Abstract

We report on a new biosensor with localized surface plasmons (LSP) based on an array of gold nanorods and the total internal reflection imaging in polarization contrast. The sensitivity of the new biosensor is characterized and a model detection of DNA hybridization is carried out. The results are compared with a reference experiment using a conventional high-resolution surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. We show that the LSP-based biosensor delivers the same performance as the SPR system while involving significantly lower surface densities of interacting molecules. We demonstrate a limit of detection of 100 pM and a surface density resolution of only 35 fg×mm−2 that corresponds to less than one DNA molecule per nanoparticle on average.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Kvasnička and J. Homola, “Optical sensors based on spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons on metallic nanoparticles: sensitivity considerations,” Biointerphases 3(3), FD4–FD11 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. M. Mayer, F. Hao, S. Lee, P. Nordlander, and J. H. Hafner, “A single molecule immunoassay by localized surface plasmon resonance,” Nanotechnology 21(25), 255503 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. X. Fu, B. Park, and Y. P. Zhao, “Nanorod-mediated surface plasmon resonance sensor based on effective medium theory,” Appl. Opt. 48(23), 4637–4649 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. Arnold, M. G. Blaber, M. J. Ford, and N. Harris, “Universal scaling of local plasmons in chains of metal spheres,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7528–7542 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing--a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 706(1), 8–24 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9213–9220 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Piliarik and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors: approaching their limits?” Opt. Express 17(19), 16505–16517 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 2006).
  18. H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, and A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Techane, D. R. Baer, and D. G. Castner, “Simulation and modeling of self-assembled monolayers of carboxylic acid thiols on flat and nanoparticle gold surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6704–6712 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  22. T. Cassier, K. Lowack, and G. Decher, “Layer-by-layer assembled protein/polymer hybrid films: nanoconstruction via specific recognition,” Supramol. Sci. 5(3-4), 309–315 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Rachkov, S. Patskovsky, A. Soldatkin, and M. Meunier, “Surface plasmon resonance detection of oligonucleotide sequences of the rpoB genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Talanta 85(4), 2094–2099 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. Milkani, S. Morais, C. R. Lambert, and W. G. McGimpsey, “Detection of oligonucleotide systematic mismatches with a surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(5), 1217–1220 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing--a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 706(1), 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rachkov, S. Patskovsky, A. Soldatkin, and M. Meunier, “Surface plasmon resonance detection of oligonucleotide sequences of the rpoB genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Talanta 85(4), 2094–2099 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Techane, D. R. Baer, and D. G. Castner, “Simulation and modeling of self-assembled monolayers of carboxylic acid thiols on flat and nanoparticle gold surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6704–6712 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9213–9220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. D. Arnold, M. G. Blaber, M. J. Ford, and N. Harris, “Universal scaling of local plasmons in chains of metal spheres,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7528–7542 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Milkani, S. Morais, C. R. Lambert, and W. G. McGimpsey, “Detection of oligonucleotide systematic mismatches with a surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(5), 1217–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Mayer, F. Hao, S. Lee, P. Nordlander, and J. H. Hafner, “A single molecule immunoassay by localized surface plasmon resonance,” Nanotechnology 21(25), 255503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Fu, B. Park, and Y. P. Zhao, “Nanorod-mediated surface plasmon resonance sensor based on effective medium theory,” Appl. Opt. 48(23), 4637–4649 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors: approaching their limits?” Opt. Express 17(19), 16505–16517 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, and A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kvasnička and J. Homola, “Optical sensors based on spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons on metallic nanoparticles: sensitivity considerations,” Biointerphases 3(3), FD4–FD11 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Cassier, K. Lowack, and G. Decher, “Layer-by-layer assembled protein/polymer hybrid films: nanoconstruction via specific recognition,” Supramol. Sci. 5(3-4), 309–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Angelome, P. C.

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, M. D.

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baer, D. R.

S. Techane, D. R. Baer, and D. G. Castner, “Simulation and modeling of self-assembled monolayers of carboxylic acid thiols on flat and nanoparticle gold surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6704–6712 (2011).
[PubMed]

Blaber, M. G.

Cassier, T.

T. Cassier, K. Lowack, and G. Decher, “Layer-by-layer assembled protein/polymer hybrid films: nanoconstruction via specific recognition,” Supramol. Sci. 5(3-4), 309–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Castner, D. G.

S. Techane, D. R. Baer, and D. G. Castner, “Simulation and modeling of self-assembled monolayers of carboxylic acid thiols on flat and nanoparticle gold surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6704–6712 (2011).
[PubMed]

Chen, S.

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chilkoti, A.

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, and A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, P. K.

H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curry, A. C.

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, and A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlin, A.

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, and A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlin, A. B.

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decher, G.

T. Cassier, K. Lowack, and G. Decher, “Layer-by-layer assembled protein/polymer hybrid films: nanoconstruction via specific recognition,” Supramol. Sci. 5(3-4), 309–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dmitriev, A.

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, M. J.

Fu, J. X.

Galler, N.

Gunnarsson, L.

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafner, J. H.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Mayer, F. Hao, S. Lee, P. Nordlander, and J. H. Hafner, “A single molecule immunoassay by localized surface plasmon resonance,” Nanotechnology 21(25), 255503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

K. M. Mayer, F. Hao, S. Lee, P. Nordlander, and J. H. Hafner, “A single molecule immunoassay by localized surface plasmon resonance,” Nanotechnology 21(25), 255503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, N.

Homola, J.

M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9213–9220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors: approaching their limits?” Opt. Express 17(19), 16505–16517 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kvasnička and J. Homola, “Optical sensors based on spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons on metallic nanoparticles: sensitivity considerations,” Biointerphases 3(3), FD4–FD11 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höök, F.

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, and A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käll, M.

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Králíková, S.

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9213–9220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krull, U. J.

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing--a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 706(1), 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kvasnicka, P.

M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9213–9220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kvasnička and J. Homola, “Optical sensors based on spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons on metallic nanoparticles: sensitivity considerations,” Biointerphases 3(3), FD4–FD11 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lachmanová, M.

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambert, C. R.

E. Milkani, S. Morais, C. R. Lambert, and W. G. McGimpsey, “Detection of oligonucleotide systematic mismatches with a surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(5), 1217–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lechner, R. T.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lechuga, L. M.

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

K. M. Mayer, F. Hao, S. Lee, P. Nordlander, and J. H. Hafner, “A single molecule immunoassay by localized surface plasmon resonance,” Nanotechnology 21(25), 255503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, B.

H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liboska, R.

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liz-Marzan, L. M.

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lowack, K.

T. Cassier, K. Lowack, and G. Decher, “Layer-by-layer assembled protein/polymer hybrid films: nanoconstruction via specific recognition,” Supramol. Sci. 5(3-4), 309–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marinakos, S. M.

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, and A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, K. M.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Mayer, F. Hao, S. Lee, P. Nordlander, and J. H. Hafner, “A single molecule immunoassay by localized surface plasmon resonance,” Nanotechnology 21(25), 255503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGimpsey, W. G.

E. Milkani, S. Morais, C. R. Lambert, and W. G. McGimpsey, “Detection of oligonucleotide systematic mismatches with a surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(5), 1217–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meunier, M.

A. Rachkov, S. Patskovsky, A. Soldatkin, and M. Meunier, “Surface plasmon resonance detection of oligonucleotide sequences of the rpoB genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Talanta 85(4), 2094–2099 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milkani, E.

E. Milkani, S. Morais, C. R. Lambert, and W. G. McGimpsey, “Detection of oligonucleotide systematic mismatches with a surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(5), 1217–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morais, S.

E. Milkani, S. Morais, C. R. Lambert, and W. G. McGimpsey, “Detection of oligonucleotide systematic mismatches with a surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(5), 1217–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

K. M. Mayer, F. Hao, S. Lee, P. Nordlander, and J. H. Hafner, “A single molecule immunoassay by localized surface plasmon resonance,” Nanotechnology 21(25), 255503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nusz, G. J.

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, and A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Párová, L.

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patskovsky, S.

A. Rachkov, S. Patskovsky, A. Soldatkin, and M. Meunier, “Surface plasmon resonance detection of oligonucleotide sequences of the rpoB genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Talanta 85(4), 2094–2099 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petryayeva, E.

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing--a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 706(1), 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piliarik, M.

M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9213–9220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors: approaching their limits?” Opt. Express 17(19), 16505–16517 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rachkov, A.

A. Rachkov, S. Patskovsky, A. Soldatkin, and M. Meunier, “Surface plasmon resonance detection of oligonucleotide sequences of the rpoB genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Talanta 85(4), 2094–2099 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rejman, D.

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, I.

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schider, G.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sepúlveda, B.

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soldatkin, A.

A. Rachkov, S. Patskovsky, A. Soldatkin, and M. Meunier, “Surface plasmon resonance detection of oligonucleotide sequences of the rpoB genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Talanta 85(4), 2094–2099 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepánek, J.

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svedendahl, M.

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, C. R.

H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Techane, S.

S. Techane, D. R. Baer, and D. G. Castner, “Simulation and modeling of self-assembled monolayers of carboxylic acid thiols on flat and nanoparticle gold surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6704–6712 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tegenfeldt, J. O.

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaisocherova, H.

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaisocherová, H.

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, and A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, X. D.

H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, P. G.

H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, X. Y.

H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, Y. L.

H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. P.

Zítová, A.

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (3)

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Nusz, S. M. Marinakos, A. C. Curry, A. Dahlin, F. Höök, A. Wax, and A. Chilkoti, “Label-free plasmonic detection of biomolecular binding by a single gold nanorod,” Anal. Chem. 80(4), 984–989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Techane, D. R. Baer, and D. G. Castner, “Simulation and modeling of self-assembled monolayers of carboxylic acid thiols on flat and nanoparticle gold surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6704–6712 (2011).
[PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

E. Petryayeva and U. J. Krull, “Localized surface plasmon resonance: nanostructures, bioassays and biosensing--a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 706(1), 8–24 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biointerphases (1)

P. Kvasnička and J. Homola, “Optical sensors based on spectroscopy of localized surface plasmons on metallic nanoparticles: sensitivity considerations,” Biointerphases 3(3), FD4–FD11 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biopolymers (1)

H. Vaisocherová, A. Zítová, M. Lachmanová, J. Stepánek, S. Králíková, R. Liboska, D. Rejman, I. Rosenberg, and J. Homola, “Investigating oligonucleotide hybridization at subnanomolar level by surface plasmon resonance biosensor method,” Biopolymers 82(4), 394–398 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

E. Milkani, S. Morais, C. R. Lambert, and W. G. McGimpsey, “Detection of oligonucleotide systematic mismatches with a surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(5), 1217–1220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik, L. Párová, and J. Homola, “High-throughput SPR sensor for food safety,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(5), 1399–1404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (2)

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colloids Surf., B (1)

H. W. Huang, C. R. Tang, Y. L. Zeng, X. Y. Yu, B. Liao, X. D. Xia, P. G. Yi, and P. K. Chu, “Label-free optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of immobilized gold nanorods,” Colloids Surf., B 71(1), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Today (1)

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

K. M. Mayer, F. Hao, S. Lee, P. Nordlander, and J. H. Hafner, “A single molecule immunoassay by localized surface plasmon resonance,” Nanotechnology 21(25), 255503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, M. Svedendahl, M. Käll, L. Gunnarsson, and A. Dmitriev, “Ultrahigh sensitivity made simple: nanoplasmonic label-free biosensing with an extremely low limit-of-detection for bacterial and cancer diagnostics,” Nanotechnology 20(43), 434015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

M. Piliarik, H. Vaisocherova, and J. Homola, “Towards parallelized surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for sensitive detection of oligonucleotides,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 121(1), 187–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Supramol. Sci. (1)

T. Cassier, K. Lowack, and G. Decher, “Layer-by-layer assembled protein/polymer hybrid films: nanoconstruction via specific recognition,” Supramol. Sci. 5(3-4), 309–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Talanta (1)

A. Rachkov, S. Patskovsky, A. Soldatkin, and M. Meunier, “Surface plasmon resonance detection of oligonucleotide sequences of the rpoB genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Talanta 85(4), 2094–2099 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavelength-dependent intensity and phase of a light wave coupled to a LSP on a nanorod array ((a) and (b)) and a propagating SPP ((c) and (d)) calculated for two different refractive indices of adjacent dielectric. a) Transmittance through a nanorod array (ratio of light intensities polarized parallel and transverse to the nanorod axis) and (b) phase-shift (between parallel and transverse polarizations) for a nanorod array. (c) Reflectivity (TM/TE ratio) and (d) phase-shift (TM-TE) for light coupled to a SPP on a 50 nm thick gold film via a prism coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The concept of an optical sensor based on the excitation of LSPs on an array of gold nanorods by the total internal reflection and polarization contrast (bottom) and the state of polarization of light in different sections of the optical path for two different values of the refractive index in the vicinity of the gold nanorods (top).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength spectrum of the light intensity in polarization contrast configuration. (a) Calculated spectra based on the FDTD model and (b) measured spectra of the fabricated nanorod array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calibration of the LSP-based sensor using a BSA multilayer. (a) Temporal sensor response to the formation of the BSA/DS multilayer. (b) Sensor sensitivity as a function of the distance from the surface of the nanorod array (red circles) and the two contributions associated with LSP (black line) and the polariton (red line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal response of the LSP-based sensor to five different concentrations of target oligonucleotides.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calibration curves obtained for the detection of short oligonucleotides. The solid line corresponds to a linear fit through zero.

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