Abstract

We have measured the longitudinal power distribution inside a random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser. The observed distribution has a sharp maximum whose position depends on pump power. The spatial distribution profiles are different for the first and the second Stokes waves. Both analytic solution and results of direct numerical modeling are in excellent agreement with experimental observations.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. A38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 359–367 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Fallert, R. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. Lopez, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics5(10), 615–617 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. R. Pinto, M. Bravo, M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “Suspended-core fiber Sagnac combined dual-random mirror Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(12), 11906–11915 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. R. Sarmani, M. H. Abu Bakar, A. A. Bakar, F. R. Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Spectral variations of the output spectrum in a random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(15), 14152–14159 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 μm,” Opt. Express19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength fiber laser based on a photonic crystal fiber loop mirror with cooperative Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 391–395 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805(R) (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.226(1-6), 329–335 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Turbulent broadening of optical spectra in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033803 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1135–1137 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. B. Soh, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, K. L. Schroder, and W. L. Hsu, “The effect of dispersion on spectral broadening of incoherent continuous-wave light in optical fibers,” Opt. Express18(21), 22393–22405 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express12(19), 4372–4377 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(6), 762–766 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Lizárraga, N. P. Puente, E. I. Chaikina, T. A. Leskova, and E. R. Méndez, “Single-mode Er-doped fiber random laser with distributed Bragg grating feedback,” Opt. Express17(2), 395–404 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Gagné and R. Kashyap, “Demonstration of a 3 mW threshold Er-doped random fiber laser based on a unique fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express17(21), 19067–19074 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

D. B. Soh, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, K. L. Schroder, and W. L. Hsu, “The effect of dispersion on spectral broadening of incoherent continuous-wave light in optical fibers,” Opt. Express18(21), 22393–22405 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength fiber laser based on a photonic crystal fiber loop mirror with cooperative Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 391–395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Fallert, R. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lizárraga, N. P. Puente, E. I. Chaikina, T. A. Leskova, and E. R. Méndez, “Single-mode Er-doped fiber random laser with distributed Bragg grating feedback,” Opt. Express17(2), 395–404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gagné and R. Kashyap, “Demonstration of a 3 mW threshold Er-doped random fiber laser based on a unique fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express17(21), 19067–19074 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Turbulent broadening of optical spectra in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. A38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(6), 762–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.226(1-6), 329–335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abu Bakar, M. H.

Adikan, F. R.

Ania-Castanon, J. D.

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Turbulent broadening of optical spectra in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1135–1137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express12(19), 4372–4377 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babin, S. A.

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 μm,” Opt. Express19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Turbulent broadening of optical spectra in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1135–1137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.226(1-6), 329–335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bakar, A. A.

Bravo, M.

Cao, H.

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. A38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chaikina, E. I.

Chen, X.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churkin, D.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churkin, D. V.

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 μm,” Opt. Express19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.226(1-6), 329–335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. Lopez, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, R.

J. Fallert, R. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ellingham, T. J.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Taher, A. E.

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Vallejo, M.

Foster, S.

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(6), 762–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength fiber laser based on a photonic crystal fiber loop mirror with cooperative Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 391–395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gagné, M.

Harper, P.

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Turbulent broadening of optical spectra in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1135–1137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, W. L.

Ibbotson, R.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ismagulov, A. E.

Kablukov, S. I.

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karalekas, V.

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Turbulent broadening of optical spectra in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1135–1137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashyap, R.

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kobelke, J.

Koplow, J. P.

Leonetti, M.

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. Lopez, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leskova, T. A.

Lizárraga, N.

Lopez, C.

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. Lopez, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Amo, M.

A. M. R. Pinto, M. Bravo, M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “Suspended-core fiber Sagnac combined dual-random mirror Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(12), 11906–11915 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength fiber laser based on a photonic crystal fiber loop mirror with cooperative Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 391–395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mahdi, M. A.

Méndez, E. R.

Mezentsev, V. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Turbulent broadening of optical spectra in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1135–1137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, S. W.

Pinto, A. M. R.

A. M. R. Pinto, M. Bravo, M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “Suspended-core fiber Sagnac combined dual-random mirror Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(12), 11906–11915 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength fiber laser based on a photonic crystal fiber loop mirror with cooperative Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 391–395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Podivilov, E. V.

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Turbulent broadening of optical spectra in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1135–1137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.226(1-6), 329–335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Puente, N. P.

Santos, J. L.

A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength fiber laser based on a photonic crystal fiber loop mirror with cooperative Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 391–395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sarmani, A. R.

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, K. L.

Schuster, K.

Soh, D. B.

Tikhomirov, A.

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(6), 762–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, J. D. Ania-Castanon, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 130–132 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 μm,” Opt. Express19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Turbulent broadening of optical spectra in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental demonstration of mode structure in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett.32(9), 1135–1137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vatnik, I. D.

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

A. M. R. Pinto, O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, and M. Lopez-Amo, “Multiwavelength fiber laser based on a photonic crystal fiber loop mirror with cooperative Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B99(3), 391–395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Foster and A. Tikhomirov, “Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.41(6), 762–766 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. A

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. A38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

J. Fallert, R. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. Lopez, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun.226(1-6), 329–335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

N. Lizárraga, N. P. Puente, E. I. Chaikina, T. A. Leskova, and E. R. Méndez, “Single-mode Er-doped fiber random laser with distributed Bragg grating feedback,” Opt. Express17(2), 395–404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gagné and R. Kashyap, “Demonstration of a 3 mW threshold Er-doped random fiber laser based on a unique fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express17(21), 19067–19074 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Soh, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, K. L. Schroder, and W. L. Hsu, “The effect of dispersion on spectral broadening of incoherent continuous-wave light in optical fibers,” Opt. Express18(21), 22393–22405 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express12(19), 4372–4377 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. R. Pinto, M. Bravo, M. Fernandez-Vallejo, M. Lopez-Amo, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, “Suspended-core fiber Sagnac combined dual-random mirror Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(12), 11906–11915 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Sarmani, M. H. Abu Bakar, A. A. Bakar, F. R. Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Spectral variations of the output spectrum in a random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express19(15), 14152–14159 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Vatnik, D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Cascaded random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser operating at 1.2 μm,” Opt. Express19(19), 18486–18494 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, E. V. Podivilov, V. K. Mezentsev, P. Harper, J. D. Ania-Castañón, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Turbulent broadening of optical spectra in ultralong Raman fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033803 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castanon, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 021805(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Ultralong Raman fiber lasers as virtually lossless optical media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(2), 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimental setup

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The generated power for the right travelling wave at the different points along the fiber. At the X axis the power of only one pump is indicated. The total pump power coupled to the cavity is 2 times higher.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Longitudinal power distribution for the first Stokes wave in the center-pumped symmetrical configuration at different pump power levels (1, 2 and 2.5 W). (b) The second Stokes wave power distribution compared with the first Stokes wave power distribution at the pump power level of 4 W.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectra of right wave at specific pump power of 2 W at different points of the fiber span. (b) Right and left waves spectra at 22 km point, having the same shape. The normalized spectra in linear scale are shown in insets.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerically calculated power distributions for the first and the second Stokes waves at 2 W pumping in comparison with pump wave distribution with (grey) and without (dashed) Stokes waves generation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental, numerical and analytic results comparison: (a) longitudinal power distribution at 2 W pump power (b) LRS (position of maximum) versus pump power. Analytic solution is calculated from Eqs. (9) and (17).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stokes right wave power at zero point (z = 0) depending on pump power.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Fiber under Study

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ ( α P ±d/dz) P P ± = g S P P ± ( P S + + P S +4h v S Δv) v P v S + ε P P P ( α S ±d/dz) P S ± = g S P P + ( P S ± +2h v S Δv)+ ε S P S g 2S P S ± ( P 2S + + P 2S +4h v 2S Δv) v S v 2S ( α 2S ±d/dz) P 2S ± = g 2S ( P S + + P S )( P 2S ± +2h v 2S Δv)+ ε 2S P 2S
{ P S + (0)= P S (0)(1χ), P 2S + (0)= P 2S (0)(1χ) P S (L)= P 2S (L)= P P (L)=0
P S + (z)= P S (z)
{ d P S + dz =( g S P P + α) P S + d P S dz =( g S P P + α) P S ε P S + d P P + dz =α P P + g P P S + P P +
{ P S + (0)= P S (0) P S (L)=0
d( P S + P S ) dz =ε P S + 2
P S 2 (0) P S + (0) P S (0)=ε 0 L P S + 2 (z)dz
P P + (z)= P P (0) e αz g S P P (0)+ g P P S (0) g P P S (0)exp[ ( g S P P (0)+ g P P S (0)) 1 e αz α ]+ g S P P (0)
P S + (z)= P S (0) e αz g S P P (0)+ g P P S (0) g S P P (0)exp[ ( g S P P (0)+ g P P S (0)) 1 e αz α ]+ g p P S (0)
1=ε 0 L dz e 2αz ( 1+ g P P S (0)/ g S P P (0) e g S P P (0) 1 e αz α ( 1+ g P P S (0)/ g S P P (0) ) + g P P S (0)/ g S P P (0) ) 2
1 ε = 0 L eff dξ 1αξ ( e g S P P (0)ξ + g P P S (0)/ g S P P (0)) 2
g P th exp(g P th /α) εα/4
g P P S (0) αε 2 [ ( g S P P (0) α ln( g S P P (0) g P P S (0) ) )( 1+ g S P P (0) α ln( g S P P (0) g P P S (0) ) )+ 1 2 ]
g P P S * (0)= αε /4 g S P P * (0)/α=ln( g S P P * (0) αε/4 )
P S (0)= ε 2α g S g P ( 1 P th P P (0) ) P P (0)
g S P P (0) α e α L RS =1+ g P P S (0) g S P P (0) e g S P P (0)( 1 e α L RS ) /α
L RS = 1 g S P P (0) ln( g S P P (0) 2 αε / ( 1 P th P P (0) ) )

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