Abstract

A Refractive index sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating and stimulated Brillouin scattering is proposed and demonstrated. The cladding modes of the tilted fiber Bragg grating is sensitive to the surrounding refractive index and the approach relies on refractive index dependent resonance wavelength shift of the modes. Stimulated Brillouin scattering is introduced to measure the wavelength shift due to its narrow bandwidth, which enhances the wavelength resolution to 0.25 pm and provides much higher refractive index sensitivity than traditional wavelength readout methods. This kind sensor is suitable to sense a very small variation of refractive index and the sensitivities can reach to a resolution of 1.27 × 10−4 RIU with the refractive index ranging from 1.3405 to 1.4025 and a resolution of 2.49 × 10−5 RIU ranging from 1.4025 to 1.4219, respectively.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Q. Jiang, D. Hu, and M. Yang, “Simultaneous measurement of liquid level and surrounding refractive index using tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 170(1-2), 62–65 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. F. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1142–1149 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Baek, Y. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Characteristics of short-period blazed fiber Bragg gratings for use as macro-bending sensors,” Appl. Opt. 41(4), 631–636 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Bey, T. Sun, and K. Grattan, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain with long period grating pairs using low resolution detection,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 144(1), 83–89 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. D. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on measuring the transmission power of tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 233–236 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Guo, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Reflective tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer based on strong cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5736–5742 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Domingo, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. D. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 855–857 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Villafranca, J. Lasobras, R. Alonso, F. M. Lopez, and I. Garces, “Complex spectrum analysis of modulated optical signals using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1938–1940 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Mihélic, D. Bacquet, J. Zemmouri, and P. Szriftgiser, “Ultrahigh resolution spectral analysis based on a Brillouin fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 432–434 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Chen, L. Xiong, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, “Differential strain sensitivity of higher order cladding modes in weakly tilted ðber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6379, E3790 (2006).
  12. X. Yu, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “High carrier suppression double sideband modulation using polarization state rotation filter and optical external modulator,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 83–87 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Yao, “Phase-to-amplitude modulation conversion using Brillouin selective sideband amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(2), 264–266 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, and H. Wang, “Broadband phase-to-intensity modulation conversion for microwave photonics processing using Brillouin-assisted carrier phase shift,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(24), 3616–3621 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Zhang and R. A. Minasian, “Widely tunable single-passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1775–1777 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

Q. Jiang, D. Hu, and M. Yang, “Simultaneous measurement of liquid level and surrounding refractive index using tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 170(1-2), 62–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, and H. Wang, “Broadband phase-to-intensity modulation conversion for microwave photonics processing using Brillouin-assisted carrier phase shift,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(24), 3616–3621 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang and R. A. Minasian, “Widely tunable single-passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1775–1777 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. D. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on measuring the transmission power of tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 233–236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Guo, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Reflective tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer based on strong cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5736–5742 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. Villafranca, J. Lasobras, R. Alonso, F. M. Lopez, and I. Garces, “Complex spectrum analysis of modulated optical signals using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1938–1940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bey, T. Sun, and K. Grattan, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain with long period grating pairs using low resolution detection,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 144(1), 83–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

C. Chen, L. Xiong, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, “Differential strain sensitivity of higher order cladding modes in weakly tilted ðber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6379, E3790 (2006).

X. Yu, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “High carrier suppression double sideband modulation using polarization state rotation filter and optical external modulator,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 83–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Domingo, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. D. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

X. Yao, “Phase-to-amplitude modulation conversion using Brillouin selective sideband amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(2), 264–266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Alonso, R.

A. Villafranca, J. Lasobras, R. Alonso, F. M. Lopez, and I. Garces, “Complex spectrum analysis of modulated optical signals using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1938–1940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bacquet, D.

Baek, S.

Bey, S.

S. Bey, T. Sun, and K. Grattan, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain with long period grating pairs using low resolution detection,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 144(1), 83–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caucheteur, C.

C. Chen, L. Xiong, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, “Differential strain sensitivity of higher order cladding modes in weakly tilted ðber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6379, E3790 (2006).

Chan, C. F.

Chen, C.

C. F. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1142–1149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chen, L. Xiong, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, “Differential strain sensitivity of higher order cladding modes in weakly tilted ðber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6379, E3790 (2006).

Domingo, J.

J. Domingo, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. D. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garces, I.

A. Villafranca, J. Lasobras, R. Alonso, F. M. Lopez, and I. Garces, “Complex spectrum analysis of modulated optical signals using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1938–1940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K.

S. Bey, T. Sun, and K. Grattan, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain with long period grating pairs using low resolution detection,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 144(1), 83–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

Heras, C. D.

J. Domingo, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. D. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, D.

Q. Jiang, D. Hu, and M. Yang, “Simultaneous measurement of liquid level and surrounding refractive index using tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 170(1-2), 62–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jafari, A.

Jeong, Y.

Jiang, Q.

Q. Jiang, D. Hu, and M. Yang, “Simultaneous measurement of liquid level and surrounding refractive index using tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 170(1-2), 62–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laronche, A.

Lasobras, J.

A. Villafranca, J. Lasobras, R. Alonso, F. M. Lopez, and I. Garces, “Complex spectrum analysis of modulated optical signals using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1938–1940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Li, W.

Liu, B.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. D. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on measuring the transmission power of tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 233–236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, F. M.

A. Villafranca, J. Lasobras, R. Alonso, F. M. Lopez, and I. Garces, “Complex spectrum analysis of modulated optical signals using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1938–1940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Megret, P.

C. Chen, L. Xiong, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, “Differential strain sensitivity of higher order cladding modes in weakly tilted ðber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6379, E3790 (2006).

Miao, Y. P.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. D. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on measuring the transmission power of tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 233–236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mihélic, F.

Minasian, R. A.

W. Zhang and R. A. Minasian, “Widely tunable single-passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1775–1777 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pelayo, J.

J. Domingo, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. D. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pellejer, E.

J. Domingo, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. D. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

S. Bey, T. Sun, and K. Grattan, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain with long period grating pairs using low resolution detection,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 144(1), 83–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Szriftgiser, P.

Tam, H. Y.

Thomson, D. J.

Villafranca, A.

A. Villafranca, J. Lasobras, R. Alonso, F. M. Lopez, and I. Garces, “Complex spectrum analysis of modulated optical signals using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1938–1940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villuendas, F.

J. Domingo, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. D. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, L. X.

Xiong, L.

C. Chen, L. Xiong, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, “Differential strain sensitivity of higher order cladding modes in weakly tilted ðber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6379, E3790 (2006).

Yang, M.

Q. Jiang, D. Hu, and M. Yang, “Simultaneous measurement of liquid level and surrounding refractive index using tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 170(1-2), 62–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X.

X. Yao, “Phase-to-amplitude modulation conversion using Brillouin selective sideband amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(2), 264–266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

X. Yu, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “High carrier suppression double sideband modulation using polarization state rotation filter and optical external modulator,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 83–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zemmouri, J.

Zhang, H.

X. Yu, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “High carrier suppression double sideband modulation using polarization state rotation filter and optical external modulator,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 83–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang and R. A. Minasian, “Widely tunable single-passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1775–1777 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q. D.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. D. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on measuring the transmission power of tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 233–236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

X. Yu, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “High carrier suppression double sideband modulation using polarization state rotation filter and optical external modulator,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 83–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, N. H.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

J. Domingo, J. Pelayo, F. Villuendas, C. D. Heras, and E. Pellejer, “Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 855–857 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Villafranca, J. Lasobras, R. Alonso, F. M. Lopez, and I. Garces, “Complex spectrum analysis of modulated optical signals using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1938–1940 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Yao, “Phase-to-amplitude modulation conversion using Brillouin selective sideband amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(2), 264–266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang and R. A. Minasian, “Widely tunable single-passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1775–1777 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, “Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(7), 765–770 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Yu, H. Zhang, and X. Zheng, “High carrier suppression double sideband modulation using polarization state rotation filter and optical external modulator,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 83–87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, and Q. D. Zhao, “Refractive index sensor based on measuring the transmission power of tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(3), 233–236 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Chen, L. Xiong, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, and J. Albert, “Differential strain sensitivity of higher order cladding modes in weakly tilted ðber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE 6379, E3790 (2006).

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (2)

S. Bey, T. Sun, and K. Grattan, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain with long period grating pairs using low resolution detection,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 144(1), 83–89 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Jiang, D. Hu, and M. Yang, “Simultaneous measurement of liquid level and surrounding refractive index using tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 170(1-2), 62–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimentally measured transmission spectrum of a 7° tilted TFBG in air.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of experimental setup (TLS: tunable laser source, PC: polarization controller, EOM: electro-optic modulator, EOPM: electro-optic phase modulator, EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier, ISO: isolator, DSF: dispersion shifted fiber, PD: photodetector).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fundamentals of the approach with SBS. (a) DSB-SC modulation signal, (b) DSB-SC modulation signal transmits through TFBG, (c) Pump wave, (d) Phase modulation signal, (e) Amplified signal of phase modulation, (f) Detected signal at the end of link.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detected voltages of different frequencies for different SRIs of cladding mode A (the SRIs are 1.3496, 1.3523, 1.3538, 1.3580, respectively).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Detected microwave frequency for different SRI with different cladding modes A and B.

Equations (1)

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Δλcladi=(Λcosθncladinext)Δnext

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