Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate reconfigurable photonic crystal waveguides created directly by infiltrating high refractive index (n≈2.01) liquids into selected air holes of a two-dimensional hexagonal periodic lattice in silicon. The resulting effective index contrast is large enough that a single row of infiltrated holes enables light propagation at near-infrared wavelengths. We include a detailed comparison between modeling and experimental results of single line defect waveguides and show how our infiltration procedure is reversible and repeatable. We achieve infiltration accuracy down to the single air hole level and demonstrate control on the volume of liquid infused into the holes by simply changing the infiltration velocity. This method is promising for achieving a wide range of targeted optical functionalities on a “blank” photonic crystal membrane that can be reconfigured on demand.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011

2010

2009

2008

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, “Reconfigurable multimode photonic-crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express16(16), 11995–12001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Brien, M. D. Settle, T. Karle, A. Michaeli, M. Salib, and T. F. Krauss, “Coupled photonic crystal heterostructure nanocavities,” Opt. Express15(3), 1228–1233 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett.31(1), 59–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Märki, M. Salt, and H. P. Herzig, “Tuning the resonance of a photonic crystal microcavity with an AFM probe,” Opt. Express14(7), 2969–2978 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, and M. J. Steel, “Design of high-Q cavities in photonic crystal slab heterostructures by air-holes infiltration,” Opt. Express14(25), 12451–12456 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Stalder, G. Kulik, D. Sage, L. Barbieri, and P. Hoffmann, “A Snake-Based Approach to Accurate Determination of Both Contact Points and Contact Angles,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.286(1-3), 92–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. Freeman, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in a chalcogenide glass using a focused ion beam,” Opt. Express13(8), 3079–3086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater.4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. A. Bolger, B. J. Eggleton, L. Rodd, and J. Cooper-White, “Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer,” Opt. Express12(22), 5440–5447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann, and K. Busch, “Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration,” Opt. Lett.29(24), 2858–2860 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photoniccrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4591–4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2767–2769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal photonic-band-gap materials: The tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(5), 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, “Optics: Liquid versus photonic crystals,” Nature401(6753), 539–541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. F. Krauss, R. M. DeLaRue, and S. Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near infrared wavelengths,” Nature383(6602), 699–702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater.4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photoniccrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4591–4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alleman, A.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater.4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photoniccrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4591–4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balet, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, L.

A. F. Stalder, G. Kulik, D. Sage, L. Barbieri, and P. Hoffmann, “A Snake-Based Approach to Accurate Determination of Both Contact Points and Contact Angles,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.286(1-3), 92–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bedoya, A. C.

Bettotti, P.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Birner, A.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bog, U.

Bolger, J. A.

Brand, S.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. DeLaRue, and S. Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near infrared wavelengths,” Nature383(6602), 699–702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

Busch, K.

S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann, and K. Busch, “Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration,” Opt. Lett.29(24), 2858–2860 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal photonic-band-gap materials: The tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(5), 967–970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Casas Bedoya, A.

Choi, D. Y.

Chow, E.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Citrin, D. S.

Colocci, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cooper-White, J.

Corcoran, B.

de Sterke, C. M.

de Sterke, M.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DeLaRue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. DeLaRue, and S. Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near infrared wavelengths,” Nature383(6602), 699–702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

Eggleton, B. J.

A. C. Bedoya, C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, and B. J. Eggleton, “Measuring the dispersive properties of liquids using a microinterferometer,” Appl. Opt.50(16), 2408–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Mägi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express18(25), 26695–26703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Casas Bedoya, S. Mahmoodian, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, E. C. Mägi, B. J. Eggleton, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Liquid crystal dynamics in a photonic crystal cavity created by selective microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express18(26), 27280–27290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable photonic crystal circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(2), 192–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express17(3), 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
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C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 106–114 (2007).
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C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. A. Bolger, B. J. Eggleton, L. Rodd, and J. Cooper-White, “Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer,” Opt. Express12(22), 5440–5447 (2004).
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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
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C. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2767–2769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
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D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Freeman, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in a chalcogenide glass using a focused ion beam,” Opt. Express13(8), 3079–3086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
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C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
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S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

A. C. Bedoya, C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, and B. J. Eggleton, “Measuring the dispersive properties of liquids using a microinterferometer,” Appl. Opt.50(16), 2408–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Mägi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express18(25), 26695–26703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable photonic crystal circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(2), 192–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Casas Bedoya, S. Mahmoodian, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, E. C. Mägi, B. J. Eggleton, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Liquid crystal dynamics in a photonic crystal cavity created by selective microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express18(26), 27280–27290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express17(3), 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
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C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, V. Ta’eed, E. Mägi, J. A. Bolger, B. J. Eggleton, L. Rodd, and J. Cooper-White, “Compact tunable microfluidic interferometer,” Opt. Express12(22), 5440–5447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
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Herzig, H. P.

Hochberg, M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 360–362 (2004).
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A. F. Stalder, G. Kulik, D. Sage, L. Barbieri, and P. Hoffmann, “A Snake-Based Approach to Accurate Determination of Both Contact Points and Contact Angles,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.286(1-3), 92–103 (2006).
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S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
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S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
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S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
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S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
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C. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2767–2769 (2003).
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C. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2767–2769 (2003).
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B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
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C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
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D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kulik, G.

A. F. Stalder, G. Kulik, D. Sage, L. Barbieri, and P. Hoffmann, “A Snake-Based Approach to Accurate Determination of Both Contact Points and Contact Angles,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.286(1-3), 92–103 (2006).
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T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 49–52 (2007).
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Kurt, H.

Lee, M. W.

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable photonic crystal circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(2), 192–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Mägi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express18(25), 26695–26703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
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F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Mägi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express18(25), 26695–26703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Freeman, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in a chalcogenide glass using a focused ion beam,” Opt. Express13(8), 3079–3086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Mägi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express18(25), 26695–26703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Freeman, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in a chalcogenide glass using a focused ion beam,” Opt. Express13(8), 3079–3086 (2005).
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B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 360–362 (2004).
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Michaeli, A.

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A. C. Bedoya, C. Monat, P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, and B. J. Eggleton, “Measuring the dispersive properties of liquids using a microinterferometer,” Appl. Opt.50(16), 2408–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Mägi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express18(25), 26695–26703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Casas Bedoya, S. Mahmoodian, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, E. C. Mägi, B. J. Eggleton, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Liquid crystal dynamics in a photonic crystal cavity created by selective microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express18(26), 27280–27290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable photonic crystal circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(2), 192–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, C. Monat, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of slow light photonic crystal waveguides using microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express17(3), 1628–1635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mondia, J. P.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, C. Grillet, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Optical signal processing on a silicon chip at 640Gb/s using slow-light,” Opt. Express18(8), 7770–7781 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater.4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photoniccrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4591–4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D.

O’Faolain, L.

Pavesi, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M.

Psaltis, D.

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett.31(1), 59–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y. M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reithmaier, J. P.

C. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2767–2769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riboli, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rockwood, T.

Rodd, L.

Rode, A.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. F. Stalder, G. Kulik, D. Sage, L. Barbieri, and P. Hoffmann, “A Snake-Based Approach to Accurate Determination of Both Contact Points and Contact Angles,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.286(1-3), 92–103 (2006).
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Salt, M.

Scherer, A.

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits,” Opt. Lett.31(1), 59–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Schuller, C.

C. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2767–2769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, S. L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Settle, M. D.

Shinya, A.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L.

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable photonic crystal circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(2), 192–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L. C.

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater.4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photoniccrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4591–4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stalder, A. F.

A. F. Stalder, G. Kulik, D. Sage, L. Barbieri, and P. Hoffmann, “A Snake-Based Approach to Accurate Determination of Both Contact Points and Contact Angles,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.286(1-3), 92–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, and M. J. Steel, “Design of high-Q cavities in photonic crystal slab heterostructures by air-holes infiltration,” Opt. Express14(25), 12451–12456 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ta’eed, V.

Tanabe, T.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photoniccrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4591–4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, “Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 49–52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toader, O.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

A. Casas Bedoya, S. Mahmoodian, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, P. Domachuk, E. C. Mägi, B. J. Eggleton, and R. W. van der Heijden, “Liquid crystal dynamics in a photonic crystal cavity created by selective microfluidic infiltration,” Opt. Express18(26), 27280–27290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grillet, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Karnutsch, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable photonic crystal circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(2), 192–204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. Monat, E. Mägi, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express18(25), 26695–26703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.6(1), 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O’Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2206–2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, and M. J. Steel, “Design of high-Q cavities in photonic crystal slab heterostructures by air-holes infiltration,” Opt. Express14(25), 12451–12456 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Türck, V.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijden, R. W.

van Driel, H. M.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, “Tunable two-dimensional photonic crystals using liquid-crystal infiltration,” Phys. Rev. B61(4), R2389–R2392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
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S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehrspohn, R.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, T. P.

Wiersma, D.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. K. C.

C. L. C. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. C. Wu, L. O’Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, “Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities,” Opt. Express16(20), 15887–15896 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
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E. Yablonovitch, “Optics: Liquid versus photonic crystals,” Nature401(6753), 539–541 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. H. Yang, “Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics,” Nature442(7101), 381–386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zani, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zubrzycki, W.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzycki, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, “Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Nature407(6807), 983–986 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Schuller, F. Klopf, J. P. Reithmaier, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Tunable photonic crystals fabricated in III-V semiconductor slab waveguides using infiltrated liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(17), 2767–2769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 360–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, “Rewritable photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, F. Riboli, M. Zani, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Tuning of photonic crystal cavities by controlled removal of locally infiltrated water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173112 (2009).
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C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y.-H. Lee, “Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121103 (2007).
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C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express17(4), 2944–2953 (2009).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) picture of the fabricated airbridged PhC membrane, with input waveguides in the (Γ–K) and (Γ-M) directions. (Output waveguides not shown).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

3D Schematic representation of the creation of a PhC waveguide using a selective infiltration method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D Schematic representation of an infiltrated PhC highlighting the contact angle (θ) and the meniscus shape adopted by the liquid. (Top-right) Contact angle picture for the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium heptaiodide, on top of a Silicon surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a). SEM picture of a PhC with infiltrated holes (top) vs. non-infiltrated holes (bottom). (b) Intensity profile for the infiltrated and uninfiltrated PhC holes extracted from the cross sectional SEM image (red dotted lines).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microscope picture for a 20 µm W1 PhC liquid waveguide, created using a micropipette speed of: (a) 10µm/s. (Inset) Close up of the infiltrated central section to distinguish the single hole infiltration (b) 15µm/s.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Microscope picture for a 60 µm (not shown completely) W1 PhC liquid waveguide, created using a pipette speed of 10µm/s.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Left) Simulated dispersion diagram for a W1 liquid infiltrated PhC waveguide with period a = 390nm, r = 0.32a and refractive index nIL = 2.01 with a filling fraction of liquid into the holes of (a) 75% and (b) 40%. The insets show schematic representations of liquid associated waveguides, where different effective refractive indices have been represented by different colours. (Right) Experimental transmission spectrum for the different W1 liquid PhC waveguides shown on Fig. 5(a,b) and Fig. 6, i.e. (a) 20µm (Dark blue) and 60 µm long PhC membranes (light-blue) infiltrated at 10µm/s and for (b) 20 µm PhC membrane infiltrated at 15µm/s.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Microscope picture of a 60um-W2 PhC liquid waveguide, with a zoomed region demarked by a black square.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Left) Simulated dispersion diagram for a maximum infiltrated PhC waveguide W2 (Red) and W1 (Blue), with period a = 390nm, r = 0.325a and nIL = 2.01. (Right) Experimental transmission spectrum for the structures presented in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

10µm PhC membrane with a heterostructure cavity created by a velocity controlled selective infiltration.

Equations (1)

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V h = L t .π. R 2 2 R.cos( θ ) R 0 2π 0 θ R 2 .sin( θ )dθdφdR .

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