Abstract

High-efficiency organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells utilizing a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) pillar layer containing ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) were fabricated by using a mixed solution method. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed that the ZnSe QDs were dispersed in the P3HT layer. The power conversion efficiency of the OPV cells with a P3HT pillar layer containing ZnSe QDs was as much as 100% higher than that of the OPV cells with a planar layer due to an enhancement of the photon-harvesting ability of the congregated P3HT particles containing ZnSe QDs and to an increase of the interfacial region for efficient charge transport.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, “Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063502 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. S. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and K. Cho, “Control of the electrode work function and active layer morphology via surface modification of indium tin oxide for high efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 112111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer−fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Yang, M. Shtein, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 37–41 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Aryal, K. Trivedi, and W. W. Hu, “Nano-confinement induced chain alignment in ordered P3HT nanostructures defined by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3085–3090 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. H. Nguyen, H. Hoppe, T. Erb, S. Günes, G. Gobsch, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Effects of annealing on the nanomorphology and performance of poly(alkylthiophene):fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(7), 1071–1078 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Street and M. Schoendorf, “Interface state recombination in organic solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(20), 205307 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. A. Bakulin, J. C. Hummelen, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast hole-transfer dynamics in polymer/PCBM bulk heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1653–1660 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. S. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and K. Cho, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanorods with aligned chain orientation for organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(4), 540–545 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. A. Castro, H. Benmansour, C. F. O. Graeff, F. Nüesch, E. Tutis, and R. Hany, “Nanostructured organic layers via polymer demixing for interface-enhanced photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5504–5509 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Wu, Y. Zheng, C. Szymanski, and J. McNeill, “Energy transfer in a nanoscale multichromophoric system: fluorescent dye-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(6), 1772–1781 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Wu, B. Bull, C. Szymanski, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Multicolor conjugated polymer dots for biological fluorescence imaging,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2415–2423 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. Tuncel and H. V. Demir, “Conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 2(4), 484–494 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Brown and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. Electrophoretic deposition of CdSe-C60 composite films and capture of photogenerated electrons with nC60 cluster shell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(28), 8890–8891 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Li, S. H. Cho, D. I. Son, T. W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Jin, “UV photovoltaic cells based on conjugated ZnO quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111906 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, J. D. Yang, D. H. Park, B. Angadi, and W. K. Choi, “High efficiency ultraviolet photovoltaic cells based on ZnO–C60 core–shell QDs with organic–inorganic multilayer structure,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 816–819 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. H. Kim, Y. P. Jeon, S. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, and S. H. Han, “Enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic devices due to an embedded rugged nanostructural layer,” Org. Electron. (to be published).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells—towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, J. D. Yang, D. H. Park, B. Angadi, and W. K. Choi, “High efficiency ultraviolet photovoltaic cells based on ZnO–C60 core–shell QDs with organic–inorganic multilayer structure,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 816–819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

D. Tuncel and H. V. Demir, “Conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 2(4), 484–494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Street and M. Schoendorf, “Interface state recombination in organic solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(20), 205307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bakulin, J. C. Hummelen, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast hole-transfer dynamics in polymer/PCBM bulk heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1653–1660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and K. Cho, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanorods with aligned chain orientation for organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(4), 540–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Aryal, K. Trivedi, and W. W. Hu, “Nano-confinement induced chain alignment in ordered P3HT nanostructures defined by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3085–3090 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer−fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, S. H. Cho, D. I. Son, T. W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Jin, “UV photovoltaic cells based on conjugated ZnO quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

P. Brown and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. Electrophoretic deposition of CdSe-C60 composite films and capture of photogenerated electrons with nC60 cluster shell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(28), 8890–8891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, Y. Zheng, C. Szymanski, and J. McNeill, “Energy transfer in a nanoscale multichromophoric system: fluorescent dye-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(6), 1772–1781 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, B. Bull, C. Szymanski, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Multicolor conjugated polymer dots for biological fluorescence imaging,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2415–2423 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

L. H. Nguyen, H. Hoppe, T. Erb, S. Günes, G. Gobsch, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Effects of annealing on the nanomorphology and performance of poly(alkylthiophene):fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(7), 1071–1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and K. Cho, “Control of the electrode work function and active layer morphology via surface modification of indium tin oxide for high efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 112111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. A. Castro, H. Benmansour, C. F. O. Graeff, F. Nüesch, E. Tutis, and R. Hany, “Nanostructured organic layers via polymer demixing for interface-enhanced photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5504–5509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells—towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, “Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, M. Shtein, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 37–41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Angadi, B.

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, J. D. Yang, D. H. Park, B. Angadi, and W. K. Choi, “High efficiency ultraviolet photovoltaic cells based on ZnO–C60 core–shell QDs with organic–inorganic multilayer structure,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 816–819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aryal, M.

M. Aryal, K. Trivedi, and W. W. Hu, “Nano-confinement induced chain alignment in ordered P3HT nanostructures defined by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3085–3090 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayzner, A. L.

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer−fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bakulin, A. A.

A. A. Bakulin, J. C. Hummelen, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast hole-transfer dynamics in polymer/PCBM bulk heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1653–1660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benmansour, H.

F. A. Castro, H. Benmansour, C. F. O. Graeff, F. Nüesch, E. Tutis, and R. Hany, “Nanostructured organic layers via polymer demixing for interface-enhanced photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5504–5509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells—towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, “Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, P.

P. Brown and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. Electrophoretic deposition of CdSe-C60 composite films and capture of photogenerated electrons with nC60 cluster shell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(28), 8890–8891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull, B.

C. Wu, B. Bull, C. Szymanski, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Multicolor conjugated polymer dots for biological fluorescence imaging,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2415–2423 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burn, P. L.

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Castro, F. A.

F. A. Castro, H. Benmansour, C. F. O. Graeff, F. Nüesch, E. Tutis, and R. Hany, “Nanostructured organic layers via polymer demixing for interface-enhanced photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5504–5509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavaye, G.

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K.

J. S. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and K. Cho, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanorods with aligned chain orientation for organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(4), 540–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and K. Cho, “Control of the electrode work function and active layer morphology via surface modification of indium tin oxide for high efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 112111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

F. Li, S. H. Cho, D. I. Son, T. W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Jin, “UV photovoltaic cells based on conjugated ZnO quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-H.

F. Li, S. H. Cho, D. I. Son, T. W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Jin, “UV photovoltaic cells based on conjugated ZnO quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, J. D. Yang, D. H. Park, B. Angadi, and W. K. Choi, “High efficiency ultraviolet photovoltaic cells based on ZnO–C60 core–shell QDs with organic–inorganic multilayer structure,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 816–819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, “Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, K.

C. Wu, B. Bull, C. Szymanski, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Multicolor conjugated polymer dots for biological fluorescence imaging,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2415–2423 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coates, N. E.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, S.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, “Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

D. Tuncel and H. V. Demir, “Conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 2(4), 484–494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, P.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells—towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dunbar, R. B.

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durrant, J. R.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, “Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erb, T.

L. H. Nguyen, H. Hoppe, T. Erb, S. Günes, G. Gobsch, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Effects of annealing on the nanomorphology and performance of poly(alkylthiophene):fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(7), 1071–1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

F. Yang, M. Shtein, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 37–41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gentle, I. R.

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gobsch, G.

L. H. Nguyen, H. Hoppe, T. Erb, S. Günes, G. Gobsch, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Effects of annealing on the nanomorphology and performance of poly(alkylthiophene):fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(7), 1071–1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Graeff, C. F. O.

F. A. Castro, H. Benmansour, C. F. O. Graeff, F. Nüesch, E. Tutis, and R. Hany, “Nanostructured organic layers via polymer demixing for interface-enhanced photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5504–5509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Günes, S.

L. H. Nguyen, H. Hoppe, T. Erb, S. Günes, G. Gobsch, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Effects of annealing on the nanomorphology and performance of poly(alkylthiophene):fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(7), 1071–1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. H.

D. H. Kim, Y. P. Jeon, S. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, and S. H. Han, “Enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic devices due to an embedded rugged nanostructural layer,” Org. Electron. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Hany, R.

F. A. Castro, H. Benmansour, C. F. O. Graeff, F. Nüesch, E. Tutis, and R. Hany, “Nanostructured organic layers via polymer demixing for interface-enhanced photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5504–5509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells—towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hesse, H. C.

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoppe, H.

L. H. Nguyen, H. Hoppe, T. Erb, S. Günes, G. Gobsch, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Effects of annealing on the nanomorphology and performance of poly(alkylthiophene):fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(7), 1071–1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W. W.

M. Aryal, K. Trivedi, and W. W. Hu, “Nano-confinement induced chain alignment in ordered P3HT nanostructures defined by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3085–3090 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hummelen, J. C.

A. A. Bakulin, J. C. Hummelen, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast hole-transfer dynamics in polymer/PCBM bulk heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1653–1660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

James, M.

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, Y. P.

D. H. Kim, Y. P. Jeon, S. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, and S. H. Han, “Enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic devices due to an embedded rugged nanostructural layer,” Org. Electron. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.

F. Li, S. H. Cho, D. I. Son, T. W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Jin, “UV photovoltaic cells based on conjugated ZnO quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jo, J.

J. S. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and K. Cho, “Control of the electrode work function and active layer morphology via surface modification of indium tin oxide for high efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 112111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamat, P. V.

P. Brown and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. Electrophoretic deposition of CdSe-C60 composite films and capture of photogenerated electrons with nC60 cluster shell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(28), 8890–8891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, Y. P. Jeon, S. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, and S. H. Han, “Enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic devices due to an embedded rugged nanostructural layer,” Org. Electron. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

J. S. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and K. Cho, “Control of the electrode work function and active layer morphology via surface modification of indium tin oxide for high efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 112111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. S. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and K. Cho, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanorods with aligned chain orientation for organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(4), 540–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and K. Cho, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanorods with aligned chain orientation for organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(4), 540–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and K. Cho, “Control of the electrode work function and active layer morphology via surface modification of indium tin oxide for high efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 112111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. W.

F. Li, S. H. Cho, D. I. Son, T. W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Jin, “UV photovoltaic cells based on conjugated ZnO quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim, Y. P. Jeon, S. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, and S. H. Han, “Enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic devices due to an embedded rugged nanostructural layer,” Org. Electron. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, “Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koppe, M.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells—towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, K. B.

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, B. W.

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, J. D. Yang, D. H. Park, B. Angadi, and W. K. Choi, “High efficiency ultraviolet photovoltaic cells based on ZnO–C60 core–shell QDs with organic–inorganic multilayer structure,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 816–819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. U.

D. H. Kim, Y. P. Jeon, S. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, and S. H. Han, “Enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic devices due to an embedded rugged nanostructural layer,” Org. Electron. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. Y.

J. S. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and K. Cho, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanorods with aligned chain orientation for organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(4), 540–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. S. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and K. Cho, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanorods with aligned chain orientation for organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(4), 540–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and K. Cho, “Control of the electrode work function and active layer morphology via surface modification of indium tin oxide for high efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 112111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

D. H. Kim, Y. P. Jeon, S. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, and S. H. Han, “Enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic devices due to an embedded rugged nanostructural layer,” Org. Electron. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-K.

F. Li, S. H. Cho, D. I. Son, T. W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Jin, “UV photovoltaic cells based on conjugated ZnO quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

F. Li, S. H. Cho, D. I. Son, T. W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Jin, “UV photovoltaic cells based on conjugated ZnO quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W. L.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNeill, J.

C. Wu, B. Bull, C. Szymanski, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Multicolor conjugated polymer dots for biological fluorescence imaging,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2415–2423 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, Y. Zheng, C. Szymanski, and J. McNeill, “Energy transfer in a nanoscale multichromophoric system: fluorescent dye-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(6), 1772–1781 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meredith, P.

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mühlbacher, D.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells—towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, “Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, L. H.

L. H. Nguyen, H. Hoppe, T. Erb, S. Günes, G. Gobsch, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Effects of annealing on the nanomorphology and performance of poly(alkylthiophene):fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(7), 1071–1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nüesch, F.

F. A. Castro, H. Benmansour, C. F. O. Graeff, F. Nüesch, E. Tutis, and R. Hany, “Nanostructured organic layers via polymer demixing for interface-enhanced photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5504–5509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. H.

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, J. D. Yang, D. H. Park, B. Angadi, and W. K. Choi, “High efficiency ultraviolet photovoltaic cells based on ZnO–C60 core–shell QDs with organic–inorganic multilayer structure,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 816–819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. S. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and K. Cho, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanorods with aligned chain orientation for organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(4), 540–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and K. Cho, “Control of the electrode work function and active layer morphology via surface modification of indium tin oxide for high efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 112111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. S. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and K. Cho, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanorods with aligned chain orientation for organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(4), 540–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peet, J.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

A. A. Bakulin, J. C. Hummelen, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast hole-transfer dynamics in polymer/PCBM bulk heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1653–1660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

L. H. Nguyen, H. Hoppe, T. Erb, S. Günes, G. Gobsch, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Effects of annealing on the nanomorphology and performance of poly(alkylthiophene):fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(7), 1071–1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M. C.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells—towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Mende, L.

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoendorf, M.

R. A. Street and M. Schoendorf, “Interface state recombination in organic solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(20), 205307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. J.

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer−fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwenn, P. E.

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, P. E.

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shtein, M.

F. Yang, M. Shtein, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 37–41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. R. G.

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Son, D. I.

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, J. D. Yang, D. H. Park, B. Angadi, and W. K. Choi, “High efficiency ultraviolet photovoltaic cells based on ZnO–C60 core–shell QDs with organic–inorganic multilayer structure,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 816–819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, S. H. Cho, D. I. Son, T. W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Jin, “UV photovoltaic cells based on conjugated ZnO quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Street, R. A.

R. A. Street and M. Schoendorf, “Interface state recombination in organic solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(20), 205307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Szymanski, C.

C. Wu, Y. Zheng, C. Szymanski, and J. McNeill, “Energy transfer in a nanoscale multichromophoric system: fluorescent dye-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(6), 1772–1781 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, B. Bull, C. Szymanski, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Multicolor conjugated polymer dots for biological fluorescence imaging,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2415–2423 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tassone, C. J.

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer−fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tolbert, S. H.

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer−fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trivedi, K.

M. Aryal, K. Trivedi, and W. W. Hu, “Nano-confinement induced chain alignment in ordered P3HT nanostructures defined by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3085–3090 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuncel, D.

D. Tuncel and H. V. Demir, “Conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 2(4), 484–494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tutis, E.

F. A. Castro, H. Benmansour, C. F. O. Graeff, F. Nüesch, E. Tutis, and R. Hany, “Nanostructured organic layers via polymer demixing for interface-enhanced photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5504–5509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

A. A. Bakulin, J. C. Hummelen, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast hole-transfer dynamics in polymer/PCBM bulk heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1653–1660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Waldauf, C.

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells—towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weickert, J.

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiedemann, W.

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, Y. Zheng, C. Szymanski, and J. McNeill, “Energy transfer in a nanoscale multichromophoric system: fluorescent dye-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(6), 1772–1781 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, B. Bull, C. Szymanski, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Multicolor conjugated polymer dots for biological fluorescence imaging,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2415–2423 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, F.

F. Yang, M. Shtein, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 37–41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. D.

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, J. D. Yang, D. H. Park, B. Angadi, and W. K. Choi, “High efficiency ultraviolet photovoltaic cells based on ZnO–C60 core–shell QDs with organic–inorganic multilayer structure,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 816–819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

C. Wu, Y. Zheng, C. Szymanski, and J. McNeill, “Energy transfer in a nanoscale multichromophoric system: fluorescent dye-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(6), 1772–1781 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

M. Aryal, K. Trivedi, and W. W. Hu, “Nano-confinement induced chain alignment in ordered P3HT nanostructures defined by nanoimprint lithography,” ACS Nano 3(10), 3085–3090 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, B. Bull, C. Szymanski, K. Christensen, and J. McNeill, “Multicolor conjugated polymer dots for biological fluorescence imaging,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2415–2423 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

L. H. Nguyen, H. Hoppe, T. Erb, S. Günes, G. Gobsch, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Effects of annealing on the nanomorphology and performance of poly(alkylthiophene):fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(7), 1071–1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bakulin, J. C. Hummelen, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast hole-transfer dynamics in polymer/PCBM bulk heterojunctions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(10), 1653–1660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, Y. Park, D. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, J. K. Kim, and K. Cho, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanorods with aligned chain orientation for organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(4), 540–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

J. Weickert, R. B. Dunbar, H. C. Hesse, W. Wiedemann, and L. Schmidt-Mende, “Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(16), 1810–1828 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Lee, P. E. Schwenn, A. R. G. Smith, G. Cavaye, P. E. Shaw, M. James, K. B. Krueger, I. R. Gentle, P. Meredith, and P. L. Burn, “Morphology of all-solution-processed ‘Bilayer’ organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(6), 766–770 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, and C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Scharber, D. Mühlbacher, M. Koppe, P. Denk, C. Waldauf, A. J. Heeger, and C. J. Brabec, “Design rules for donors in bulk-heterojunction solar cells—towards 10% energy-conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 789–794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. S. Kim, J. H. Park, J. H. Lee, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, and K. Cho, “Control of the electrode work function and active layer morphology via surface modification of indium tin oxide for high efficiency organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 112111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, S. H. Cho, D. I. Son, T. W. Kim, S.-K. Lee, Y.-H. Cho, and S. Jin, “UV photovoltaic cells based on conjugated ZnO quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, S. A. Choulis, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, S. Cook, and J. R. Durrant, “Device annealing effect in organic solar cells with blends of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and soluble fullerene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

F. A. Castro, H. Benmansour, C. F. O. Graeff, F. Nüesch, E. Tutis, and R. Hany, “Nanostructured organic layers via polymer demixing for interface-enhanced photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 18(23), 5504–5509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

P. Brown and P. V. Kamat, “Quantum dot solar cells. Electrophoretic deposition of CdSe-C60 composite films and capture of photogenerated electrons with nC60 cluster shell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(28), 8890–8891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem.

D. I. Son, B. W. Kwon, J. D. Yang, D. H. Park, B. Angadi, and W. K. Choi, “High efficiency ultraviolet photovoltaic cells based on ZnO–C60 core–shell QDs with organic–inorganic multilayer structure,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(3), 816–819 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

C. Wu, Y. Zheng, C. Szymanski, and J. McNeill, “Energy transfer in a nanoscale multichromophoric system: fluorescent dye-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(6), 1772–1781 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer−fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale

D. Tuncel and H. V. Demir, “Conjugated polymer nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 2(4), 484–494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, and G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yang, M. Shtein, and S. R. Forrest, “Controlled growth of a molecular bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 37–41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron.

D. H. Kim, Y. P. Jeon, S. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, and S. H. Han, “Enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic devices due to an embedded rugged nanostructural layer,” Org. Electron. (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. A. Street and M. Schoendorf, “Interface state recombination in organic solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 81(20), 205307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of the solar cells utilizing (a) a P3HT nanorod layer and (b) a P3HT pillar layer containing ZnSe quantum dots.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized absorption spectra of the ZnSe QDs and the P3HT layer formed on glass substrates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scanning electron microscopy and (b) high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of the P3HT particles containing ZnSe quantum dots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Atomic force microscopy images of the (a) P3HT planar layer, (b) P3HT nanorod layer, and (c) P3HT pillar layer containing ZnSe quantum dots, and (d)-(f) corresponding profile images.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Current density-voltage curves of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells with a P3HT planar layer, a P3HT nanorod layer, and a P3HT pillar layer containing ZnSe quantum dots in the dark and under an AM 1.5 illumination power density of 100 mW/cm2. (b) Energy diagram of OPV cells with a P3HT pillar layer containing ZnSe quantum dots.

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