Abstract

An active metal strip hybrid plasmonic waveguide (MSHPW) using gain materials as loss compensation is proposed with an extremely simple fabrication procedure. Gain materials are introduced either in the low-index layer or in the high-index layer of MSHPW. The effects of waveguide dimensions and material gain coefficients on loss compensation are analyzed at the communication wavelength. For one configuration presented here, a critical material gain as low as 3.8cm−1 is sufficient for fully compensation of the loss when using a high-index gain material. The active MSHPW with low critical material gain opens up opportunities for practical plasmonic devices in active applications such as amplifiers, sources, and modulators.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

2010

I. Avrutsky, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Sub-wavelength plasmonic modes in a conductor-gap-dielectric system with a nanoscale gap,” Opt. Express18(1), 348–363 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wu, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Conductor-gap-silicon plasmonic waveguides and passive components at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express18(11), 11728–11736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Min, C. Chen, P. Berini, and R. Gordon, “Long range surface plasmons on asymmetric suspended thin film structures for biosensing applications,” Opt. Express18(18), 19009–19019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Flammer, J. M. Banks, T. E. Furtak, C. G. Durfee, R. E. Hollingsworth, and R. T. Collins, “Hybrid plasmon/dielectric waveguide for integrated silicon-on-insulator optical elements,” Opt. Express18(20), 21013–21023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater.9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, “First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express16(21), 16659–16669 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Buckley and P. Berini, “Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes,” Opt. Express15(19), 12174–12182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

P. Berini, “Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express14(26), 13030–13042 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Avrutsky, I.

Bai, W.

Banks, J. M.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brunets, I.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater.9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchwald, W.

Buckley, R.

Cai, L.

Charbonneau, R.

Chen, C.

Chen, L. J.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, U. S.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colas des Francs, G.

Collins, R. T.

Dai, D.

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

des Francs, G.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

des Francs, G. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desiatov, B.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, S. H.

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finot, C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flammer, P. D.

Furtak, T. E.

García-Blanco, S. M.

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godefroo, S.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González, M.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

Goykhman, I.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guan, X.

Guo, R. M.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hainberger, R.

Han, Z.

Hayne, M.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

He, Y.

Hollingsworth, R. E.

Holmström, P.

Hsin, C. L.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. T.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. W.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Im, H.

Isshiki, H.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jivanescu, M.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

Kimura, T.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kobyakov, A.

Lahoud, N.

Lebedev, O. I.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. Y.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lesuffleur, A.

Levy, U.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, N. C.

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mansuripur, M.

Markey, L.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattiussi, G.

Min, Q.

Moloney, J. V.

Moshchalkov, V. V.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muellner, P.

Nezhad, M.

Oh, S.-H.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

Polman, A.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater.9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Quidant, R.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Renger, J.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Schmitz, J.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater.9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheldon, M. T.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Song, G.

Soref, R.

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stesmans, A.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tetz, K.

Thylen, L.

Van, V.

van Loon, R. V. A.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater.9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Tendeloo, G.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veronis, G.

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater.9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Weeber, J. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wellenzohn, M.

Wosinski, L.

Wu, M.

Xu, Y.

Yeh, P. H.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, M.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakharian, A. R.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Veronis and S. H. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon- plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, B. Wang, L. Wang, R. M. Guo, H. Isshiki, T. Kimura, and Z. Zhou, “Extraordinary infrared photoluminescence efficiency of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 films on SiO2 /Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, M. T. Sheldon, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Atwater, “Silicon-based plasmonic for on-chip photonics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16(1), 295–306 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett.9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater.9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

R. F. Oulton, G. Bartal, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes,” New J. Phys.10(10), 105018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Gain enhancement in a hybrid plasmonic nano-waveguide with a low-index or high-index gain medium,” Opt. Express19(14), 12925–12936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express19(24), 23671–23682 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express19(25), 25298–25311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express12(17), 4072–4079 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express13(3), 977–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, “Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express14(26), 13030–13042 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Buckley and P. Berini, “Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes,” Opt. Express15(19), 12174–12182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, “First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express16(21), 16659–16669 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, J. Grandidier, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Differential method for modeling dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express16(22), 17599–17608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Muellner, M. Wellenzohn, and R. Hainberger, “Nonlinearity of optimized silicon photonic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express17(11), 9282–9287 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mansuripur, A. R. Zakharian, A. Lesuffleur, S.-H. Oh, R. J. Jones, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, A. Kobyakov, and J. V. Moloney, “Plasmonic nano-structures for optical data storage,” Opt. Express17(16), 14001–14014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai and S. He, “A silicon-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a metal cap for a nano-scale light confinement,” Opt. Express17(19), 16646–16653 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Avrutsky, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Sub-wavelength plasmonic modes in a conductor-gap-dielectric system with a nanoscale gap,” Opt. Express18(1), 348–363 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wu, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Conductor-gap-silicon plasmonic waveguides and passive components at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express18(11), 11728–11736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Min, C. Chen, P. Berini, and R. Gordon, “Long range surface plasmons on asymmetric suspended thin film structures for biosensing applications,” Opt. Express18(18), 19009–19019 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Flammer, J. M. Banks, T. E. Furtak, C. G. Durfee, R. E. Hollingsworth, and R. T. Collins, “Hybrid plasmon/dielectric waveguide for integrated silicon-on-insulator optical elements,” Opt. Express18(20), 21013–21023 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Guan, Y. He, Y. Shi, Z. Wang, S. He, P. Holmström, L. Wosinski, L. Thylen, and D. Dai, “Sub-μm2 power splitters by using silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express19(2), 838–847 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. González, and R. Quidant, “Dielectric- loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: Figures of merit and mode characterization by image and fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the active metal strip hybrid plasmonic waveguide. Either the low-index dielectric gap or the high-index dielectric layer can be active region by introducing a gain material with proper refractive index.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vertical line scan of the Ey field profile across the center of the metal strip as the dashed line in the inset shows. The inset shows the Ey field profile of the cross section with w = 300nm, h = 30 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The real part of effective index n eff ' and (b) the propagation loss l m (dB/μm) for varying waveguide widths w and gap heights h .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The propagation loss l m and the effective mode area A m versus the waveguide width w at a fixed h of 70nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The power confinement factor Г in different regions as the waveguide width w varies when h = 70nm. The inset shows schematic of different regions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The modal gain or loss for varying widths when gain materials are introduced in (a) low-index gap and (b) high-index layer, respectively. (c) Critical material gain g c required for lossless propagation verses waveguide width w . The gap height h is fixed to 70nm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

l m [dB/μm]=2× k 0 × n eff "×4.34.
A m = P(x,y)dxdy max[P(x,y)] ,
P(x,y)=E(x,y)×H(x,y),

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