symbols.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example of extraction of precursor damage density by combining damage test results using lenses with three different focal lengths. (a) The raw data of the experiment consists of a series of three curves showing the probability of laser damage versus measured pulse energy in mJ. (b) Data from part A, but with the pulse energy is converted to the fluence of the top 10% of the beam. (c) The distribution of the laser damage precursors ρ(Φ) as a function of fluence (black line). These results can be directly compared to the large beam results at lower fluence (cyan line). (d) ρ(Φ) extracted for each focal length separately plotted with the ρ(Φ) extracted when all information is taken into account.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Extracted ρ(Φ) for uncoated silica samples. Samples 1 and 2 are samples undergoing the full treatment listed in Ref [3]. (b) The damage performance samples with applied antireflective silica sol-gel coatings are able to be similar to that of uncoated parts. Sample 4 was processed similarly to sample 1, except the sol-gel coating was applied. Sample 5 was the same as Sample 4, except a squalane hydrocarbon contamination which impairs the antireflective properties of the coating was deliberately added.

Equations (8)

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i E z = 2 E 2K K n γ | E | 2 E.
P( E pulse )=1exp{ ρ[ Φ( x,y ) ]dxdy }.
P( E pulse )=1exp[ 0 Φ max ρ( Φ ) dA dΦ dΦ ].
ρ( Φ )=ρ( Φ i )exp[ r i ( Φ Φ i ) ].
ρ( Φ )=ρ( Φ 0 )exp[ r i ( Φ Φ i ) ] j=1 i1 exp[ r j ( Φ j Φ j1 ) ] .
P( x i | n i , p i )=( n i x i ) p i x i ( 1 p i ) n i x i .
L( x|f )= i P( x i | f i ) .
χ mle 2 =2ln( L( x|f ) / L( x|x ) ) =2 i=1, x i 0 m x i ln( n i f i / x i ) 2 i=1, x i n i m ( n i x i )ln n i f i n i n i x i .

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