Abstract

Broadband femtosecond mid-infrared pulses can be converted into the visible spectral region by chirped pulse upconversion. We report here the upconversion of pump probe transient signals in the frequency region below 1800cm−1, using the nonlinear optical crystal AgGaGeS4, realizing an important expansion of the application range of this method. Experiments were demonstrated with a slab of GaAs, in which the upconverted signals cover a window of 120cm−1, with 1.5cm−1 resolution. In experiments on the BLUF photoreceptor Slr1694, signals below 1 milliOD were well resolved after baseline correction. Possibilities for further optimization of the method are discussed. We conclude that this method is an attractive alternative for the traditional MCT arrays used in most mid-infrared pump probe experiments.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012 (2)

T. Mathes, J. Zhu, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. L. Groot, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF Photoreceptors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(2), 203–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Lomont, S. C. Nguyen, J. P. Schlegel, M. C. Zoerb, A. D. Hill, and C. B. Harris, “Ultrafast observation of a solvent dependent spin state equilibrium in CpCo(CO),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3120–3126 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Kuroda and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectral signature and hydration of the oxalate dianion,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(20), 204502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Di Donato, A. D. Stahl, I. H. M. van Stokkum, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 50(4), 480–490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Baiz and K. J. Kubarych, “Ultrabroadband detection of a mid-IR continuum by chirped-pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 187–189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

P. Nuernberger, K. F. Lee, A. Bonvalet, M. H. Vos, and M. Joffre, “Multiply Excited Vibration of Carbon Monoxide in the Primary Docking Site of Hemoglobin Following Photolysis from the Heme,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(14), 2077–2081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Anna, M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Measuring absorptive two-dimensional infrared spectra using chirped-pulse upconversion detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(3), 382–393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ganim, K. C. Jones, and A. Tokmakoff, “Insulin dimer dissociation and unfolding revealed by amide I two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(14), 3579–3588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, J. M. Anna, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Multilevel vibrational coherence transfer and wavepacket dynamics probed with multidimensional IR spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129(8), 084503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. DeCamp, L. P. Deflores, K. C. Jones, and A. Tokmakoff, “Single-shot two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(1), 233–241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Nee, R. McCanne, K. J. Kubarych, and M. Joffre, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy detected by chirped pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 713–715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. R. Zheng, K. W. Kwak, J. Xie, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast carbon-carbon single-bond rotational isomerization in room-temperature solution,” Science 313(5795), 1951–1955 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, M. A. van der Horst, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. J. Hellingwerf, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy reveals a key step for successful entry into the photocycle for photoactive yellow protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(41), 15050–15055 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

M. L. Groot, N. P. Pawlowicz, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, J. Breton, I. H. M. van Stokkum, and R. van Grondelle, “Initial electron donor and acceptor in isolated Photosystem II reaction centers identified with femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13087–13092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. DeCamp and A. Tokmakoff, “Upconversion multichannel infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1818–1820 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Kubarych, M. Joffre, A. Moore, N. Belabas, and D. M. Jonas, “Mid-infrared electric field characterization using a visible charge-coupled-device-based spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1228–1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

P. Hamm, M. Zurek, W. Mäntele, M. Meyer, H. Scheer, and W. Zinth, “Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides between 1000 and 1800 cm-1.,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(6), 1826–1830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

1989 (3)

E. J. Heilweil, “Ultrashort-pulse multichannel infrared spectroscopy using broadband frequency conversion in LiIO(3).,” Opt. Lett. 14(11), 551–553 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Anfinrud, C. Han, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Direct observations of ligand dynamics in hemoglobin by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(21), 8387–8391 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Wang, N. Ockman, M. Yan, and R. R. Alfano, “The intervalley X6→Γ6, L6 scattering time in GaAs measured by ultrafast pump probe infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Solid-State Electron. 32(12), 1337–1345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrou, A.

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

W. B. Wang, N. Ockman, M. Yan, and R. R. Alfano, “The intervalley X6→Γ6, L6 scattering time in GaAs measured by ultrafast pump probe infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Solid-State Electron. 32(12), 1337–1345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anfinrud, P. A.

P. A. Anfinrud, C. Han, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Direct observations of ligand dynamics in hemoglobin by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(21), 8387–8391 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anna, J. M.

J. M. Anna, M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Measuring absorptive two-dimensional infrared spectra using chirped-pulse upconversion detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(3), 382–393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, J. M. Anna, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Multilevel vibrational coherence transfer and wavepacket dynamics probed with multidimensional IR spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129(8), 084503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arrivo, S. M.

Baiz, C. R.

C. R. Baiz and K. J. Kubarych, “Ultrabroadband detection of a mid-IR continuum by chirped-pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 187–189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Anna, M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Measuring absorptive two-dimensional infrared spectra using chirped-pulse upconversion detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(3), 382–393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Structurally selective geminate rebinding dynamics of solvent-caged radicals studied with nonequilibrium infrared echo spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(38), 13590–13591 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, J. M. Anna, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Multilevel vibrational coherence transfer and wavepacket dynamics probed with multidimensional IR spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129(8), 084503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belabas, N.

Bonetti, C.

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonvalet, A.

P. Nuernberger, K. F. Lee, A. Bonvalet, M. H. Vos, and M. Joffre, “Multiply Excited Vibration of Carbon Monoxide in the Primary Docking Site of Hemoglobin Following Photolysis from the Heme,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(14), 2077–2081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, P. Nuernberger, A. Bonvalet, and M. Joffre, “Removing cross-phase modulation from midinfrared chirped-pulse upconversion spectra,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18738–18744 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breton, J.

M. L. Groot, N. P. Pawlowicz, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, J. Breton, I. H. M. van Stokkum, and R. van Grondelle, “Initial electron donor and acceptor in isolated Photosystem II reaction centers identified with femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13087–13092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, P.

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

Chiu, C.

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

DeCamp, M. F.

Deflores, L. P.

Di Donato, M.

M. Di Donato, A. D. Stahl, I. H. M. van Stokkum, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 50(4), 480–490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, T. P.

Fayer, M. D.

J. R. Zheng, K. W. Kwak, J. Xie, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast carbon-carbon single-bond rotational isomerization in room-temperature solution,” Science 313(5795), 1951–1955 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganim, Z.

Z. Ganim, K. C. Jones, and A. Tokmakoff, “Insulin dimer dissociation and unfolding revealed by amide I two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(14), 3579–3588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groot, M. L.

T. Mathes, J. Zhu, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. L. Groot, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF Photoreceptors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(2), 203–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Di Donato, A. D. Stahl, I. H. M. van Stokkum, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 50(4), 480–490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, M. A. van der Horst, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. J. Hellingwerf, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy reveals a key step for successful entry into the photocycle for photoactive yellow protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(41), 15050–15055 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Groot, N. P. Pawlowicz, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, J. Breton, I. H. M. van Stokkum, and R. van Grondelle, “Initial electron donor and acceptor in isolated Photosystem II reaction centers identified with femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13087–13092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haiser, K.

K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamm, P.

P. Hamm, M. Zurek, W. Mäntele, M. Meyer, H. Scheer, and W. Zinth, “Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides between 1000 and 1800 cm-1.,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(6), 1826–1830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hamm, S. Wiemann, M. Zurek, and W. Zinth, “Highly sensitive multichannel spectrometer for subpicosecond spectroscopy in the midinfrared,” Opt. Lett. 19(20), 1642–1644 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, C.

P. A. Anfinrud, C. Han, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Direct observations of ligand dynamics in hemoglobin by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(21), 8387–8391 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, C. B.

J. P. Lomont, S. C. Nguyen, J. P. Schlegel, M. C. Zoerb, A. D. Hill, and C. B. Harris, “Ultrafast observation of a solvent dependent spin state equilibrium in CpCo(CO),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3120–3126 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegemann, P.

T. Mathes, J. Zhu, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. L. Groot, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF Photoreceptors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(2), 203–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heilweil, E. J.

Heilwell, E. J.

Hellingwerf, K. J.

L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, M. A. van der Horst, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. J. Hellingwerf, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy reveals a key step for successful entry into the photocycle for photoactive yellow protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(41), 15050–15055 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, A. D.

J. P. Lomont, S. C. Nguyen, J. P. Schlegel, M. C. Zoerb, A. D. Hill, and C. B. Harris, “Ultrafast observation of a solvent dependent spin state equilibrium in CpCo(CO),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3120–3126 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

D. G. Kuroda and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectral signature and hydration of the oxalate dianion,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(20), 204502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Anfinrud, C. Han, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Direct observations of ligand dynamics in hemoglobin by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(21), 8387–8391 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, M.

K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joffre, M.

P. Nuernberger, K. F. Lee, A. Bonvalet, M. H. Vos, and M. Joffre, “Multiply Excited Vibration of Carbon Monoxide in the Primary Docking Site of Hemoglobin Following Photolysis from the Heme,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(14), 2077–2081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, P. Nuernberger, A. Bonvalet, and M. Joffre, “Removing cross-phase modulation from midinfrared chirped-pulse upconversion spectra,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18738–18744 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Nee, R. McCanne, K. J. Kubarych, and M. Joffre, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy detected by chirped pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 713–715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Kubarych, M. Joffre, A. Moore, N. Belabas, and D. M. Jonas, “Mid-infrared electric field characterization using a visible charge-coupled-device-based spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1228–1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonas, D. M.

Jones, K. C.

Z. Ganim, K. C. Jones, and A. Tokmakoff, “Insulin dimer dissociation and unfolding revealed by amide I two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(14), 3579–3588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. DeCamp, L. P. Deflores, K. C. Jones, and A. Tokmakoff, “Single-shot two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(1), 233–241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennis, J. T. M.

T. Mathes, J. Zhu, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. L. Groot, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF Photoreceptors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(2), 203–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleiman, V. D.

Koller, F. O.

K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubarych, K. J.

C. R. Baiz and K. J. Kubarych, “Ultrabroadband detection of a mid-IR continuum by chirped-pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 187–189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Anna, M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Measuring absorptive two-dimensional infrared spectra using chirped-pulse upconversion detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(3), 382–393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Structurally selective geminate rebinding dynamics of solvent-caged radicals studied with nonequilibrium infrared echo spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(38), 13590–13591 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, J. M. Anna, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Multilevel vibrational coherence transfer and wavepacket dynamics probed with multidimensional IR spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129(8), 084503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Nee, R. McCanne, K. J. Kubarych, and M. Joffre, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy detected by chirped pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 713–715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Kubarych, M. Joffre, A. Moore, N. Belabas, and D. M. Jonas, “Mid-infrared electric field characterization using a visible charge-coupled-device-based spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1228–1230 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, D. G.

D. G. Kuroda and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectral signature and hydration of the oxalate dianion,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(20), 204502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwak, K. W.

J. R. Zheng, K. W. Kwak, J. Xie, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast carbon-carbon single-bond rotational isomerization in room-temperature solution,” Science 313(5795), 1951–1955 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambry, J. C.

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. F.

P. Nuernberger, K. F. Lee, A. Bonvalet, M. H. Vos, and M. Joffre, “Multiply Excited Vibration of Carbon Monoxide in the Primary Docking Site of Hemoglobin Following Photolysis from the Heme,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(14), 2077–2081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, P. Nuernberger, A. Bonvalet, and M. Joffre, “Removing cross-phase modulation from midinfrared chirped-pulse upconversion spectra,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18738–18744 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomont, J. P.

J. P. Lomont, S. C. Nguyen, J. P. Schlegel, M. C. Zoerb, A. D. Hill, and C. B. Harris, “Ultrafast observation of a solvent dependent spin state equilibrium in CpCo(CO),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3120–3126 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mäntele, W.

P. Hamm, M. Zurek, W. Mäntele, M. Meyer, H. Scheer, and W. Zinth, “Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides between 1000 and 1800 cm-1.,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(6), 1826–1830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marek, P.

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

Martin, J. L.

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masson, J. B.

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathes, T.

T. Mathes, J. Zhu, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. L. Groot, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF Photoreceptors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(2), 203–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCanne, R.

J. M. Anna, M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Measuring absorptive two-dimensional infrared spectra using chirped-pulse upconversion detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(3), 382–393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Structurally selective geminate rebinding dynamics of solvent-caged radicals studied with nonequilibrium infrared echo spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(38), 13590–13591 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, J. M. Anna, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Multilevel vibrational coherence transfer and wavepacket dynamics probed with multidimensional IR spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129(8), 084503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Nee, R. McCanne, K. J. Kubarych, and M. Joffre, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy detected by chirped pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 713–715 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, M.

P. Hamm, M. Zurek, W. Mäntele, M. Meyer, H. Scheer, and W. Zinth, “Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides between 1000 and 1800 cm-1.,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(6), 1826–1830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Middleton, C. T.

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

Momose, T.

Moore, A.

Mullen, K. M.

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nee, M. J.

Nguyen, S. C.

J. P. Lomont, S. C. Nguyen, J. P. Schlegel, M. C. Zoerb, A. D. Hill, and C. B. Harris, “Ultrafast observation of a solvent dependent spin state equilibrium in CpCo(CO),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3120–3126 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuernberger, P.

P. Nuernberger, K. F. Lee, A. Bonvalet, M. H. Vos, and M. Joffre, “Multiply Excited Vibration of Carbon Monoxide in the Primary Docking Site of Hemoglobin Following Photolysis from the Heme,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(14), 2077–2081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, P. Nuernberger, A. Bonvalet, and M. Joffre, “Removing cross-phase modulation from midinfrared chirped-pulse upconversion spectra,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18738–18744 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ockman, N.

W. B. Wang, N. Ockman, M. Yan, and R. R. Alfano, “The intervalley X6→Γ6, L6 scattering time in GaAs measured by ultrafast pump probe infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Solid-State Electron. 32(12), 1337–1345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pablo, J. J.

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

Pawlowicz, N. P.

M. L. Groot, N. P. Pawlowicz, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, J. Breton, I. H. M. van Stokkum, and R. van Grondelle, “Initial electron donor and acceptor in isolated Photosystem II reaction centers identified with femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13087–13092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petralli-Mallow, T. P.

Pilet, E.

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raleigh, D. P.

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

Regner, N.

K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, L. J.

Scheer, H.

P. Hamm, M. Zurek, W. Mäntele, M. Meyer, H. Scheer, and W. Zinth, “Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides between 1000 and 1800 cm-1.,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(6), 1826–1830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlegel, J. P.

J. P. Lomont, S. C. Nguyen, J. P. Schlegel, M. C. Zoerb, A. D. Hill, and C. B. Harris, “Ultrafast observation of a solvent dependent spin state equilibrium in CpCo(CO),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3120–3126 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrader, T. E.

K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreier, W. J.

K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S.

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

Stahl, A. D.

M. Di Donato, A. D. Stahl, I. H. M. van Stokkum, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 50(4), 480–490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephenson, J. C.

Tokmakoff, A.

Treuffet, J.

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsubouchi, M.

van der Horst, M. A.

L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, M. A. van der Horst, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. J. Hellingwerf, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy reveals a key step for successful entry into the photocycle for photoactive yellow protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(41), 15050–15055 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Grondelle, R.

M. Di Donato, A. D. Stahl, I. H. M. van Stokkum, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 50(4), 480–490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, M. A. van der Horst, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. J. Hellingwerf, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy reveals a key step for successful entry into the photocycle for photoactive yellow protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(41), 15050–15055 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Groot, N. P. Pawlowicz, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, J. Breton, I. H. M. van Stokkum, and R. van Grondelle, “Initial electron donor and acceptor in isolated Photosystem II reaction centers identified with femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13087–13092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Stokkum, I. H. M.

T. Mathes, J. Zhu, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. L. Groot, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF Photoreceptors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(2), 203–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Di Donato, A. D. Stahl, I. H. M. van Stokkum, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 50(4), 480–490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, M. A. van der Horst, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. J. Hellingwerf, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy reveals a key step for successful entry into the photocycle for photoactive yellow protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(41), 15050–15055 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Groot, N. P. Pawlowicz, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, J. Breton, I. H. M. van Stokkum, and R. van Grondelle, “Initial electron donor and acceptor in isolated Photosystem II reaction centers identified with femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13087–13092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Wilderen, L. J. G. W.

L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, M. A. van der Horst, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. J. Hellingwerf, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy reveals a key step for successful entry into the photocycle for photoactive yellow protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(41), 15050–15055 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Groot, N. P. Pawlowicz, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, J. Breton, I. H. M. van Stokkum, and R. van Grondelle, “Initial electron donor and acceptor in isolated Photosystem II reaction centers identified with femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13087–13092 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, M. H.

P. Nuernberger, K. F. Lee, A. Bonvalet, M. H. Vos, and M. Joffre, “Multiply Excited Vibration of Carbon Monoxide in the Primary Docking Site of Hemoglobin Following Photolysis from the Heme,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(14), 2077–2081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. B.

W. B. Wang, N. Ockman, M. Yan, and R. R. Alfano, “The intervalley X6→Γ6, L6 scattering time in GaAs measured by ultrafast pump probe infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Solid-State Electron. 32(12), 1337–1345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wiemann, S.

Woys, A. M.

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

Xie, J.

J. R. Zheng, K. W. Kwak, J. Xie, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast carbon-carbon single-bond rotational isomerization in room-temperature solution,” Science 313(5795), 1951–1955 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M.

W. B. Wang, N. Ockman, M. Yan, and R. R. Alfano, “The intervalley X6→Γ6, L6 scattering time in GaAs measured by ultrafast pump probe infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Solid-State Electron. 32(12), 1337–1345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zanni, M. T.

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

Zheng, J. R.

J. R. Zheng, K. W. Kwak, J. Xie, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast carbon-carbon single-bond rotational isomerization in room-temperature solution,” Science 313(5795), 1951–1955 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

T. Mathes, J. Zhu, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. L. Groot, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF Photoreceptors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(2), 203–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hamm, M. Zurek, W. Mäntele, M. Meyer, H. Scheer, and W. Zinth, “Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides between 1000 and 1800 cm-1.,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(6), 1826–1830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hamm, S. Wiemann, M. Zurek, and W. Zinth, “Highly sensitive multichannel spectrometer for subpicosecond spectroscopy in the midinfrared,” Opt. Lett. 19(20), 1642–1644 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoerb, M. C.

J. P. Lomont, S. C. Nguyen, J. P. Schlegel, M. C. Zoerb, A. D. Hill, and C. B. Harris, “Ultrafast observation of a solvent dependent spin state equilibrium in CpCo(CO),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3120–3126 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zurek, M.

P. Hamm, M. Zurek, W. Mäntele, M. Meyer, H. Scheer, and W. Zinth, “Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides between 1000 and 1800 cm-1.,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(6), 1826–1830 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hamm, S. Wiemann, M. Zurek, and W. Zinth, “Highly sensitive multichannel spectrometer for subpicosecond spectroscopy in the midinfrared,” Opt. Lett. 19(20), 1642–1644 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochemistry (1)

M. Di Donato, A. D. Stahl, I. H. M. van Stokkum, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Biochemistry 50(4), 480–490 (2011).
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Biophys. J. (1)

C. Bonetti, T. Mathes, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. M. Mullen, M. L. Groot, R. van Grondelle, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen bond switching among flavin and amino acid side chains in the BLUF photoreceptor observed by ultrafast infrared spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 95(10), 4790–4802 (2008).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

C. R. Baiz, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Structurally selective geminate rebinding dynamics of solvent-caged radicals studied with nonequilibrium infrared echo spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(38), 13590–13591 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Lomont, S. C. Nguyen, J. P. Schlegel, M. C. Zoerb, A. D. Hill, and C. B. Harris, “Ultrafast observation of a solvent dependent spin state equilibrium in CpCo(CO),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 3120–3126 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

M. J. Nee, C. R. Baiz, J. M. Anna, R. McCanne, and K. J. Kubarych, “Multilevel vibrational coherence transfer and wavepacket dynamics probed with multidimensional IR spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129(8), 084503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Kuroda and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional infrared spectral signature and hydration of the oxalate dianion,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(20), 204502 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

K. Haiser, F. O. Koller, M. Huber, N. Regner, T. E. Schrader, W. J. Schreier, and W. Zinth, “Nitro-phenylalanine: a novel sensor for heat transfer in peptides,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(11), 2169–2175 (2011).
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J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (2)

T. Mathes, J. Zhu, I. H. M. van Stokkum, M. L. Groot, P. Hegemann, and J. T. M. Kennis, “Hydrogen Bond Switching among Flavin and Amino Acids Determines the Nature of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in BLUF Photoreceptors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(2), 203–208 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Nuernberger, K. F. Lee, A. Bonvalet, M. H. Vos, and M. Joffre, “Multiply Excited Vibration of Carbon Monoxide in the Primary Docking Site of Hemoglobin Following Photolysis from the Heme,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(14), 2077–2081 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Chem. (1)

C. T. Middleton, P. Marek, P. Cao, C. Chiu, S. Singh, A. M. Woys, J. J. Pablo, D. P. Raleigh, and M. T. Zanni, “Two dimensional infrared spectroscopy reveals the complex behaviour of an amyloid fibril inhibitor,” Nat. Chem. (to be published).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (10)

M. Tsubouchi and T. Momose, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating for mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses by an AgGaGeS(4) crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2447–2449 (2009).
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C. R. Baiz and K. J. Kubarych, “Ultrabroadband detection of a mid-IR continuum by chirped-pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 187–189 (2011).
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M. J. Nee, R. McCanne, K. J. Kubarych, and M. Joffre, “Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy detected by chirped pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 713–715 (2007).
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M. F. DeCamp and A. Tokmakoff, “Upconversion multichannel infrared spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1818–1820 (2005).
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K. J. Kubarych, M. Joffre, A. Moore, N. Belabas, and D. M. Jonas, “Mid-infrared electric field characterization using a visible charge-coupled-device-based spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1228–1230 (2005).
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Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

Z. Ganim, K. C. Jones, and A. Tokmakoff, “Insulin dimer dissociation and unfolding revealed by amide I two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(14), 3579–3588 (2010).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (5)

P. Hamm, M. Zurek, W. Mäntele, M. Meyer, H. Scheer, and W. Zinth, “Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides between 1000 and 1800 cm-1.,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92(6), 1826–1830 (1995).
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M. L. Groot, N. P. Pawlowicz, L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, J. Breton, I. H. M. van Stokkum, and R. van Grondelle, “Initial electron donor and acceptor in isolated Photosystem II reaction centers identified with femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13087–13092 (2005).
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P. A. Anfinrud, C. Han, and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Direct observations of ligand dynamics in hemoglobin by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(21), 8387–8391 (1989).
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L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, M. A. van der Horst, I. H. M. van Stokkum, K. J. Hellingwerf, R. van Grondelle, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy reveals a key step for successful entry into the photocycle for photoactive yellow protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(41), 15050–15055 (2006).
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J. Treuffet, K. J. Kubarych, J. C. Lambry, E. Pilet, J. B. Masson, J. L. Martin, M. H. Vos, M. Joffre, and A. Alexandrou, “Direct observation of ligand transfer and bond formation in cytochrome c oxidase by using mid-infrared chirped-pulse upconversion,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15705–15710 (2007).
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Science (1)

J. R. Zheng, K. W. Kwak, J. Xie, and M. D. Fayer, “Ultrafast carbon-carbon single-bond rotational isomerization in room-temperature solution,” Science 313(5795), 1951–1955 (2006).
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Solid-State Electron. (1)

W. B. Wang, N. Ockman, M. Yan, and R. R. Alfano, “The intervalley X6→Γ6, L6 scattering time in GaAs measured by ultrafast pump probe infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Solid-State Electron. 32(12), 1337–1345 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustrations of upconversion the femtosecond mid-IR to the visible region with a highly chirped fundamental pulse of 800nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated phase matching bandwidth parameters in (a) and nonlinear efficiency of sum frequency generation parameters in (b) for three nonlinear optical crystals in mid-IR spectral region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scheme of the experimental setup for pump probe measurements and the chirped pulse chirped pulse upconversion mid-infrared.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Upconverted mid-IR spectra by crystal AgGaGeS4 to the visible region and measured by in visible detector CCD. Each spectrum is the average of 1000 pulses. The chirped pulse energy was fixed at around 10μJ.The mid-IR pulse energy was around 1μJ at 2000cm−1. The strong decrease of the upconverted signal in the lower frequency region was caused by the decrease of the nonlinear efficiency of the crystal and the decrease in output power of mid-IR beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pump probe experiment results of a 50μm GaAs demonstrated by the chirped upconversion method. The excitation pulse is at 400nm, ~100nJ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pump probe experiments results of BLUF photoreceptor protein Slr1694 demonstrated by the chirped upconversion method in lower frequency region. Excitation pulse was at 400nm, ~400nJ, with polarization parallel to the probe mid-IR pulse. (a) transient spectra at different time-delays without baseline subtraction. (b) transient spectra at pump-probe delay 1ps after baseline subtraction. (c) decay dynamics of the peak 1550cm−1 after baseline subtraction.

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