Abstract

We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to investigate the angular-dependent optical modes of fishnet metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is demonstrated as a fast and efficient method for metamaterial characterization and the measured polarization ratios significantly simplify the calibration procedures compared to reflectance and transmittance measurements. We show that the modes can be well identified by a combination of comparing different substrates and considering the angular dependence of the Wood’s anomalies. The lack of angular dispersion of the anti-symmetric gap-modes does not agree with the model and requires further theoretical investigation.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B65(19), 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(6), 067402 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci.86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Retrieving effective parameters for metamaterials at oblique incidence,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195328 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. C. McPhedran and D. Maystre, “On the theory and solar application of inductive grids,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)14(1), 1–20 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 729–787 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Hessel and A. A. Oliner, “A new theory of Wood's anomalies on optical gratings,” Appl. Opt.4(10), 1275–1297 (1965).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. H. W. Gao, W. Zhou, and T. W. Odom, “Plasmonic crystals: A platform to catalog resonances from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths in a plasmonic library,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 529–539 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Ortuno, C. Garcia-Meca, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, J. Marti, and A. Martinez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(7), 075425 (2009).
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  15. E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev.182(2), 539–554 (1969).
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  17. T. W. H. Oates, M. Ranjan, S. Facsko, and H. Arwin, “Highly anisotropic effective dielectric functions of silver nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express19(3), 2014–2028 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, in Handbook of optical constants of solids E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, 1985).
  20. W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(10), 107401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(6), 067402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci.86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. H. Oates, M. Ranjan, S. Facsko, and H. Arwin, “Highly anisotropic effective dielectric functions of silver nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express19(3), 2014–2028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. W. Gao, W. Zhou, and T. W. Odom, “Plasmonic crystals: A platform to catalog resonances from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths in a plasmonic library,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 529–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Ortuno, C. Garcia-Meca, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, J. Marti, and A. Martinez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(7), 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Retrieving effective parameters for metamaterials at oblique incidence,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. F. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep.444(3-6), 101–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1977

R. C. McPhedran and D. Maystre, “On the theory and solar application of inductive grids,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)14(1), 1–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev.182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965

Arwin, H.

T. W. H. Oates, M. Ranjan, S. Facsko, and H. Arwin, “Highly anisotropic effective dielectric functions of silver nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express19(3), 2014–2028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci.86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baca, A. J.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergmair, I.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergmair, M.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogart, G. R.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, P.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, K.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. F. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep.444(3-6), 101–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cain, T.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, A.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chanda, D.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chipouline, A.

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dastmalchi, B.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickson, W.

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(6), 067402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev.182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Facsko, S.

Gao, H. W.

H. W. Gao, W. Zhou, and T. W. Odom, “Plasmonic crystals: A platform to catalog resonances from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths in a plasmonic library,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 529–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Meca, C.

R. Ortuno, C. Garcia-Meca, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, J. Marti, and A. Martinez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(7), 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

García-Meca, C.

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(6), 067402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hattori, H. T.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Helgert, C.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hessel, A.

Hesser, G.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilber, W.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hingerl, K.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubner, U.

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, U.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurtado, J.

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(6), 067402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagadish, C.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lapine, M.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Retrieving effective parameters for metamaterials at oblique incidence,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. F. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep.444(3-6), 101–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

R. Ortuno, C. Garcia-Meca, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, J. Marti, and A. Martinez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(7), 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(6), 067402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, A.

R. Ortuno, C. Garcia-Meca, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, J. Marti, and A. Martinez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(7), 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, A.

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(6), 067402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

R. C. McPhedran and D. Maystre, “On the theory and solar application of inductive grids,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)14(1), 1–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

McKerracher, I.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

R. C. McPhedran and D. Maystre, “On the theory and solar application of inductive grids,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)14(1), 1–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, C.

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Retrieving effective parameters for metamaterials at oblique incidence,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mihi, A.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mingaleev, S. F.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. F. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep.444(3-6), 101–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minovich, A.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muehlberger, M.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, W. A.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neshev, D. N.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oates, T. W. H.

T. W. H. Oates, M. Ranjan, S. Facsko, and H. Arwin, “Highly anisotropic effective dielectric functions of silver nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express19(3), 2014–2028 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci.86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Odom, T. W.

H. W. Gao, W. Zhou, and T. W. Odom, “Plasmonic crystals: A platform to catalog resonances from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths in a plasmonic library,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 529–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oliner, A. A.

Ortuno, R.

R. Ortuno, C. Garcia-Meca, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, J. Marti, and A. Martinez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(7), 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paul, T.

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Retrieving effective parameters for metamaterials at oblique incidence,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Penciu, R.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Retrieving effective parameters for metamaterials at oblique incidence,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Powell, D. A.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pshenay-Severin, E.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ranjan, M.

Rockstuhl, C.

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Retrieving effective parameters for metamaterials at oblique incidence,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Fortuno, F. J.

R. Ortuno, C. Garcia-Meca, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, J. Marti, and A. Martinez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(7), 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saeed, A.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoeftner, R.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Setzpfandt, F.

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shadrivov, I. V.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N. H.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shigeta, K.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tkeshelashvili, L.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. F. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep.444(3-6), 101–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. F. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep.444(3-6), 101–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. F. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep.444(3-6), 101–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wormeester, H.

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci.86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(6), 067402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

H. W. Gao, W. Zhou, and T. W. Odom, “Plasmonic crystals: A platform to catalog resonances from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths in a plasmonic library,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 529–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

H. W. Gao, W. Zhou, and T. W. Odom, “Plasmonic crystals: A platform to catalog resonances from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths in a plasmonic library,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(4), 529–539 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. (Berl.)

R. C. McPhedran and D. Maystre, “On the theory and solar application of inductive grids,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.)14(1), 1–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

E. Pshenay-Severin, F. Setzpfandt, C. Helgert, U. Hubner, C. Menzel, A. Chipouline, C. Rockstuhl, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Experimental determination of the dispersion relation of light in metamaterials by white-light interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.27(4), 660–666 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

I. Bergmair, B. Dastmalchi, M. Bergmair, A. Saeed, W. Hilber, G. Hesser, C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, T. Pertsch, E. B. Kley, U. Hübner, N. H. Shen, R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, K. Hingerl, M. Muehlberger, and R. Schoeftner, “Single and multilayer metamaterials fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology22(32), 325301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

D. Chanda, K. Shigeta, S. Gupta, T. Cain, A. Carlson, A. Mihi, A. J. Baca, G. R. Bogart, P. Braun, and J. A. Rogers, “Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(7), 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rep.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. F. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep.444(3-6), 101–202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev.182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. Ortuno, C. Garcia-Meca, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, J. Marti, and A. Martinez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B79(7), 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Minovich, D. N. Neshev, D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, M. Lapine, I. McKerracher, H. T. Hattori, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Tilted response of fishnet metamaterials at near-infrared optical wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B81(11), 115109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Retrieving effective parameters for metamaterials at oblique incidence,” Phys. Rev. B77(19), 195328 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. García-Meca, J. Hurtado, J. Martí, A. Martínez, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Low-loss multilayered metamaterial exhibiting a negative index of refraction at visible wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(6), 067402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Surf. Sci.

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci.86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, in Handbook of optical constants of solids E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, 1985).

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and applications (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the fishnet. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the three layer sample on glass (sample C). The scale bar is 500 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated reflection (red solid line), transmission (blue solid line) compared to the measured transmission (black dotted line). (b) Effective real (black line) and imaginary (red line) refractive index of the fishnet design on a glass substrate. Input dimensions are equal to sample C, with a simulated sidewall angle of 10°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normal incidence transmission of sample C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ellipsometric spectra for the three samples (a) A, (b) B and (c) C, at an incident angle of 55°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Grey scale plots of the Ψ spectra as a function of the incident angle for the three samples (a) A (b) B and (c) C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the measured Ψ data (a) with theory (b) for the single layer silver hole array on silicon (sample A). The solid lines represent Eqs. (3) and (4), while the dashed lines correspond to the Rayleigh wavelengths. The blue and black modes are at the Si-Ag and Ag-air interfaces, respectively. The green dotted line corresponds to the dipolar Mie resonance for a 130 nm silver sphere.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the measured Ψ data (a) with theory (b) for the fishnet on silicon (sample B). The blue and black modes are at the Si-Ag and Air-Ag interfaces, respectively, while the red modes are at the internal Ag-SiO2 interfaces.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Data for sample C (fishnet on glass). Note the reduced wavelength range. (a) Transmission data from Fig. 3. (b) Measured Ψ data as a function of angle. (c) Simulated modes. The black mode is the Ag-Air interface, while the blue lines are the Ag-Glass modes. The red lines are at the internal Ag-SiO2 interfaces. The green dotted lines corresponds to the transmission minima.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ E rp E rs ]=[ r pp r ps r sp r ss ][ E ip E is ],
ρ r p r s tanΨ e iΔ .
k SPP = k 0 ε a ε m ε a + ε m ,
| k SPP |=| k x ± G i,j |=| k 0 sinθ±i G x ±j G y |
| k SPP |= k o ε a [ s s+2 λ p coth(2πh/ λ p ) ] 1/2 ,

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