Abstract

SiNx-based photonic crystal (PhC) patterns were fabricated on the ITO electrode layer of a GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) device on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) by a UV nanoimprint lithography process in order to improve the light extraction of the device. A three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation confirmed that the light extraction of a GaN LED structure on a PSS is enhanced when SiNx PhC patterns are formed on the ITO top layer. From the I-V characteristics, the electrical properties of patterned LED devices with SiNx-based PhC were not degraded compared to the unpatterned LED device, since plasma etching of the p-GaN or the ITO layers was not involved in the patterning process. Additionally, the patterned LED devices with SiNx-based PhCs showed 19%-increased electroluminescence intensity compared with the unpatterned LED device at 445 nm wavelength when a 20 mA current is driven.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (3)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, H. Liang, R. Lieten, M. Leys, and G. Borghs, “Photoluminescence studies of polarization effects in InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 030207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (14)

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, J. M. Biser, Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, H. M. Chan, and R. P. Vinci, “Dislocation structure of GaN films grown on planar and nanopatterned sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, G. Y. Jung, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structure on indium tin oxide electrode of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(2), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Huang, J.-P. Liu, J.-J. Kong, H. Yang, and H.-B. Wang, “High-efficiency InGaN-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A949–A955 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Hwang, H. Y. Jung, J.-H. Jeong, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4104–4107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Z. Chiou, “Leakage current analysis of nitride-based photodetectors by emission microscopy inspection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(9), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

C.-C. Wang, H. Ku, C.-C. Liu, K.-K. Chong, C.-I. Hung, Y.-H. Wang, and M.-P. Houng, “Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J.-H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K.-D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S.-K. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. Kim, H. Lee, N. Cho, Y. Sung, and G. Yeom, “Effect of GaN microlens array on efficiency of GaN-based blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L18–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Guo, “Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(11), R123–R141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. De Vittorio, M. T. Todaro, T. Stomeo, R. Cingolani, D. Cojoc, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide obtained by e-beam direct writing of SU8-2000 photoresist,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 388–391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M.-H. Wu and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2273–2275 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, G. Y. Jung, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structure on indium tin oxide electrode of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(2), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

W. Cao, J. M. Biser, Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, H. M. Chan, and R. P. Vinci, “Dislocation structure of GaN films grown on planar and nanopatterned sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Borghs, G.

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, H. Liang, R. Lieten, M. Leys, and G. Borghs, “Photoluminescence studies of polarization effects in InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 030207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, K.-J.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, G. Y. Jung, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structure on indium tin oxide electrode of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(2), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campos, L. M.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, J. M. Biser, Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, H. M. Chan, and R. P. Vinci, “Dislocation structure of GaN films grown on planar and nanopatterned sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. M.

W. Cao, J. M. Biser, Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, H. M. Chan, and R. P. Vinci, “Dislocation structure of GaN films grown on planar and nanopatterned sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-J.

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, H. Liang, R. Lieten, M. Leys, and G. Borghs, “Photoluminescence studies of polarization effects in InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 030207 (2012).
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Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
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Y. Z. Chiou, “Leakage current analysis of nitride-based photodetectors by emission microscopy inspection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(9), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Cho, J.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.-Y.

K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, G. Y. Jung, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structure on indium tin oxide electrode of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(2), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, N.

D. Kim, H. Lee, N. Cho, Y. Sung, and G. Yeom, “Effect of GaN microlens array on efficiency of GaN-based blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L18–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, J.

Choi, J.-H.

Choi, Y.-S.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chong, K.-K.

C.-C. Wang, H. Ku, C.-C. Liu, K.-K. Chong, C.-I. Hung, Y.-H. Wang, and M.-P. Houng, “Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, R. W.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

M. De Vittorio, M. T. Todaro, T. Stomeo, R. Cingolani, D. Cojoc, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide obtained by e-beam direct writing of SU8-2000 photoresist,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 388–391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cojoc, D.

M. De Vittorio, M. T. Todaro, T. Stomeo, R. Cingolani, D. Cojoc, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide obtained by e-beam direct writing of SU8-2000 photoresist,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 388–391 (2004).
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David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
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De Vittorio, M.

M. De Vittorio, M. T. Todaro, T. Stomeo, R. Cingolani, D. Cojoc, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide obtained by e-beam direct writing of SU8-2000 photoresist,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 388–391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diana, F. S.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dierolf, V.

Ee, Y.-K.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, J. M. Biser, Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, H. M. Chan, and R. P. Vinci, “Dislocation structure of GaN films grown on planar and nanopatterned sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fabrizio, E. D.

M. De Vittorio, M. T. Todaro, T. Stomeo, R. Cingolani, D. Cojoc, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide obtained by e-beam direct writing of SU8-2000 photoresist,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 388–391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. Y.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D. F.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. H.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

L. J. Guo, “Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(11), R123–R141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haeger, D. A.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hawker, C. J.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, E.-J.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Houng, M.-P.

C.-C. Wang, H. Ku, C.-C. Liu, K.-K. Chong, C.-I. Hung, Y.-H. Wang, and M.-P. Houng, “Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. H.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, P. S.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.-H.

Hung, C.-I.

C.-C. Wang, H. Ku, C.-C. Liu, K.-K. Chong, C.-I. Hung, Y.-H. Wang, and M.-P. Houng, “Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. M.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. Y.

S. Y. Hwang, H. Y. Jung, J.-H. Jeong, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4104–4107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-Y.

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Imada, Y.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

Jeong, J.-H.

S. Y. Hwang, H. Y. Jung, J.-H. Jeong, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4104–4107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jhin, J.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jou, M. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. Y.

K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, G. Y. Jung, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structure on indium tin oxide electrode of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(2), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H. Y.

S. Y. Hwang, H. Y. Jung, J.-H. Jeong, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4104–4107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jyouichi, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kannaka, M.

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C.-C.

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ke, J. C.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kelchner, K. M.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khizar, M.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

D. Kim, H. Lee, N. Cho, Y. Sung, and G. Yeom, “Effect of GaN microlens array on efficiency of GaN-based blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L18–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S.-K.

Kong, J.-J.

Ku, H.

C.-C. Wang, H. Ku, C.-C. Liu, K.-K. Chong, C.-I. Hung, Y.-H. Wang, and M.-P. Houng, “Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, H.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.-L.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lan, C.-C.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. M.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, B. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, G. Y. Jung, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structure on indium tin oxide electrode of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(2), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Hwang, H. Y. Jung, J.-H. Jeong, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4104–4107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Kim, H. Lee, N. Cho, Y. Sung, and G. Yeom, “Effect of GaN microlens array on efficiency of GaN-based blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L18–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, K.-D.

Lee, S.-H.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

Leys, M.

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, H. Liang, R. Lieten, M. Leys, and G. Borghs, “Photoluminescence studies of polarization effects in InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 030207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. F.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.-H.

W. Cao, J. M. Biser, Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, H. M. Chan, and R. P. Vinci, “Dislocation structure of GaN films grown on planar and nanopatterned sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-L.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, H. Liang, R. Lieten, M. Leys, and G. Borghs, “Photoluminescence studies of polarization effects in InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 030207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lieten, R.

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, H. Liang, R. Lieten, M. Leys, and G. Borghs, “Photoluminescence studies of polarization effects in InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 030207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. Y.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-C.

C.-C. Wang, H. Ku, C.-C. Liu, K.-K. Chong, C.-I. Hung, Y.-H. Wang, and M.-P. Houng, “Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-P.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.-P.

Lo, H. M.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-H.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. D.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meinel, I.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakami, K.

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohuchi, Y.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okada, N.

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okagawa, H.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, G. Y. Jung, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structure on indium tin oxide electrode of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(2), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Qi, Y. D.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rangel, E.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shei, S. C.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shinagawa, T.

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stomeo, T.

M. De Vittorio, M. T. Todaro, T. Stomeo, R. Cingolani, D. Cojoc, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide obtained by e-beam direct writing of SU8-2000 photoresist,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 388–391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.-K.

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sung, Y.

D. Kim, H. Lee, N. Cho, Y. Sung, and G. Yeom, “Effect of GaN microlens array on efficiency of GaN-based blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L18–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tadatomo, K.

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, N.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, J. M. Biser, Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, H. M. Chan, and R. P. Vinci, “Dislocation structure of GaN films grown on planar and nanopatterned sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Todaro, M. T.

M. De Vittorio, M. T. Todaro, T. Stomeo, R. Cingolani, D. Cojoc, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide obtained by e-beam direct writing of SU8-2000 photoresist,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 388–391 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Truong, T. A.

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekawa, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vinci, R. P.

W. Cao, J. M. Biser, Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, H. M. Chan, and R. P. Vinci, “Dislocation structure of GaN films grown on planar and nanopatterned sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-C.

C.-C. Wang, H. Ku, C.-C. Liu, K.-K. Chong, C.-I. Hung, Y.-H. Wang, and M.-P. Houng, “Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-B.

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-H.

C.-C. Wang, H. Ku, C.-C. Liu, K.-K. Chong, C.-I. Hung, Y.-H. Wang, and M.-P. Houng, “Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, K. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

M.-H. Wu and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2273–2275 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-H.

M.-H. Wu and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2273–2275 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Yang, K.-Y.

K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, G. Y. Jung, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structure on indium tin oxide electrode of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(2), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, G.

D. Kim, H. Lee, N. Cho, Y. Sung, and G. Yeom, “Effect of GaN microlens array on efficiency of GaN-based blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L18–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. C.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, H. Liang, R. Lieten, M. Leys, and G. Borghs, “Photoluminescence studies of polarization effects in InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 030207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, K. S. Wen, S. C. Huang, S. H. Lin, S. Y. Huang, C. F. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Defect reduction and efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet emitters via laterally overgrown GaN on a GaN/patterned sapphire template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y.-S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Kao, Y.-K. Su, C.-L. Lin, and J.-J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Byeon, S.-Y. Hwang, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using thermally curable monomer-based nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, and P. M. Petroff, “Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Wu and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of arrays of two-dimensional micropatterns using microspheres as lenses for projection photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(16), 2273–2275 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Wang, H. Ku, C.-C. Liu, K.-K. Chong, C.-I. Hung, Y.-H. Wang, and M.-P. Houng, “Enhancement of the light output performance for GaN-based light-emitting diodes by bottom pillar structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-coverage effect on light extraction efficiency of GaN LED on patterned-sapphire substrate,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, and J. C. Ke, “Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1439–1443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. J. Lee, J. M. Hwang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, B. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

Y. Z. Chiou, “Leakage current analysis of nitride-based photodetectors by emission microscopy inspection,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(9), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, J. M. Biser, Y.-K. Ee, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, H. M. Chan, and R. P. Vinci, “Dislocation structure of GaN films grown on planar and nanopatterned sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(5), 053505 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, “GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 327–332 (2004).
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L. J. Guo, “Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(11), R123–R141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. Zhang, K. Cheng, H. Liang, R. Lieten, M. Leys, and G. Borghs, “Photoluminescence studies of polarization effects in InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 030207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Kim, H. Lee, N. Cho, Y. Sung, and G. Yeom, “Effect of GaN microlens array on efficiency of GaN-based blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L18–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. De Vittorio, M. T. Todaro, T. Stomeo, R. Cingolani, D. Cojoc, and E. D. Fabrizio, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide obtained by e-beam direct writing of SU8-2000 photoresist,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 388–391 (2004).
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Nano Lett. (1)

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

K.-J. Byeon, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, K.-Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, G. Y. Jung, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of photonic crystal structure on indium tin oxide electrode of GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(2), 480–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, T. Jyouichi, Y. Imada, M. Kato, H. Kudo, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 188(1), 121–125 (2001).
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Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

T. Shinagawa, Y. Abe, H. Matsumoto, B. Li, K. Murakami, N. Okada, K. Tadatomo, M. Kannaka, and H. Fujii, “Light-emitting diodes fabricated on nanopatterned sapphire substrates by thermal lithography,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2165–2167 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, and H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Hwang, H. Y. Jung, J.-H. Jeong, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 4104–4107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

FullWAVE 6.1, Rsoft Design Group, Inc., http://www.rsoftdesign.com

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The fabrication process of the patterned LED device with SiNx-based PhCs on the ITO electrode of the GaN-based LED by using NIL and reactive ion etching processes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(c) are cross sectional, tilted and top views of SEM micrographs of 300 nm-high SiNx PhC patterns on the ITO electrode, respectively. (d)–(f) are also cross sectional, tilted and top views of SEM micrographs of 500 nm-high SiNx PhC patterns on the ITO electrode, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Top and (b) cross sectional SEM images of the LED device with the SiNx PhC pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified FDTD simulation designs of (a) the conventional LED, (b) the LED with the PSS and (c) the LED with SiNx-PhC patterns and the PSS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FDTD simulation results on light extraction of the conventional LED, the LED on the PSS and the SiNx-PhC patterned LED.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The I-V characteristics of the un-patterned LED device and LED devices with SiNx-PhC patterns of 300 nm and 500 nm in height. All LED devices were fabricated on the PSS. The inset shows the I-V characteristics on a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) EL intensity at 20 mA current and (b) EL intensity versus injection current at a wavelength of 445 nm for the un-patterned LED device and the patterned LED devices with SiNx-based PhCs.

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