Abstract

We report on terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (THz QCLs) based on first-order lateral distributed-feedback (lDFB) gratings, which exhibit continuous-wave operation, high output powers (>8 mW), and single-mode emission at 3.3–3.4 THz. A general method is presented to determine the coupling coefficients of lateral gratings in terms of the coupled-mode theory, which demonstrates that large coupling strengths are obtained in the presence of corrugated metal layers. The experimental spectra are in agreement with simulations of the lDFB cavities, which take into account the reflective end facets.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13, 5890–5896 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Phase locking of a 1.5 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver,” Opt. Express 17, 1159–1168 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express 18, 10177–10187 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3, 586–590 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 30–32 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2909–2911 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18, 6390–6395 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 517–525 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327–2335 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. L. Chuang, Physics of Photonic Devices (Wiley, New York, 2009), 2nd ed.
  22. A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 907–920 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 575–577 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18, 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express 18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2909–2911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

Allen, D. G.

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18, 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3, 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anders, W.

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barkan, A.

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18, 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3, 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Castellano, F.

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Photonic Devices (Wiley, New York, 2009), 2nd ed.

Davies, A. G.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davies, G.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dengler, R.

Dumitrescu, M.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18, 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3, 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Phase locking of a 1.5 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver,” Opt. Express 17, 1159–1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fenner, D. B.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

Gao, J. R.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giehler, M.

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express 18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golka, S.

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Graf, U. U.

Grahn, H. T.

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express 18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. P.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greiner-Bär, M.

Hargett, T.

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hensley, J. M.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R.

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express 18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, R.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. N.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2909–2911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H.-W.

Hwang, W.-Y.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Il’in, K. S.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishaug, B.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T.-Y.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Karinen, J.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khosropanah, P.

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klein, B.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kohen, S.

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Laakso, A.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lassaad, A.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Le, H. Q.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G. P.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, L.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

Pavlov, S. G.

Pei, S. S.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pessa, M.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Philipp, M.

Rabanus, D.

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2909–2911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, H.

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express 18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, O.

Ritchie, D.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochat, M.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18, 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3, 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrenk, W.

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schrottke, L.

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express 18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A. D.

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S. C.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, M.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stutzki, J.

Suominen, M.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Tredicucci, A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express 13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Um, J.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Viheriälä, J.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vowinkel, B.

Walther, C.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Phase locking of a 1.5 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver,” Opt. Express 17, 1159–1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wanke, M. C.

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wiedner, M. C.

Wienold, M.

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express 18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Willenberg, H.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2909–2911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zinn, A. A.

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3, 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London) 417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quant. Electron. (1)

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Photonic Devices (Wiley, New York, 2009), 2nd ed.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of a THz QCL with a lDFB grating. L denotes the length of the laser, Λ the grating period, and ϕF (0) and ϕF (L) the facet phases with respect to the grating comb. (b) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of an lDFB mesa after dry etching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Geometry and initial finite-element grid of the unit cell (periodic in the z-direction) used in the simulation of the uniform lDFB grating. Top and bottom metallizations are yellow colored, the active region red, the highly doped bottom contact layer blue, and the substrate gray. Perfectly matched layers are applied at x = 100 μm (transparent boundary conditions). (b) Projections of the intensity distribution of the ω and ω+ TM00 modes to the xz and xy plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Continuous-wave L-I-V characteristics of three lDFB QCLs (ridge length 1.454 mm) with grating periods of 12.4, 12.5, and 12.6 μm at different temperatures. The nominal temperature of 10 K is maintained only up to current values of 0.46 A. (b) Typical emission spectra of the three lasers in their single-mode regime (linear intensity scale). Insets: Corresponding power spectra on a logarithmic scale for a wide frequency range.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Continuous-wave L-I-V characteristics for the lDFB QCL with Λ = 12.5 μm including the multi-mode emission regime (disabled temperature control loop). (b) Corresponding emission spectra at four different driving currents.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated threshold gain gth vs. frequency of the eigenmodes of the lDFB lasers (Λ = 12.4, 12.5, and 12.6 μm) in units of gth of the reference Fabry-Pérot cavity. The vertical dashed lines indicate the Bragg frequency using n = 3.58. The facet phases ϕF as defined in Fig. 1(a) have been determined by SEM imaging and are given in radians. Circles refer to a complex coupling coefficient [K + iKg = (3.0 + 0.8i) cm−1] and squares to a real coupling coefficient (K = 3.0 cm−1). Triangles indicate the experimentally observed frequencies.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Real and imaginary part of the eigenfrequencies ω and ω+ and corresponding coupling coefficient K + iKg (ng = 3.8) for the TM00, TM01, and TM02 modes for the grating geometry shown in Fig. 2(a).

Equations (8)

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ω ± = c n + i k [ π Λ ± ( K + i K g ) ] c n [ π Λ ± ( K + i K g ) + i g n 2 ] ,
K + i K g = n g 2 c ( ω + ω )
K = Δ ε 2 Λ n 2 = 2 Δ n λ B ,
d d z ( A ( z ) B ( z ) ) = i ( Δ β K a b K b a Δ β ) ( A ( z ) B ( z ) ) .
( A ( z ) B ( z ) ) = ( A ± B ± ) e ± i q z
q = Δ β 2 K a b K b a .
K a b K b a = K 2 K g 2 + 2 i K K g cos ( ϕ g ) .
ω ± ( q ) = c n + i k ( π Λ ± q 2 + K a b K b a ) .

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