Abstract

We present a method for calculating the differential scattering cross sections from nanostructures close to an interface separating two semi-infinitive dielectric media. The method combines a fast finite element software (Comsol multiphysics), used for calculations of the fields around and inside the structure, and the Green's functions method, which is used to find the far field distribution from the calculated total fields inside the nanostructure. We apply the method to calculations of scattering spectra from silver nanowires supported by an air-glass interface, a system that is of high current interest in relation to various nanophotonics applications. The results are analyzed in relation to analytical models and compared to experimentally measured spectra, to which we find a good agreement.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (4)

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Johansson, “Electromagnetic Green’s function for layered systems: Applications to nanohole interactions in thin metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant modes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1020–1024 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

Y. R. Fang, Z. P. Li, Y. Z. Huang, S. P. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. X. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, V. D. Miljković, and M. Käll, “Alignment, rotation, and spinning of single plasmonic nanoparticles and nanowires using polarization dependent optical forces,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 268–273 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, W. Khunsin, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Plasmonic nanowire antennas: experiment, simulation, and theory,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3596–3603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Käll, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

R. Gordon, “Reflection of cylindrical surface waves,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18621–18629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. L. Yu, K. Kang, N. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. X. Xu, and C. K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, F. Hao, Y. Z. Huang, Y. R. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

E. R. Encina and E. A. Coronado, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: Angular scattering properties of multipole resonances in noble metal nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(26), 9586–9594 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2346–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (7)

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Hao and P. Nordlander, “Plasmonic coupling between a metallic nanosphere and a thin metallic wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, M. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Hanarp, M. Kall, and D. Sutherland, “Optical properties of short range ordered arrays of nanometer gold disks prepared by colloidal lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. G. Sun, B. Gates, B. Mayers, and Y. N. Xia, “Crystalline silver nanowires by soft solution processing,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 165–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 9061–9068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1985 (1)

U. Kreibig and L. Genzel, “Optical absorption of small metallic particles,” Surf. Sci. 156, 678–700 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung Part A-Astrophysik Physik Und Physikalische Chemie A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Agio, M.

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, M. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, A. V.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. L. Yu, K. Kang, N. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bao, J. M.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2346–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. E.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. W.

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cong, F.

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornelius, T.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, M. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coronado, E. A.

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J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 9061–9068 (1999).
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R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
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J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
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J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, W. Khunsin, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Plasmonic nanowire antennas: experiment, simulation, and theory,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3596–3603 (2010).
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J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
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J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, W. Khunsin, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Plasmonic nanowire antennas: experiment, simulation, and theory,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3596–3603 (2010).
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Y. R. Fang, Z. P. Li, Y. Z. Huang, S. P. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. X. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1950–1954 (2010).
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Z. P. Li, F. Hao, Y. Z. Huang, Y. R. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
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F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
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U. Kreibig and L. Genzel, “Optical absorption of small metallic particles,” Surf. Sci. 156, 678–700 (1985).
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J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 9061–9068 (1999).
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Goudonnet, J. P.

J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 9061–9068 (1999).
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M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2346–2350 (2007).
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X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
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H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
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Y. R. Fang, Z. P. Li, Y. Z. Huang, S. P. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. X. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1950–1954 (2010).
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M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2346–2350 (2007).
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Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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P. Hanarp, M. Kall, and D. Sutherland, “Optical properties of short range ordered arrays of nanometer gold disks prepared by colloidal lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5768–5772 (2003).
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Z. P. Li, F. Hao, Y. Z. Huang, Y. R. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
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M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2346–2350 (2007).
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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
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R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
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T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Käll, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103114 (2010).
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Y. R. Fang, Z. P. Li, Y. Z. Huang, S. P. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. X. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, F. Hao, Y. Z. Huang, Y. R. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
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A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. L. Yu, K. Kang, N. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
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T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 706–711 (2011).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kall, M.

P. Hanarp, M. Kall, and D. Sutherland, “Optical properties of short range ordered arrays of nanometer gold disks prepared by colloidal lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, V. D. Miljković, and M. Käll, “Alignment, rotation, and spinning of single plasmonic nanoparticles and nanowires using polarization dependent optical forces,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 268–273 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Käll, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. L. Yu, K. Kang, N. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karim, S.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, M. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, W. Khunsin, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Plasmonic nanowire antennas: experiment, simulation, and theory,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3596–3603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
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J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, W. Khunsin, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Plasmonic nanowire antennas: experiment, simulation, and theory,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3596–3603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, M. W.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2346–2350 (2007).
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Kolb, T.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, M. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
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A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. L. Yu, K. Kang, N. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
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U. Kreibig and L. Genzel, “Optical absorption of small metallic particles,” Surf. Sci. 156, 678–700 (1985).
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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
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J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 9061–9068 (1999).
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Lamprecht, B.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
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H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. X. Xu, and C. K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
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Li, Z.

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z. P.

Y. R. Fang, Z. P. Li, Y. Z. Huang, S. P. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. X. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, F. Hao, Y. Z. Huang, Y. R. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovrincic, R.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, M. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. L. Yu, K. Kang, N. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 053002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyon, L. A.

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y. G.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayers, B.

Y. G. Sun, B. Gates, B. Mayers, and Y. N. Xia, “Crystalline silver nanowires by soft solution processing,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 165–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miljkovic, V. D.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, V. D. Miljković, and M. Käll, “Alignment, rotation, and spinning of single plasmonic nanoparticles and nanowires using polarization dependent optical forces,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 268–273 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morimoto, A.

Mukherjee, A.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neubrech, F.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, M. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, R.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, M. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Fang, Z. P. Li, Y. Z. Huang, S. P. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. X. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1950–1954 (2010).
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Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
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Z. P. Li, F. Hao, Y. Z. Huang, Y. R. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
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F. Hao and P. Nordlander, “Plasmonic coupling between a metallic nanosphere and a thin metallic wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103101 (2006).
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A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. L. Yu, K. Kang, N. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
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A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
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Pausauskie, P.

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
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Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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Pertsch, T.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
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H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. X. Xu, and C. K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
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Reed, M. A.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
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Rockstuhl, C.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, W. Khunsin, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Plasmonic nanowire antennas: experiment, simulation, and theory,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3596–3603 (2010).
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A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
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A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
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Sandoghdar, V.

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
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Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
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Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
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Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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Shegai, T.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 706–711 (2011).
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T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Käll, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shih, C. K.

H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. X. Xu, and C. K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
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Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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Sørensen, A. S.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 053002 (2006).
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Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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Stefani, F. D.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant modes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1020–1024 (2011).
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Sun, Y. G.

Y. G. Sun, B. Gates, B. Mayers, and Y. N. Xia, “Crystalline silver nanowires by soft solution processing,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 165–168 (2002).
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Sutherland, D.

P. Hanarp, M. Kall, and D. Sutherland, “Optical properties of short range ordered arrays of nanometer gold disks prepared by colloidal lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5768–5772 (2003).
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Takahara, J.

Taki, H.

Taminiau, T. H.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant modes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1020–1024 (2011).
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Tian, X.

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
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Toimil-Molares, M.

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, M. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L. M.

L. M. Tong, V. D. Miljković, and M. Käll, “Alignment, rotation, and spinning of single plasmonic nanoparticles and nanowires using polarization dependent optical forces,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 268–273 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
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Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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van Hulst, N. F.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant modes,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1020–1024 (2011).
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Vogelgesang, R.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, W. Khunsin, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Plasmonic nanowire antennas: experiment, simulation, and theory,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3596–3603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
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Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
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H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
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J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 9061–9068 (1999).
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H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. X. Xu, and C. K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, R. T.

J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, R. T. Weitz, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and K. Kern, “Fabry-Pérot resonances in one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2372–2377 (2009).
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Wiley, B. J.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y. N.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Sun, B. Gates, B. Mayers, and Y. N. Xia, “Crystalline silver nanowires by soft solution processing,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 165–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H. X.

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Fang, Z. P. Li, Y. Z. Huang, S. P. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. X. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Käll, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. X. Xu, and C. K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, F. Hao, Y. Z. Huang, Y. R. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamagishi, S.

Yan, R. X.

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(50), 21045–21050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. L.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. L. Yu, K. Kang, N. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H. K.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. P.

Y. R. Fang, Z. P. Li, Y. Z. Huang, S. P. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. X. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. N.

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Hao and P. Nordlander, “Plasmonic coupling between a metallic nanosphere and a thin metallic wire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Shegai, Y. Z. Huang, H. X. Xu, and M. Käll, “Coloring fluorescence emission with silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, T. Kolb, R. Lovrincic, G. Fahsold, A. Pucci, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, M. Toimil-Molares, R. Neumann, and S. Karim, “Resonances of individual metal nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Non diffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires,” Europhys. Lett. 60(5), 663–669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Hanarp, M. Kall, and D. Sutherland, “Optical properties of short range ordered arrays of nanometer gold disks prepared by colloidal lithography,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5768–5772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

E. R. Encina and E. A. Coronado, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: Angular scattering properties of multipole resonances in noble metal nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(26), 9586–9594 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (15)

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, F. Hao, Y. Z. Huang, Y. R. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, K. Bao, Y. R. Fang, Y. Z. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. X. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, V. D. Miljković, and M. Käll, “Alignment, rotation, and spinning of single plasmonic nanoparticles and nanowires using polarization dependent optical forces,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 268–273 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2346–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Fang, Z. P. Li, Y. Z. Huang, S. P. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. X. Xu, “Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1950–1954 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wei, Z. Li, X. Tian, Z. Wang, F. Cong, N. Liu, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and H. Xu, “Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 471–475 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Sun, B. Gates, B. Mayers, and Y. N. Xia, “Crystalline silver nanowires by soft solution processing,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 165–168 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. X. Xu, and C. K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the calculation methods. (a) Comsol calculation domain for the calculations of the fields inside and in near surrounding of the nanowire. (b) Calculations of the differential scattering cross sections using the Green's function method and meshing of the nanowire.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a-c) Total scattering spectra for thin (R = 40 nm), intermediate (R = 80 nm) and thick (R = 160 nm) nanowires calculated for three different surrounding media: (a) Wires surrounded by air; (b) Wires surrounded by glass; (c) Wires supported at an air-glass interface (the total spectra are calculated by integration of scattering in glass only). The corresponding mode orders l are shown above the each resonance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental scattering spectra for silver wires of different length and diameters supported by an air-glass interface. Similar to the calculations, thin wires show pronounced standing wave profiles while thick wires are poor resonators. Inset shows representative SEM images of D = 70 nm and D = 197 nm wires.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a-c) Dispersion relations calculated by extracting plasmon wavelengths from Fabry Perot model (crosses), analytical solution of infinite metal cylinder (solid lines), and from the experimental spectra (squares) for thin (a), intermediate (b), and thick (c) nanowires, respectively. The dispersions are calculated for wires in air (red), glass (green), and at an air-glass interface (blue). In addition, the light line in air (black dashed line) and the light line in glass (black dash-dotted line) are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric field intensity along xz plane for thin nanowires in air (a), glass (b), and at an air-glass interface (c). The fields are calculated for corresponding resonance peaks at vacuum wavelength ~750 nm (see Fig. 2). (d) Corresponding electric field distribution inside the supported nanowire at x = 2500 nm. (e) Fourier image of radiation in glass substrate for thin nanowire calculated at 763 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electric field intensity along xz plane for intermediate (a) and thick (b) nanowires supported at an air-glass interface. The corresponding vacuum wavelengths are 787 nm and 785 nm, respectively. (c, e) Corresponding electric field distribution inside intermediate and thick nanowires at x = 2500 nm. (d, f) Corresponding Fourier images of the radiation scattered into the glass substrate for the intermediate and thick nanowires shown in (a,b).

Equations (14)

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Ex={E0eik0n1z(1re2ik0n1z),z>0E0teik0n2z,z<=0,
dσdΩ(θ,φ)=r2SfarSin,
Sfar1(2)=12cε0ε1(2)|E(r)|2,
Sin1=12cε0ε1|E0|2,
E(r)=i=1NG(r,ri')k02ΔεiEiVi,
G1(r,ri')=eik1r4πreik||ri'eikz1z'[p^1+p^1++s^s^+e2ikz1z'(rpp^1+p^1+rss^s^)],
G2(r,ri')=eik2r4πreik||ri'kz2kz1eikz1z'[tpp^2p^1+tss^s^],
s^=(sinφ,cosφ,0)
p^1±=(±kz1k1cosφ,±kz1k1sinφ,k||k1),
p^2=(kz2k2cosφ,kz2k2sinφ,k||k2).
rs=kz1kz2kz1+kz2,ts=1+rs,
rp=ε2kz1ε1kz2ε2kz1+ε1kz2,tp=k2kz1k1kz2(1rs).
εmκ1J1(κ1R)J0(κ1R)εdκ2H1(1)(κ2R)H0(1)(κ2R)=0,
kspp=lπϕrLlπL,

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