Abstract

40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulators are demonstrated. The devices are based on the carrier depletion effect in a pipin diode to generate a good compromise between high efficiency, speed and low optical loss. The diode is embedded in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and a self-aligned fabrication process was used to obtain precise localization of the active p-doped region in the middle of the waveguide. Using a 4.7 mm (resp. 0.95 mm) long phase shifter, the modulator exhibits an extinction ratio of 6.6 dB (resp. 3.2 dB), simultaneously with an optical loss of 6 dB (resp. 4.5 dB) at the same operating point.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. Paniccia and R. Won, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. Park, J.-B. You, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-modulation efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a PN Diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15520–15524 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25µm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: from PN to PIPIN diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5827–5832 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Rasigade, X. Le Roux, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Compact wavelength-insensitive fabrication-tolerant silicon-on-insulator beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3700–3702 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

G. Rasigade, X. Le Roux, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Compact wavelength-insensitive fabrication-tolerant silicon-on-insulator beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3700–3702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: from PN to PIPIN diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25µm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Paniccia and R. Won, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Park, J.-B. You, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-modulation efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a PN Diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15520–15524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouville, D.

Cassan, E.

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5827–5832 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, X. Le Roux, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Compact wavelength-insensitive fabrication-tolerant silicon-on-insulator beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3700–3702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: from PN to PIPIN diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dong, P.

Emerson, N. G.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fournier, M.

Gardes, F. Y.

Grosse, P.

Halbwax, M.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

Kim, I. G.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Laval, S.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Roux, X.

G. Rasigade, X. Le Roux, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Compact wavelength-insensitive fabrication-tolerant silicon-on-insulator beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3700–3702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lupu, A.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maine, S.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5827–5832 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, X. Le Roux, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Compact wavelength-insensitive fabrication-tolerant silicon-on-insulator beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3700–3702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: from PN to PIPIN diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashanovich, G.

Milesi, F.

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

M. Paniccia and R. Won, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. W.

Rasigade, G.

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5827–5832 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: from PN to PIPIN diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Rasigade, X. Le Roux, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Compact wavelength-insensitive fabrication-tolerant silicon-on-insulator beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3700–3702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Rivallin, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Thomson, D. J.

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5827–5832 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, X. Le Roux, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Compact wavelength-insensitive fabrication-tolerant silicon-on-insulator beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3700–3702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: from PN to PIPIN diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Won, R.

M. Paniccia and R. Won, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, J.-B.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Ziebell, M.

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: from PN to PIPIN diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. Paniccia and R. Won, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Park, J.-B. You, I. G. Kim, and G. Kim, “High-modulation efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator based on carrier depletion in a PN Diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15520–15524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25µm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5827–5832 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, E. Cassan, J.-M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic views of: (a) the lateral pipin phase shifter, (b) the integration of the phase shifter in coplanar waveguide electrodes, (c): the Mach Zehnder modulator. (d): device picture

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Self-aligned fabrication process. (a) Lithography to define the hard mask used to simultaneously make the rib waveguide and the center slit of the active region. (b) Hard mask etching. (c) Partial etching of the silicon to create the waveguide. (d) Boron implantation to create the p-doped section of the active region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of silicon optical modulators as a function of the wavelength for phase shifters of lengths (a) 0.95 mm, and (b) 4.7 mm, under reverse bias of 0, 5 and 10 V.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Normalized optical response as a function of the frequency for both MZI modulators. S parameters of (b) the 0.95 mm and (b) the 4.7 mm long MZI modulators.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eye diagram at 40 Gbit/s of a MZI modulator with (a) 0.95 mm-long phase shifter (b) 4.7 mm long phase shifter

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance comparison with 40 Gbit/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators in the literature

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