Abstract

We report on direct measurements of the magnetic near-field of metamaterial split ring resonators at terahertz frequencies using a magnetic field sensitive material. Specifically, planar split ring resonators are fabricated on a single magneto-optically active terbium gallium garnet crystal. Normally incident terahertz radiation couples to the resonator inducing a magnetic dipole oscillating perpendicular to the crystal surface. Faraday rotation of the polarisation of a near-infrared probe beam directly measures the magnetic near-field with 100 femtosecond temporal resolution and (λ/200) spatial resolution. Numerical simulations suggest that the magnetic field can be enhanced in the plane of the resonator by as much as a factor of 200 compared to the incident field strength. Our results provide a route towards hybrid devices for dynamic magneto-active control of light such as isolators, and highlight the utility of split ring resonators as compact probes of magnetic phenomena in condensed matter.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bitzer, A. Ortner, H. Merbold, T. Feurer, and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field microscopy of complementary planar metamaterials: Babinet’s principle,” Opt. Express 19, 2537–2545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

A. Bitzer, H. Merbold, A. Thoman, T. Feurer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of electric and magnetic resonances of a planar metamaterial,” Opt. Express 17, 3826–3834 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Electromagnetic resonances in single and double split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared spectral region,” Phys. Status Solidi B,  244, 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. -T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and poynting vectors,” Opt. Express 15, 11781–11789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials:theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamate-rial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. Riordan and X. -C. Zhang, “Sampling of free-space magnetic pulses,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 32, 489–502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. -C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and J. -P. Goudonnet, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. A. Riordan, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space transient magneto-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1452–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

Ahn, K. J.

Aronsson, M. T.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials:theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials:theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. -T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamate-rial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bak, W. S.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitzer, A.

Bourillot, E.

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. -C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and J. -P. Goudonnet, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brok, J. M.

Burresi, M.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. -C.

Chen, H. -T.

Dereux, A.

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. -C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and J. -P. Goudonnet, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. -C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and J. -P. Goudonnet, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dorfmuller, J.

Eah, S. H.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etrich, C.

Feurer, T.

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Electromagnetic resonances in single and double split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared spectral region,” Phys. Status Solidi B,  244, 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmuller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33, 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Electromagnetic resonances in single and double split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared spectral region,” Phys. Status Solidi B,  244, 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. -P.

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. -C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and J. -P. Goudonnet, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Electromagnetic resonances in single and double split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared spectral region,” Phys. Status Solidi B,  244, 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heideman, R.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials:theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamate-rial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Ishibashi, K.

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 618–621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeoung, S. C.

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Electromagnetic resonances in single and double split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared spectral region,” Phys. Status Solidi B,  244, 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kampfrath, T.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

Kawano, Y.

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 618–621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kern, K.

Kihm, H. W.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kihm, J. E.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

Kim, D. -S.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Q. H.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, S. M.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacroute, Y.

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. -C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and J. -P. Goudonnet, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Lee, J. W.

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials:theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamate-rial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leinse, A.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Lienau, C.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Electromagnetic resonances in single and double split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared spectral region,” Phys. Status Solidi B,  244, 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. G.

J. A. Riordan, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space transient magneto-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1452–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merbold, H.

Nagel, M.

Nordlander, P.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

Ortner, A.

Padilla, W. J.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials:theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamate-rial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, N. K.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Q. H.

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

Planken, P. C. M.

Riordan, J.

J. Riordan and X. -C. Zhang, “Sampling of free-space magnetic pulses,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 32, 489–502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riordan, J. A.

J. A. Riordan, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space transient magneto-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1452–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Schoenmaker, H.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schouten, R. N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Electromagnetic resonances in single and double split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared spectral region,” Phys. Status Solidi B,  244, 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sell, A.

Seo, M. A.

Sun, F. G.

J. A. Riordan, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space transient magneto-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1452–1454 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. -T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 1084–1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials:theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamate-rial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoman, A.

van der Valk, N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Oosten, D.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
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G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002).
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J. Riordan and X. -C. Zhang, “Sampling of free-space magnetic pulses,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 32, 489–502 (2000).
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G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Riordan, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space transient magneto-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1452–1454 (1997).
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H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. -S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
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Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2, 618–621 (2008).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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J. Riordan and X. -C. Zhang, “Sampling of free-space magnetic pulses,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 32, 489–502 (2000).
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E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. -C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and J. -P. Goudonnet, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10504–10514 (2000).
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W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamate-rial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326, 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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