Abstract

Using two-photon luminescence (TPL) microscopy and local reflection spectroscopy we investigate electromagnetic field enhancement effects from a µm-sized composition of 450-nm-deep V-grooves milled by focused ion beam in a thick gold film and assembled to feature, within the same structure, individual V-grooves as well as one- and two-dimensional 300-nm-period arrays of, respectively, parallel and crossed V-grooves. We analyze TPL signal levels obtained at different spatial locations and with different combinations of excitation and detection polarizations, discovering that the TPL emitted from the V-grooves is polarized in the direction perpendicular to that of the V-grooves. This feature implies that the TPL occurs solely in the form of (p-polarized) surface plasmon modes and originates therefore from the very bottom of V-grooves, where no photonic modes exist. Implications of the results obtained to evaluation of local field enhancements using TPL microscopy, especially when investigating extended structures exhibiting different radiation channels, are discussed.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Liu, C. Yu, and S. Sheu, “Low concentration rhodamine 6G observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering on optimally electrochemically roughened silver substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(35), 3546–3551 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4014–4017 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Hohenau, J. Krenn, F. Garcia-Vidal, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Beermann, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75(8), 085104 (2007).
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  12. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(19), 197403 (2003).
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  13. J. Beermann, I. P. Radko, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15234–15241 (2007).
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  14. T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon polariton resonances in triangular-groove metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195407 (2009).
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  15. T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Resonant plasmon nanofocusing by closed tapered gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 291–295 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 5041–5043 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field two-photon-induced photoluminescence from single gold nanorods and imaging of plasmon modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(27), 13214–13220 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, A. E. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17302–17309 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface enhanced Raman imaging: periodic arrays and individual metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12698–12705 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Q.-Q. Wang, J.-B. Han, D.-L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y.-B. Han, H.-M. Gong, and X.-W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 723–728 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Z.-K. Zhou, X.-N. Peng, Z.-J. Yang, Z.-S. Zhang, M. Li, X.-R. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Shan, Q.-Q. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning gold nanorod-nanoparticle hybrids into plasmonic Fano resonance for dramatically enhanced light emission and transmission,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 49–55 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Beermann, T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Field enhancement and extraordinary optical transmission by tapered periodic slits in gold films,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063029 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. D. Wissert, K. S. Ilin, M. Siegel, U. Lemmer, and H.-J. Eisler, “Coupled nanoantenna plasmon resonance spectra from two-photon laser excitation,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4161–4165 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Z.-K. Zhou, X.-N. Peng, Z.-J. Yang, Z.-S. Zhang, M. Li, X.-R. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Shan, Q.-Q. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning gold nanorod-nanoparticle hybrids into plasmonic Fano resonance for dramatically enhanced light emission and transmission,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 49–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beermann, T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Field enhancement and extraordinary optical transmission by tapered periodic slits in gold films,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, J. Rafaelsen, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localized field enhancements in two-dimensional V-groove metal arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(3), 372–378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Resonant plasmon nanofocusing by closed tapered gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 291–295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Wissert, K. S. Ilin, M. Siegel, U. Lemmer, and H.-J. Eisler, “Coupled nanoantenna plasmon resonance spectra from two-photon laser excitation,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4161–4165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon polariton resonances in triangular-groove metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface enhanced Raman imaging: periodic arrays and individual metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12698–12705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, A. E. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17302–17309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Hohenau, J. Krenn, F. Garcia-Vidal, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Beermann, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75(8), 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, I. P. Radko, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15234–15241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q.-Q. Wang, J.-B. Han, D.-L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y.-B. Han, H.-M. Gong, and X.-W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y. Liu, C. Yu, and S. Sheu, “Low concentration rhodamine 6G observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering on optimally electrochemically roughened silver substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(35), 3546–3551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field two-photon-induced photoluminescence from single gold nanorods and imaging of plasmon modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(27), 13214–13220 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 5041–5043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(19), 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rep. 335(6), 275–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1969

A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(5), 185–187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aubry, A.

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachelot, R.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beermann, J.

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, J. Rafaelsen, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localized field enhancements in two-dimensional V-groove metal arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(3), 372–378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Field enhancement and extraordinary optical transmission by tapered periodic slits in gold films,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Resonant plasmon nanofocusing by closed tapered gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 291–295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface enhanced Raman imaging: periodic arrays and individual metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12698–12705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, A. E. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17302–17309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, J. Krenn, F. Garcia-Vidal, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Beermann, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75(8), 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, I. P. Radko, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15234–15241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(19), 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 5041–5043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Boltasseva, A. E.

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 5041–5043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

A. Hohenau, J. Krenn, F. Garcia-Vidal, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Beermann, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75(8), 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, J. Rafaelsen, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localized field enhancements in two-dimensional V-groove metal arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(3), 372–378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Field enhancement and extraordinary optical transmission by tapered periodic slits in gold films,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Resonant plasmon nanofocusing by closed tapered gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 291–295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface enhanced Raman imaging: periodic arrays and individual metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12698–12705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon polariton resonances in triangular-groove metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, A. E. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17302–17309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beermann, I. P. Radko, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15234–15241 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(19), 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butterfield, F. L.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, V. W.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cherukulappurath, S.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coello, V.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(19), 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

J. Beermann, T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Field enhancement and extraordinary optical transmission by tapered periodic slits in gold films,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Resonant plasmon nanofocusing by closed tapered gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 291–295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

J. Beermann, T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Field enhancement and extraordinary optical transmission by tapered periodic slits in gold films,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Resonant plasmon nanofocusing by closed tapered gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 291–295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

M. D. Wissert, K. S. Ilin, M. Siegel, U. Lemmer, and H.-J. Eisler, “Coupled nanoantenna plasmon resonance spectra from two-photon laser excitation,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4161–4165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrer, R. A.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fourkas, J. T.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F.

A. Hohenau, J. Krenn, F. Garcia-Vidal, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Beermann, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75(8), 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghenuche, P.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, H.-M.

Q.-Q. Wang, J.-B. Han, D.-L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y.-B. Han, H.-M. Gong, and X.-W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, D.-L.

Q.-Q. Wang, J.-B. Han, D.-L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y.-B. Han, H.-M. Gong, and X.-W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J.-B.

Q.-Q. Wang, J.-B. Han, D.-L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y.-B. Han, H.-M. Gong, and X.-W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.-B.

Q.-Q. Wang, J.-B. Han, D.-L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y.-B. Han, H.-M. Gong, and X.-W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A. Hohenau, J. Krenn, F. Garcia-Vidal, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Beermann, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75(8), 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ilin, K. S.

M. D. Wissert, K. S. Ilin, M. Siegel, U. Lemmer, and H.-J. Eisler, “Coupled nanoantenna plasmon resonance spectra from two-photon laser excitation,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4161–4165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imura, K.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field two-photon-induced photoluminescence from single gold nanorods and imaging of plasmon modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(27), 13214–13220 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kostcheev, S.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J.

A. Hohenau, J. Krenn, F. Garcia-Vidal, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Beermann, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75(8), 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lei, D. Y.

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leite, J. R. R.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

M. D. Wissert, K. S. Ilin, M. Siegel, U. Lemmer, and H.-J. Eisler, “Coupled nanoantenna plasmon resonance spectra from two-photon laser excitation,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4161–4165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leosson, K.

Lerondel, G.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

Z.-K. Zhou, X.-N. Peng, Z.-J. Yang, Z.-S. Zhang, M. Li, X.-R. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Shan, Q.-Q. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning gold nanorod-nanoparticle hybrids into plasmonic Fano resonance for dramatically enhanced light emission and transmission,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 49–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, C. Yu, and S. Sheu, “Low concentration rhodamine 6G observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering on optimally electrochemically roughened silver substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(35), 3546–3551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

A. Hohenau, J. Krenn, F. Garcia-Vidal, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Beermann, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75(8), 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mooradian, A.

A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(5), 185–187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagahara, T.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field two-photon-induced photoluminescence from single gold nanorods and imaging of plasmon modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(27), 13214–13220 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novikov, S. M.

J. Beermann, T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Field enhancement and extraordinary optical transmission by tapered periodic slits in gold films,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, J. Rafaelsen, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localized field enhancements in two-dimensional V-groove metal arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(3), 372–378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Resonant plasmon nanofocusing by closed tapered gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 291–295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface enhanced Raman imaging: periodic arrays and individual metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12698–12705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, A. E. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17302–17309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 5041–5043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 68(11), 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Near-field two-photon-induced photoluminescence from single gold nanorods and imaging of plasmon modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(27), 13214–13220 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, K.

Pendry, J. B.

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, X.-N.

Z.-K. Zhou, X.-N. Peng, Z.-J. Yang, Z.-S. Zhang, M. Li, X.-R. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Shan, Q.-Q. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning gold nanorod-nanoparticle hybrids into plasmonic Fano resonance for dramatically enhanced light emission and transmission,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 49–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radko, I. P.

Rafaelsen, J.

Rasing, Th.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S.

A. Hohenau, J. Krenn, F. Garcia-Vidal, S. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Beermann, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films,” Phys. Rev. B 75(8), 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez, E. J.

E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4014–4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rep. 335(6), 275–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metal-dielectric composites,” Phys. Rep. 335(6), 275–371 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shan, X.

Z.-K. Zhou, X.-N. Peng, Z.-J. Yang, Z.-S. Zhang, M. Li, X.-R. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Shan, Q.-Q. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning gold nanorod-nanoparticle hybrids into plasmonic Fano resonance for dramatically enhanced light emission and transmission,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 49–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, “Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. B 30(2), 519–526 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, S.

Y. Liu, C. Yu, and S. Sheu, “Low concentration rhodamine 6G observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering on optimally electrochemically roughened silver substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. 16(35), 3546–3551 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, M.

M. D. Wissert, K. S. Ilin, M. Siegel, U. Lemmer, and H.-J. Eisler, “Coupled nanoantenna plasmon resonance spectra from two-photon laser excitation,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4161–4165 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Søndergaard, T.

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, J. Rafaelsen, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localized field enhancements in two-dimensional V-groove metal arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(3), 372–378 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Field enhancement and extraordinary optical transmission by tapered periodic slits in gold films,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Resonant plasmon nanofocusing by closed tapered gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 291–295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon polariton resonances in triangular-groove metal gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Søndergaard, A. E. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17302–17309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnefraud, Y.

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Plasmonic light-harvesting devices over the whole visible spectrum,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2574–2579 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, X.-R.

Z.-K. Zhou, X.-N. Peng, Z.-J. Yang, Z.-S. Zhang, M. Li, X.-R. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Shan, Q.-Q. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning gold nanorod-nanoparticle hybrids into plasmonic Fano resonance for dramatically enhanced light emission and transmission,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 49–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taminiau, T. H.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.-Q.

Z.-K. Zhou, X.-N. Peng, Z.-J. Yang, Z.-S. Zhang, M. Li, X.-R. Su, Q. Zhang, X. Shan, Q.-Q. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Tuning gold nanorod-nanoparticle hybrids into plasmonic Fano resonance for dramatically enhanced light emission and transmission,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 49–55 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q.-Q. Wang, J.-B. Han, D.-L. Guo, S. Xiao, Y.-B. Han, H.-M. Gong, and X.-W. Zou, “Highly efficient avalanche multiphoton luminescence from coupled Au nanowires in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 723–728 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3737 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Overview and (b) zoomed SEM images (taken at a tilt angle of 54° with respect to normal incidence) of the FIB fabricated structure of crossing V-grooves having a groove period Λ = 300 nm and depth d = 450 nm. Inset in (b) shows a similarly obtained SEM image of a cut through an individually V-groove milled under the same conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical images of the crossing V-grooves with the groove period of 300 nm and depth of 450 nm obtained for (a) x- and (b) y-polarized detection as indicated by double arrows (Media 1). (c) Reflection spectra of the crossing V-grooves sample obtained for x- and y-polarization in the positions marked by letters A, B, C in (a) and (b). Optical image (b) is linked with the movie (3640KB) showing the image evolution with the rotation of analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) FH and (c), (d) TPL images of the crossing V-grooves with groove period 300 nm and depth 450 nm obtained at λ = 740 nm for (a), (c) x- and (b), (d) y-polarized excitation and detection as indicated by double arrows. (e) SEM image of a test area with only a 1D structure exhibiting slightly wider grooves at one end caused by less re-deposition during the last part of each FIB-written line along the groove. (f) Averaged and normalized TPL signal cross sections taken at the positions indicated by white lines numbered in (c) and corresponding to the cross section number labeled in (f). Insets in (a), (b) show optical images obtained for the same polarization as indicated in (a), (b) by double arrows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) White light and (b) TPL images of the crossing V-grooves with period 300 nm and depth 450 nm obtained at λ = 740 nm in cross-polarized configuration, i.e., with the y-polarized excitation and x-polarized detection as indicated by double arrows, along with (c) averaged TPL signal in the cross section taken across the sample as indicated by a white line in (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) FH and (b), (c) TPL images of an individual 1.1-1.3 µm deep V-groove with a small defect obtained at λ = 750 nm for (a),(b) parallel p-polarized excitation and detection and (c) crossed p-polarized excitation and s-polarized detection as indicated by double arrows. (d) Averaged TPL signal in the cross section indicated by a white line in (c).

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