Abstract

In this study, we fabricate ZnO thin films with nano-crystalline Si (nc-Si) quantum dots (QDs) using a ZnO/Si multilayer deposition structure and a post-annealing process, and the formation of high crystallinity of Si QDs embedded in the crystalline ZnO matrix is demonstrated. For optical properties, the essential features of ZnO material, high transmission in long-wavelength and high absorption in short-wavelength ranges, are preserved. We observe significantly enhanced light absorption and an unusual photoluminescence emission peak contributed from the nc-Si QDs in the middle-wavelength range. In addition, we confirm the formation of optical sub-bandgap and the obtained value is quite close to the unusual PL emission peak. We show that meaningful sub-bandgap can form in ZnO thin film by embedding nc-Si QDs while maintaining the advantageous properties of ZnO matrix. This newly developed composite material, nc-Si QD embedded ZnO thin films, can be useful for various electro-optical applications.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. B. H. Lai, C. H. Cheng, and G. R. Lin, “Multicolor ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al light emitting diodes with improved emission efficiency by small Si quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 698–704 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. C. Cho, S. Park, X. Hao, D. Song, G. Conibeer, S. C. Park, and M. A. Green, “Silicon quantum dot/crystalline silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245201 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Sun, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, Z. Y. Zhang, and D. Fan, “A reproducible route to p-ZnO films and their application in light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 499–501 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. S. Leschkies, T. J. Beatty, M. S. Kang, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Solar cells based on junctions between colloidal PbSe nanocrystals and thin ZnO films,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3638–3648 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Cheng, E. Tam, S. Xu, and K. K. Ostrikov, “Si quantum dots embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix: nanophase control by non-equilibrium plasma hydrogenation,” Nanoscale 2(4), 594–600 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, and A. A. Balandin, “Origin of the optical phonon frequency shifts in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Viera, S. Huet, and L. Boufendi, “Crystal size and temperature measurements in nanostructured silicon using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4175–4183 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, Z. G. Yin, P. F. Cai, and N. F. Chen, “Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 363–367 (2002).
  13. E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D.-H. Kim, H. Jeon, G. Kim, S. Hwangboe, V. P. Verma, W. Choi, and M. Jeon, “Comparison of the optical properties of undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2120–2125 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, and H. H. Hng, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 354–358 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Meier, A. Gondorf, S. Lüttjohann, A. Lorke, and H. Wiggers, “Silicon nanoparticles: Absorption, emission, and the nature of the electronic bandgap,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195313 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Wen, L. V. Dao, P. Hannaford, E.-C. Cho, Y. H. Cho, and M. A. Green, “Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots,” New J. Phys. 9(9), 337 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. C. Liu, S. K. Tung, and J. H. Hsieh, “Influence of annealing on optical properties and surface structure of ZnO thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 105–111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y.-P. Chan, J.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Near-resonant high order nonlinear absorption of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19900–19908 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Z. Ma, X. Liao, G. Kong, and J. Chu, “Absorption spectra of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(13), 1857–1859 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L.-W. Lai and C.-T. Lee, “Investigation of optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 110(2–3), 393–396 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

B. H. Lai, C. H. Cheng, and G. R. Lin, “Multicolor ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al light emitting diodes with improved emission efficiency by small Si quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 698–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Sun, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, Z. Y. Zhang, and D. Fan, “A reproducible route to p-ZnO films and their application in light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 499–501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

Q. Cheng, E. Tam, S. Xu, and K. K. Ostrikov, “Si quantum dots embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix: nanophase control by non-equilibrium plasma hydrogenation,” Nanoscale 2(4), 594–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Leschkies, T. J. Beatty, M. S. Kang, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Solar cells based on junctions between colloidal PbSe nanocrystals and thin ZnO films,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3638–3648 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

L.-W. Lai and C.-T. Lee, “Investigation of optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 110(2–3), 393–396 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-P. Chan, J.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hsu, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Near-resonant high order nonlinear absorption of ZnO thin films,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19900–19908 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Kim, H. Jeon, G. Kim, S. Hwangboe, V. P. Verma, W. Choi, and M. Jeon, “Comparison of the optical properties of undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2120–2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Cho, S. Park, X. Hao, D. Song, G. Conibeer, S. C. Park, and M. A. Green, “Silicon quantum dot/crystalline silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. Meier, A. Gondorf, S. Lüttjohann, A. Lorke, and H. Wiggers, “Silicon nanoparticles: Absorption, emission, and the nature of the electronic bandgap,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wen, L. V. Dao, P. Hannaford, E.-C. Cho, Y. H. Cho, and M. A. Green, “Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots,” New J. Phys. 9(9), 337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. C. Liu, S. K. Tung, and J. H. Hsieh, “Influence of annealing on optical properties and surface structure of ZnO thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 105–111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, and A. A. Balandin, “Origin of the optical phonon frequency shifts in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, and H. H. Hng, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 354–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, Z. G. Yin, P. F. Cai, and N. F. Chen, “Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 363–367 (2002).

2001 (1)

G. Viera, S. Huet, and L. Boufendi, “Crystal size and temperature measurements in nanostructured silicon using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4175–4183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Z. Ma, X. Liao, G. Kong, and J. Chu, “Absorption spectra of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(13), 1857–1859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agosta, R.

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alim, K. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, and A. A. Balandin, “Origin of the optical phonon frequency shifts in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aydil, E. S.

K. S. Leschkies, T. J. Beatty, M. S. Kang, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Solar cells based on junctions between colloidal PbSe nanocrystals and thin ZnO films,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3638–3648 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balandin, A. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, and A. A. Balandin, “Origin of the optical phonon frequency shifts in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Battiato, S.

G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, T. J.

K. S. Leschkies, T. J. Beatty, M. S. Kang, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Solar cells based on junctions between colloidal PbSe nanocrystals and thin ZnO films,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3638–3648 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boufendi, L.

G. Viera, S. Huet, and L. Boufendi, “Crystal size and temperature measurements in nanostructured silicon using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4175–4183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Byun, C.

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, P. F.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, Z. G. Yin, P. F. Cai, and N. F. Chen, “Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 363–367 (2002).

Chan, Y.-P.

Chen, N. F.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, Z. G. Yin, P. F. Cai, and N. F. Chen, “Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 363–367 (2002).

Cheng, B. W.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. H.

B. H. Lai, C. H. Cheng, and G. R. Lin, “Multicolor ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al light emitting diodes with improved emission efficiency by small Si quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 698–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Q.

Q. Cheng, E. Tam, S. Xu, and K. K. Ostrikov, “Si quantum dots embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix: nanophase control by non-equilibrium plasma hydrogenation,” Nanoscale 2(4), 594–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, E. C.

E. C. Cho, S. Park, X. Hao, D. Song, G. Conibeer, S. C. Park, and M. A. Green, “Silicon quantum dot/crystalline silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, E.-C.

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wen, L. V. Dao, P. Hannaford, E.-C. Cho, Y. H. Cho, and M. A. Green, “Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots,” New J. Phys. 9(9), 337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-J.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. H.

X. Wen, L. V. Dao, P. Hannaford, E.-C. Cho, Y. H. Cho, and M. A. Green, “Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots,” New J. Phys. 9(9), 337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-H.

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

D.-H. Kim, H. Jeon, G. Kim, S. Hwangboe, V. P. Verma, W. Choi, and M. Jeon, “Comparison of the optical properties of undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2120–2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J.

Z. Ma, X. Liao, G. Kong, and J. Chu, “Absorption spectra of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(13), 1857–1859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Compagnini, G.

G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conibeer, G.

E. C. Cho, S. Park, X. Hao, D. Song, G. Conibeer, S. C. Park, and M. A. Green, “Silicon quantum dot/crystalline silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crupi, I.

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, B. T.

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dao, L. V.

X. Wen, L. V. Dao, P. Hannaford, E.-C. Cho, Y. H. Cho, and M. A. Green, “Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots,” New J. Phys. 9(9), 337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Di Marco, S.

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Di Stefano, M. A.

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, D.

Fan, Y. M.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, Z. G. Yin, P. F. Cai, and N. F. Chen, “Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 363–367 (2002).

Faraci, G.

G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fonoberov, V. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, and A. A. Balandin, “Origin of the optical phonon frequency shifts in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujihara, S.

S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ge, W. K.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibilisco, S.

G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gondorf, A.

C. Meier, A. Gondorf, S. Lüttjohann, A. Lorke, and H. Wiggers, “Silicon nanoparticles: Absorption, emission, and the nature of the electronic bandgap,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

E. C. Cho, S. Park, X. Hao, D. Song, G. Conibeer, S. C. Park, and M. A. Green, “Silicon quantum dot/crystalline silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wen, L. V. Dao, P. Hannaford, E.-C. Cho, Y. H. Cho, and M. A. Green, “Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots,” New J. Phys. 9(9), 337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hannaford, P.

X. Wen, L. V. Dao, P. Hannaford, E.-C. Cho, Y. H. Cho, and M. A. Green, “Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots,” New J. Phys. 9(9), 337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

E. C. Cho, S. Park, X. Hao, D. Song, G. Conibeer, S. C. Park, and M. A. Green, “Silicon quantum dot/crystalline silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, X. J.

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hng, H. H.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, and H. H. Hng, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 354–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, J. H.

Y. C. Liu, S. K. Tung, and J. H. Hsieh, “Influence of annealing on optical properties and surface structure of ZnO thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 105–111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W.-F.

Hsu, C. W.

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-C.

Huang, J. Y.

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huet, S.

G. Viera, S. Huet, and L. Boufendi, “Crystal size and temperature measurements in nanostructured silicon using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4175–4183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, C.-S.

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwangboe, S.

D.-H. Kim, H. Jeon, G. Kim, S. Hwangboe, V. P. Verma, W. Choi, and M. Jeon, “Comparison of the optical properties of undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2120–2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Im, S.

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

D.-H. Kim, H. Jeon, G. Kim, S. Hwangboe, V. P. Verma, W. Choi, and M. Jeon, “Comparison of the optical properties of undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2120–2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, M.

D.-H. Kim, H. Jeon, G. Kim, S. Hwangboe, V. P. Verma, W. Choi, and M. Jeon, “Comparison of the optical properties of undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2120–2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jhan, H. Y.

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M. S.

K. S. Leschkies, T. J. Beatty, M. S. Kang, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Solar cells based on junctions between colloidal PbSe nanocrystals and thin ZnO films,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3638–3648 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, A.

S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-H.

D.-H. Kim, H. Jeon, G. Kim, S. Hwangboe, V. P. Verma, W. Choi, and M. Jeon, “Comparison of the optical properties of undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2120–2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

D.-H. Kim, H. Jeon, G. Kim, S. Hwangboe, V. P. Verma, W. Choi, and M. Jeon, “Comparison of the optical properties of undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2120–2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kong, G.

Z. Ma, X. Liao, G. Kong, and J. Chu, “Absorption spectra of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(13), 1857–1859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

La Rosa, S.

G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B. H.

B. H. Lai, C. H. Cheng, and G. R. Lin, “Multicolor ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al light emitting diodes with improved emission efficiency by small Si quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 698–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lai, L.-W.

L.-W. Lai and C.-T. Lee, “Investigation of optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 110(2–3), 393–396 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, and H. H. Hng, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 354–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-T.

L.-W. Lai and C.-T. Lee, “Investigation of optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 110(2–3), 393–396 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, and H. H. Hng, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 354–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-I.

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leschkies, K. S.

K. S. Leschkies, T. J. Beatty, M. S. Kang, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Solar cells based on junctions between colloidal PbSe nanocrystals and thin ZnO films,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3638–3648 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B. H.

Liao, X.

Z. Ma, X. Liao, G. Kong, and J. Chu, “Absorption spectra of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(13), 1857–1859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

B. H. Lai, C. H. Cheng, and G. R. Lin, “Multicolor ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al light emitting diodes with improved emission efficiency by small Si quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 698–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.-H.

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

Y. C. Liu, S. K. Tung, and J. H. Hsieh, “Influence of annealing on optical properties and surface structure of ZnO thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 105–111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lo Savio, R.

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lorke, A.

C. Meier, A. Gondorf, S. Lüttjohann, A. Lorke, and H. Wiggers, “Silicon nanoparticles: Absorption, emission, and the nature of the electronic bandgap,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lüttjohann, S.

C. Meier, A. Gondorf, S. Lüttjohann, A. Lorke, and H. Wiggers, “Silicon nanoparticles: Absorption, emission, and the nature of the electronic bandgap,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Z. Ma, X. Liao, G. Kong, and J. Chu, “Absorption spectra of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(13), 1857–1859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meier, C.

C. Meier, A. Gondorf, S. Lüttjohann, A. Lorke, and H. Wiggers, “Silicon nanoparticles: Absorption, emission, and the nature of the electronic bandgap,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mirabella, S.

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miritello, M.

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norris, D. J.

K. S. Leschkies, T. J. Beatty, M. S. Kang, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Solar cells based on junctions between colloidal PbSe nanocrystals and thin ZnO films,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3638–3648 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogawa, Y.

S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. S.

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ostrikov, K. K.

Q. Cheng, E. Tam, S. Xu, and K. K. Ostrikov, “Si quantum dots embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix: nanophase control by non-equilibrium plasma hydrogenation,” Nanoscale 2(4), 594–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

E. C. Cho, S. Park, X. Hao, D. Song, G. Conibeer, S. C. Park, and M. A. Green, “Silicon quantum dot/crystalline silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. C.

E. C. Cho, S. Park, X. Hao, D. Song, G. Conibeer, S. C. Park, and M. A. Green, “Silicon quantum dot/crystalline silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S.-H. K.

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pennisi, A. R.

G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puglisi, R.

G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reshnikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russo, P.

G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, M.

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scardera, G.

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shan, C. X.

Shen, D. Z.

Shieh, J. M.

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simone, F.

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, D.

E. C. Cho, S. Park, X. Hao, D. Song, G. Conibeer, S. C. Park, and M. A. Green, “Silicon quantum dot/crystalline silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F.

Tam, E.

Q. Cheng, E. Tam, S. Xu, and K. K. Ostrikov, “Si quantum dots embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix: nanophase control by non-equilibrium plasma hydrogenation,” Nanoscale 2(4), 594–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tay, B. K.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, and H. H. Hng, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 354–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terrasi, A.

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tung, S. K.

Y. C. Liu, S. K. Tung, and J. H. Hsieh, “Influence of annealing on optical properties and surface structure of ZnO thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 105–111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verma, V. P.

D.-H. Kim, H. Jeon, G. Kim, S. Hwangboe, V. P. Verma, W. Choi, and M. Jeon, “Comparison of the optical properties of undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2120–2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Viera, G.

G. Viera, S. Huet, and L. Boufendi, “Crystal size and temperature measurements in nanostructured silicon using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4175–4183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. K.

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. M.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. X.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, and H. H. Hng, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 354–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, X.

X. Wen, L. V. Dao, P. Hannaford, E.-C. Cho, Y. H. Cho, and M. A. Green, “Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots,” New J. Phys. 9(9), 337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiggers, H.

C. Meier, A. Gondorf, S. Lüttjohann, A. Lorke, and H. Wiggers, “Silicon nanoparticles: Absorption, emission, and the nature of the electronic bandgap,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

Q. Cheng, E. Tam, S. Xu, and K. K. Ostrikov, “Si quantum dots embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix: nanophase control by non-equilibrium plasma hydrogenation,” Nanoscale 2(4), 594–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, F. L.

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z. G.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, Z. G. Yin, P. F. Cai, and N. F. Chen, “Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 363–367 (2002).

You, J. B.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, Z. G. Yin, P. F. Cai, and N. F. Chen, “Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 363–367 (2002).

Yu, J. Z.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, and H. H. Hng, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 354–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. C.

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. G.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, and H. H. Hng, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 354–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. W.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, Z. G. Yin, P. F. Cai, and N. F. Chen, “Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 363–367 (2002).

Zhang, Z. Y.

Zhang, Z. Z.

ACS Nano (1)

K. S. Leschkies, T. J. Beatty, M. S. Kang, D. J. Norris, and E. S. Aydil, “Solar cells based on junctions between colloidal PbSe nanocrystals and thin ZnO films,” ACS Nano 3(11), 3638–3648 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

S.-H. K. Park, C.-S. Hwang, M. Ryu, S. Yang, C. Byun, J. Shin, J.-I. Lee, K. Lee, M. S. Oh, and S. Im, “Transparent and photo-stable ZnO thin-film transistors to drive an active matrix organic-light-emitting-diode display panel,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(6), 678–682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Optoelectron. (1)

E.-C. Cho, M. A. Green, G. Conibeer, D. Song, Y.-H. Cho, G. Scardera, S. Huang, S. Park, X. J. Hao, Y. Huang, and L. V. Dao, “Silicon quantum dots in a dielectric matrix for all-silicon tandem solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 69578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, and A. A. Balandin, “Origin of the optical phonon frequency shifts in ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shieh, W. C. Yu, J. Y. Huang, C. K. Wang, B. T. Dai, H. Y. Jhan, C. W. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, F. L. Yang, and C. L. Pan, “Near-infrared silicon quantum dots metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ma, X. Liao, G. Kong, and J. Chu, “Absorption spectra of nanocrystalline silicon embedded in SiO2 matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(13), 1857–1859 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, Z. G. Yin, P. F. Cai, and N. F. Chen, “Effect of deposition conditions on optical and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 363–367 (2002).

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Fujihara, Y. Ogawa, and A. Kasai, “Tunable visible photoluminescence from ZnO thin films through Mg-doping and annealing,” Chem. Mater. 16(15), 2965–2968 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

G. Faraci, S. Gibilisco, P. Russo, A. R. Pennisi, G. Compagnini, S. Battiato, R. Puglisi, and S. La Rosa, “Si/SiO2 core shell clusters probed by Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46(4), 457–461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. H. Lai, C. H. Cheng, and G. R. Lin, “Multicolor ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al light emitting diodes with improved emission efficiency by small Si quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 698–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

C. Meier, A. Gondorf, S. Lüttjohann, A. Lorke, and H. Wiggers, “Silicon nanoparticles: Absorption, emission, and the nature of the electronic bandgap,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Wang, S. P. Lau, H. W. Lee, S. F. Yu, B. K. Tay, X. H. Zhang, and H. H. Hng, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 354–358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Viera, S. Huet, and L. Boufendi, “Crystal size and temperature measurements in nanostructured silicon using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4175–4183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Mirabella, R. Agosta, G. Franzò, I. Crupi, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, M. A. Di Stefano, S. Di Marco, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Light absorption in silicon quantum dots embedded in silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshnikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. C. Liu, S. K. Tung, and J. H. Hsieh, “Influence of annealing on optical properties and surface structure of ZnO thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 105–111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

L.-W. Lai and C.-T. Lee, “Investigation of optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 110(2–3), 393–396 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale (1)

Q. Cheng, E. Tam, S. Xu, and K. K. Ostrikov, “Si quantum dots embedded in an amorphous SiC matrix: nanophase control by non-equilibrium plasma hydrogenation,” Nanoscale 2(4), 594–600 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

E. C. Cho, S. Park, X. Hao, D. Song, G. Conibeer, S. C. Park, and M. A. Green, “Silicon quantum dot/crystalline silicon solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(24), 245201 (2008).
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New J. Phys. (1)

X. Wen, L. V. Dao, P. Hannaford, E.-C. Cho, Y. H. Cho, and M. A. Green, “Excitation dependence of photoluminescence in silicon quantum dots,” New J. Phys. 9(9), 337 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D.-H. Kim, H. Jeon, G. Kim, S. Hwangboe, V. P. Verma, W. Choi, and M. Jeon, “Comparison of the optical properties of undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2120–2125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, L. Ding, B. W. Cheng, W. K. Ge, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Origin and evolution of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM images of the as-deposited (a) ZnO thin-layer and (b) ZnO/Si single-bilayer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The curve-fitting result of Raman spectrum for sample FA-1000. (b) Raman spectra of the ZnO/Si ML thin films under different annealing temperatures. Inset shows the XRD pattern for sample FA-1000.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The cross-sectional HRTEM images of the (a) as-deposited and (b) 1000°C-annealed (sample FA-1000) ZnO/Si ML thin films. Insets show the corresponding overall images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PL spectra of sample FA-1000 and pure ZnO thin film after annealing at 1000°C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission, reflection, and (b) absorption spectra of sample FA-1000 and pure ZnO thin film on quartzes. (c) PL spectrum and Tauc plot for indirect allowed transition of sample FA-1000. Inset shows the Tauc plot for direct allowed transition of sample FA-1000.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Curve-Fitting Results in Raman Spectra for Nc-Si Phase and the Calculated Crystalline Volume Fraction of Si under Different Annealing Temperatures.

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