Abstract

We report on terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (THz QCLs) based on first-order lateral distributed-feedback (lDFB) gratings, which exhibit continuous-wave operation, high output powers (>8 mW), and single-mode emission at 3.3–3.4 THz. A general method is presented to determine the coupling coefficients of lateral gratings in terms of the coupled-mode theory, which demonstrates that large coupling strengths are obtained in the presence of corrugated metal layers. The experimental spectra are in agreement with simulations of the lDFB cavities, which take into account the reflective end facets.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Phase locking of a 1.5 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver,” Opt. Express17, 1159–1168 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express18, 10177–10187 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2670–2672 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 2834–2636 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 181101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3, 586–590 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 191109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 30–32 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 111103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.30, 2909–2911 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express18, 6390–6395 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 1381–1383 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics1, 517–525 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2327–2335 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. L. Chuang, Physics of Photonic Devices (Wiley, New York, 2009), 2nd ed.
  22. A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron.40, 907–920 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 053106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B61, 10484–10503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 071113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.29, 575–577 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express18, 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron.40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics1, 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.30, 2909–2911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2002

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B61, 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1972

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

Allen, D. G.

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express18, 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3, 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anders, W.

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barkan, A.

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express18, 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3, 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B61, 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Castellano, F.

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Photonic Devices (Wiley, New York, 2009), 2nd ed.

Davies, A. G.

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davies, G.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dengler, R.

Dumitrescu, M.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron.40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express18, 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Rabanus, U. U. Graf, M. Philipp, O. Ricken, J. Stutzki, B. Vowinkel, M. C. Wiedner, C. Walther, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Phase locking of a 1.5 Terahertz quantum cascade laser and use as a local oscillator in a heterodyne HEB receiver,” Opt. Express17, 1159–1168 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3, 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fenner, D. B.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

Gao, J. R.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giehler, M.

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golka, S.

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Graf, U. U.

Grahn, H. T.

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, R. P.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greiner-Bär, M.

Hargett, T.

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hensley, J. M.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R.

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, R.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. N.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.30, 2909–2911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H.-W.

Hwang, W.-Y.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Il’in, K. S.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishaug, B.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T.-Y.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Karinen, J.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron.40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khosropanah, P.

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klein, B.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kohen, S.

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Laakso, A.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron.40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lassaad, A.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Le, H. Q.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G. P.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, L.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

Pavlov, S. G.

Pei, S. S.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 2834–2636 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pessa, M.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron.40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Philipp, M.

Rabanus, D.

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 30–32 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Distributed-feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with laterally corrugated metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett.30, 2909–2911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, H.

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, O.

Ritchie, D.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochat, M.

M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 1381–1383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express18, 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics3, 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett.29, 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrenk, W.

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schrottke, L.

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H.-W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express18, 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, W. Anders, and H. T. Grahn, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on GaAs/Al0.25Ga0.75As heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 071113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A. D.

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S. C.

Y. Ren, J. N. Hovenier, R. Higgins, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, S. C. Shi, B. Klein, T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy using a tunable quantum cascade laser around 3.5 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 231109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, M.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

S. Golka, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Quantum cascade lasers with lateral double-sided distributed feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 111103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stutzki, J.

Suominen, M.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron.40, 907–920 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Tredicucci, A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 191109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
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L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 181101 (2005).
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H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
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L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 191109 (2010).
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M. Rochat, A. Lassaad, H. Willenberg, J. Faist, H. Beere, G. Davies, E. Linfield, and D. Ritchie, “Low-threshold terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 1381–1383 (2002).
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B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics1, 517–525 (2007).
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P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
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D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 30–32 (2011).
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J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 121104 (2007).
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L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, R. Köhler, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-performance operation of single-mode terahertz quantum cascade lasers with metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-power surface emission from terahertz distributed feedback lasers with a dual-slit unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 191109 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Hübers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
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D. G. Allen, T. Hargett, J. L. Reno, A. A. Zinn, and M. C. Wanke, “Index tuning for precise frequency selection of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 30–32 (2011).
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J. Appl. Phys.

P. Khosropanah, W. Zhang, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, and J. Faist, “3.4 THz heterodyne receiver using a hot electron bolometer and a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser,” J. Appl. Phys.104, 113106 (2008).
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S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, “Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 053106 (2005).
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Nat. Photonics

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics1, 517–525 (2007).
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Nature (London)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature (London)417, 156–159 (2002).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quant. Electron.

A. Laakso, M. Dumitrescu, J. Viheriälä, J. Karinen, M. Suominen, and M. Pessa, “Optical modeling of laterally-corrugated ridge-waveguide gratings,” Opt. Quant. Electron.40, 907–920 (2008).
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