Abstract

An active metal strip hybrid plasmonic waveguide (MSHPW) using gain materials as loss compensation is proposed with an extremely simple fabrication procedure. Gain materials are introduced either in the low-index layer or in the high-index layer of MSHPW. The effects of waveguide dimensions and material gain coefficients on loss compensation are analyzed at the communication wavelength. For one configuration presented here, a critical material gain as low as 3.8cm−1 is sufficient for fully compensation of the loss when using a high-index gain material. The active MSHPW with low critical material gain opens up opportunities for practical plasmonic devices in active applications such as amplifiers, sources, and modulators.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Mansuripur, A. R. Zakharian, A. Lesuffleur, S.-H. Oh, R. J. Jones, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, A. Kobyakov, and J. V. Moloney, “Plasmonic nano-structures for optical data storage,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14001–14014 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Q. Min, C. Chen, P. Berini, and R. Gordon, “Long range surface plasmons on asymmetric suspended thin film structures for biosensing applications,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19009–19019 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 13(3), 977–984 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Dai and S. He, “A silicon-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a metal cap for a nano-scale light confinement,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16646–16653 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. D. Flammer, J. M. Banks, T. E. Furtak, C. G. Durfee, R. E. Hollingsworth, and R. T. Collins, “Hybrid plasmon/dielectric waveguide for integrated silicon-on-insulator optical elements,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21013–21023 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Avrutsky, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Sub-wavelength plasmonic modes in a conductor-gap-dielectric system with a nanoscale gap,” Opt. Express 18(1), 348–363 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Wu, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Conductor-gap-silicon plasmonic waveguides and passive components at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11728–11736 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Wang, X. Guan, Y. He, Y. Shi, Z. Wang, S. He, P. Holmström, L. Wosinski, L. Thylen, and D. Dai, “Sub-μm2 power splitters by using silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(2), 838–847 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23671–23682 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Gain enhancement in a hybrid plasmonic nano-waveguide with a low-index or high-index gain medium,” Opt. Express 19(14), 12925–12936 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Zhang, L. Cai, W. Bai, Y. Xu, and G. Song, “Hybrid plasmonic waveguide with gain medium for lossless propagation with nanoscale confinement,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2312–2314 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071903 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4072–4079 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, “First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16659–16669 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. Muellner, M. Wellenzohn, and R. Hainberger, “Nonlinearity of optimized silicon photonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9282–9287 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. P. Berini, “Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13030–13042 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. Buckley and P. Berini, “Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12174–12182 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25298–25311 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (6)

2010 (10)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Flammer, J. M. Banks, T. E. Furtak, C. G. Durfee, R. E. Hollingsworth, and R. T. Collins, “Hybrid plasmon/dielectric waveguide for integrated silicon-on-insulator optical elements,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21013–21023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Avrutsky, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Sub-wavelength plasmonic modes in a conductor-gap-dielectric system with a nanoscale gap,” Opt. Express 18(1), 348–363 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wu, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Conductor-gap-silicon plasmonic waveguides and passive components at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11728–11736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Min, C. Chen, P. Berini, and R. Gordon, “Long range surface plasmons on asymmetric suspended thin film structures for biosensing applications,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19009–19019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

2008 (6)

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, “First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16659–16669 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Buckley and P. Berini, “Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12174–12182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

P. Berini, “Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13030–13042 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Avrutsky, I.

Bai, W.

Banks, J. M.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brunets, I.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchwald, W.

Buckley, R.

Cai, L.

Charbonneau, R.

Chen, C.

Chen, L. J.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, U. S.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colas des Francs, G.

Collins, R. T.

Dai, D.

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

des Francs, G.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

des Francs, G. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desiatov, B.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, S. H.

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finot, C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flammer, P. D.

Furtak, T. E.

García-Blanco, S. M.

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godefroo, S.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González, M.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

Goykhman, I.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guan, X.

Guo, R. M.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hainberger, R.

Han, Z.

Hayne, M.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

He, Y.

Hollingsworth, R. E.

Holmström, P.

Hsin, C. L.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. T.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. W.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Im, H.

Isshiki, H.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jivanescu, M.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

Kimura, T.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kobyakov, A.

Lahoud, N.

Lebedev, O. I.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. Y.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lesuffleur, A.

Levy, U.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, N. C.

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mansuripur, M.

Markey, L.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mattiussi, G.

Min, Q.

Moloney, J. V.

Moshchalkov, V. V.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muellner, P.

Nezhad, M.

Oh, S.-H.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

Polman, A.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Quidant, R.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Renger, J.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Schmitz, J.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheldon, M. T.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Song, G.

Soref, R.

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stesmans, A.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tetz, K.

Thylen, L.

Van, V.

van Loon, R. V. A.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Tendeloo, G.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veronis, G.

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Weeber, J. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wellenzohn, M.

Wosinski, L.

Wu, M.

Xu, Y.

Yeh, P. H.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, M.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakharian, A. R.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys. 10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (18)

S. M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25298–25311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, “First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16659–16669 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Muellner, M. Wellenzohn, and R. Hainberger, “Nonlinearity of optimized silicon photonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9282–9287 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, “Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13030–13042 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Buckley and P. Berini, “Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12174–12182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4072–4079 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Gain enhancement in a hybrid plasmonic nano-waveguide with a low-index or high-index gain medium,” Opt. Express 19(14), 12925–12936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 13(3), 977–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Guan, Y. He, Y. Shi, Z. Wang, S. He, P. Holmström, L. Wosinski, L. Thylen, and D. Dai, “Sub-μm2 power splitters by using silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(2), 838–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23671–23682 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mansuripur, A. R. Zakharian, A. Lesuffleur, S.-H. Oh, R. J. Jones, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, A. Kobyakov, and J. V. Moloney, “Plasmonic nano-structures for optical data storage,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14001–14014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Min, C. Chen, P. Berini, and R. Gordon, “Long range surface plasmons on asymmetric suspended thin film structures for biosensing applications,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19009–19019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai and S. He, “A silicon-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a metal cap for a nano-scale light confinement,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16646–16653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Flammer, J. M. Banks, T. E. Furtak, C. G. Durfee, R. E. Hollingsworth, and R. T. Collins, “Hybrid plasmon/dielectric waveguide for integrated silicon-on-insulator optical elements,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21013–21023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Avrutsky, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Sub-wavelength plasmonic modes in a conductor-gap-dielectric system with a nanoscale gap,” Opt. Express 18(1), 348–363 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wu, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Conductor-gap-silicon plasmonic waveguides and passive components at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11728–11736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the active metal strip hybrid plasmonic waveguide. Either the low-index dielectric gap or the high-index dielectric layer can be active region by introducing a gain material with proper refractive index.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vertical line scan of the Ey field profile across the center of the metal strip as the dashed line in the inset shows. The inset shows the Ey field profile of the cross section with w = 300nm, h = 30 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The real part of effective index n eff ' and (b) the propagation loss l m (dB/μm) for varying waveguide widths w and gap heights h .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The propagation loss l m and the effective mode area A m versus the waveguide width w at a fixed h of 70nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The power confinement factor Г in different regions as the waveguide width w varies when h = 70nm. The inset shows schematic of different regions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The modal gain or loss for varying widths when gain materials are introduced in (a) low-index gap and (b) high-index layer, respectively. (c) Critical material gain g c required for lossless propagation verses waveguide width w . The gap height h is fixed to 70nm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

l m [dB/μm]=2× k 0 × n eff "×4.34.
A m = P(x,y)dxdy max[P(x,y)] ,
P(x,y)=E(x,y)×H(x,y),

Metrics