Abstract

This paper reports the synthesis of Au nanoparticles by 30-fs pulses irradiation of a sample containing HAuCl4 and chitosan, a biopolymer used as reducing agent and stabilizer. We observed that it is a multi-photon induced process, with a threshold irradiance of 3.8 × 1011 W/cm2 at 790 nm. By transmission electron microscopy we observed nanoparticles from 8 to 50 nm with distinct shapes. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that the reduction of gold and consequent production of nanoparticles is related to the fs-pulse induced oxidation of hydroxyl to carbonyl groups in chitosan.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science 297(5586), 1536–1540 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Moskovits, “Surface-Enhanced Spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(3), 783–826 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Eustis and M. A. el-Sayed, “Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(3), 209–217 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Frens, “Controlled Nucleation for Regulation of Particle-Size in Monodisperse Gold Suspensions,” Nature 241, 20–22 (1973).
  7. S. D. Bunge, T. J. Boyle, and T. J. Headley, “Synthesis of coinage-metal nanoparticles from mesityl precursors,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 901–905 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Sakamoto, M. Fujistuka, and T. Majima, “Light as a construction tool of metal nanoparticles: Synthesis and mechanism,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(1), 33–56 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Hassenkam, K. Norgaard, L. Iversen, C. J. Kiely, M. Brust, and T. Bjornholm, “Fabrication of 2D gold nanowires by self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on water surfaces in the presence of surfactants,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(16), 1126–1130 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. S. Shankar, A. Rai, B. Ankamwar, A. Singh, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 482–488 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. P. Chandran, M. Chaudhary, R. Pasricha, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract,” Biotechnol. Prog. 22(2), 577–583 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Willner, R. Baron, and B. Willner, “Growing metal nanoparticles by enzymes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(9), 1109–1120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Z. Huang and X. R. Yang, “Synthesis of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles in the absence/presence of tripolyphosphate,” Biomacromolecules 5(6), 2340–2346 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. S. dos Santos, P. J. G. Goulet, N. P. W. Pieczonka, O. N. Oliveira, and R. F. Aroca, “Gold nanoparticle embedded, self-sustained chitosan films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 20(23), 10273–10277 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. W. Wei and W. P. Qian, “Facile synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles utilizing chitosan as a mediator agent,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 62(1), 136–142 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. W. Wei and W. P. Qian, “Chitosan-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles by UV photoactivation and their characterization,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 2508–2514 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. A. Bough, W. L. Salter, A. C. M. Wu, and B. E. Perkins, “Influence of Manufacturing Variables on Characteristics and Effectiveness of Chitosan Products. 1. Chemical Composition, Viscosity, and Molecular-Weight Distribution of Chitosan Products,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 20(12), 1931–1943 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Turkevich, P. C. Stevenson, and J. Hillier, “A Study of the Nucleation and Growth Processes in the Synthesis of Colloidal Gold,” Discuss. Faraday Soc.55-75 (1951).
  19. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7488–7495 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  23. J. Grant, M. Blicker, M. Piquette-Miller, and C. Allen, “Hybrid films from blends of chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine for localized delivery of paclitaxel,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(7), 1512–1527 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Grant, J. Cho, and C. Allen, “Self-assembly and physicochemical and rheological properties of a polysaccharide-surfactant system formed from the cationic biopolymer chitosan and nonionic sorbitan esters,” Langmuir 22(9), 4327–4335 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Sakamoto, M. Fujistuka, and T. Majima, “Light as a construction tool of metal nanoparticles: Synthesis and mechanism,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(1), 33–56 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. W. Wei and W. P. Qian, “Facile synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles utilizing chitosan as a mediator agent,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 62(1), 136–142 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

D. W. Wei and W. P. Qian, “Chitosan-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles by UV photoactivation and their characterization,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 2508–2514 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Chandran, M. Chaudhary, R. Pasricha, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract,” Biotechnol. Prog. 22(2), 577–583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Willner, R. Baron, and B. Willner, “Growing metal nanoparticles by enzymes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(9), 1109–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Eustis and M. A. el-Sayed, “Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(3), 209–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grant, J. Cho, and C. Allen, “Self-assembly and physicochemical and rheological properties of a polysaccharide-surfactant system formed from the cationic biopolymer chitosan and nonionic sorbitan esters,” Langmuir 22(9), 4327–4335 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Grant, M. Blicker, M. Piquette-Miller, and C. Allen, “Hybrid films from blends of chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine for localized delivery of paclitaxel,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(7), 1512–1527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

S. S. Shankar, A. Rai, B. Ankamwar, A. Singh, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 482–488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Z. Huang and X. R. Yang, “Synthesis of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles in the absence/presence of tripolyphosphate,” Biomacromolecules 5(6), 2340–2346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. dos Santos, P. J. G. Goulet, N. P. W. Pieczonka, O. N. Oliveira, and R. F. Aroca, “Gold nanoparticle embedded, self-sustained chitosan films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 20(23), 10273–10277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. D. Bunge, T. J. Boyle, and T. J. Headley, “Synthesis of coinage-metal nanoparticles from mesityl precursors,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 901–905 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Hassenkam, K. Norgaard, L. Iversen, C. J. Kiely, M. Brust, and T. Bjornholm, “Fabrication of 2D gold nanowires by self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on water surfaces in the presence of surfactants,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(16), 1126–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science 297(5586), 1536–1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7488–7495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-Enhanced Spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(3), 783–826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. A. Bough, W. L. Salter, A. C. M. Wu, and B. E. Perkins, “Influence of Manufacturing Variables on Characteristics and Effectiveness of Chitosan Products. 1. Chemical Composition, Viscosity, and Molecular-Weight Distribution of Chitosan Products,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 20(12), 1931–1943 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. Frens, “Controlled Nucleation for Regulation of Particle-Size in Monodisperse Gold Suspensions,” Nature 241, 20–22 (1973).

1951 (1)

J. Turkevich, P. C. Stevenson, and J. Hillier, “A Study of the Nucleation and Growth Processes in the Synthesis of Colloidal Gold,” Discuss. Faraday Soc.55-75 (1951).

Ahmad, A.

S. P. Chandran, M. Chaudhary, R. Pasricha, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract,” Biotechnol. Prog. 22(2), 577–583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Shankar, A. Rai, B. Ankamwar, A. Singh, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 482–488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, C.

J. Grant, J. Cho, and C. Allen, “Self-assembly and physicochemical and rheological properties of a polysaccharide-surfactant system formed from the cationic biopolymer chitosan and nonionic sorbitan esters,” Langmuir 22(9), 4327–4335 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grant, M. Blicker, M. Piquette-Miller, and C. Allen, “Hybrid films from blends of chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine for localized delivery of paclitaxel,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(7), 1512–1527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ankamwar, B.

S. S. Shankar, A. Rai, B. Ankamwar, A. Singh, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 482–488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aroca, R. F.

D. S. dos Santos, P. J. G. Goulet, N. P. W. Pieczonka, O. N. Oliveira, and R. F. Aroca, “Gold nanoparticle embedded, self-sustained chitosan films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 20(23), 10273–10277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astruc, D.

M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baron, R.

I. Willner, R. Baron, and B. Willner, “Growing metal nanoparticles by enzymes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(9), 1109–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjornholm, T.

T. Hassenkam, K. Norgaard, L. Iversen, C. J. Kiely, M. Brust, and T. Bjornholm, “Fabrication of 2D gold nanowires by self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on water surfaces in the presence of surfactants,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(16), 1126–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blicker, M.

J. Grant, M. Blicker, M. Piquette-Miller, and C. Allen, “Hybrid films from blends of chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine for localized delivery of paclitaxel,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(7), 1512–1527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bough, W. A.

W. A. Bough, W. L. Salter, A. C. M. Wu, and B. E. Perkins, “Influence of Manufacturing Variables on Characteristics and Effectiveness of Chitosan Products. 1. Chemical Composition, Viscosity, and Molecular-Weight Distribution of Chitosan Products,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 20(12), 1931–1943 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, T. J.

S. D. Bunge, T. J. Boyle, and T. J. Headley, “Synthesis of coinage-metal nanoparticles from mesityl precursors,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 901–905 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brust, M.

T. Hassenkam, K. Norgaard, L. Iversen, C. J. Kiely, M. Brust, and T. Bjornholm, “Fabrication of 2D gold nanowires by self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on water surfaces in the presence of surfactants,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(16), 1126–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bunge, S. D.

S. D. Bunge, T. J. Boyle, and T. J. Headley, “Synthesis of coinage-metal nanoparticles from mesityl precursors,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 901–905 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y. C.

Y. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science 297(5586), 1536–1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandran, S. P.

S. P. Chandran, M. Chaudhary, R. Pasricha, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract,” Biotechnol. Prog. 22(2), 577–583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhary, M.

S. P. Chandran, M. Chaudhary, R. Pasricha, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract,” Biotechnol. Prog. 22(2), 577–583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

J. Grant, J. Cho, and C. Allen, “Self-assembly and physicochemical and rheological properties of a polysaccharide-surfactant system formed from the cationic biopolymer chitosan and nonionic sorbitan esters,” Langmuir 22(9), 4327–4335 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniel, M. C.

M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

dos Santos, D. S.

D. S. dos Santos, P. J. G. Goulet, N. P. W. Pieczonka, O. N. Oliveira, and R. F. Aroca, “Gold nanoparticle embedded, self-sustained chitosan films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 20(23), 10273–10277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

el-Sayed, M. A.

S. Eustis and M. A. el-Sayed, “Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(3), 209–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eustis, S.

S. Eustis and M. A. el-Sayed, “Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(3), 209–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frens, G.

G. Frens, “Controlled Nucleation for Regulation of Particle-Size in Monodisperse Gold Suspensions,” Nature 241, 20–22 (1973).

Fujistuka, M.

M. Sakamoto, M. Fujistuka, and T. Majima, “Light as a construction tool of metal nanoparticles: Synthesis and mechanism,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(1), 33–56 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goulet, P. J. G.

D. S. dos Santos, P. J. G. Goulet, N. P. W. Pieczonka, O. N. Oliveira, and R. F. Aroca, “Gold nanoparticle embedded, self-sustained chitosan films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 20(23), 10273–10277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, J.

J. Grant, J. Cho, and C. Allen, “Self-assembly and physicochemical and rheological properties of a polysaccharide-surfactant system formed from the cationic biopolymer chitosan and nonionic sorbitan esters,” Langmuir 22(9), 4327–4335 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grant, M. Blicker, M. Piquette-Miller, and C. Allen, “Hybrid films from blends of chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine for localized delivery of paclitaxel,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(7), 1512–1527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, D. X.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7488–7495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hassenkam, T.

T. Hassenkam, K. Norgaard, L. Iversen, C. J. Kiely, M. Brust, and T. Bjornholm, “Fabrication of 2D gold nanowires by self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on water surfaces in the presence of surfactants,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(16), 1126–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Headley, T. J.

S. D. Bunge, T. J. Boyle, and T. J. Headley, “Synthesis of coinage-metal nanoparticles from mesityl precursors,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 901–905 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hillier, J.

J. Turkevich, P. C. Stevenson, and J. Hillier, “A Study of the Nucleation and Growth Processes in the Synthesis of Colloidal Gold,” Discuss. Faraday Soc.55-75 (1951).

Huang, H. Z.

H. Z. Huang and X. R. Yang, “Synthesis of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles in the absence/presence of tripolyphosphate,” Biomacromolecules 5(6), 2340–2346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iversen, L.

T. Hassenkam, K. Norgaard, L. Iversen, C. J. Kiely, M. Brust, and T. Bjornholm, “Fabrication of 2D gold nanowires by self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on water surfaces in the presence of surfactants,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(16), 1126–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R. C.

Y. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science 297(5586), 1536–1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, E.

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kiely, C. J.

T. Hassenkam, K. Norgaard, L. Iversen, C. J. Kiely, M. Brust, and T. Bjornholm, “Fabrication of 2D gold nanowires by self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on water surfaces in the presence of surfactants,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(16), 1126–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Majima, T.

M. Sakamoto, M. Fujistuka, and T. Majima, “Light as a construction tool of metal nanoparticles: Synthesis and mechanism,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(1), 33–56 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

Y. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science 297(5586), 1536–1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskovits, M.

M. Moskovits, “Surface-Enhanced Spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(3), 783–826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nahen, K.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noack, J.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7488–7495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noojin, G. D.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7488–7495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Norgaard, K.

T. Hassenkam, K. Norgaard, L. Iversen, C. J. Kiely, M. Brust, and T. Bjornholm, “Fabrication of 2D gold nanowires by self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on water surfaces in the presence of surfactants,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(16), 1126–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, O. N.

D. S. dos Santos, P. J. G. Goulet, N. P. W. Pieczonka, O. N. Oliveira, and R. F. Aroca, “Gold nanoparticle embedded, self-sustained chitosan films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 20(23), 10273–10277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parlitz, U.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pasricha, R.

S. P. Chandran, M. Chaudhary, R. Pasricha, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract,” Biotechnol. Prog. 22(2), 577–583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perkins, B. E.

W. A. Bough, W. L. Salter, A. C. M. Wu, and B. E. Perkins, “Influence of Manufacturing Variables on Characteristics and Effectiveness of Chitosan Products. 1. Chemical Composition, Viscosity, and Molecular-Weight Distribution of Chitosan Products,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 20(12), 1931–1943 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pieczonka, N. P. W.

D. S. dos Santos, P. J. G. Goulet, N. P. W. Pieczonka, O. N. Oliveira, and R. F. Aroca, “Gold nanoparticle embedded, self-sustained chitosan films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 20(23), 10273–10277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piquette-Miller, M.

J. Grant, M. Blicker, M. Piquette-Miller, and C. Allen, “Hybrid films from blends of chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine for localized delivery of paclitaxel,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(7), 1512–1527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W. P.

D. W. Wei and W. P. Qian, “Facile synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles utilizing chitosan as a mediator agent,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 62(1), 136–142 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Wei and W. P. Qian, “Chitosan-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles by UV photoactivation and their characterization,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 2508–2514 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rai, A.

S. S. Shankar, A. Rai, B. Ankamwar, A. Singh, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 482–488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockwell, B. A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7488–7495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, M.

M. Sakamoto, M. Fujistuka, and T. Majima, “Light as a construction tool of metal nanoparticles: Synthesis and mechanism,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(1), 33–56 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salter, W. L.

W. A. Bough, W. L. Salter, A. C. M. Wu, and B. E. Perkins, “Influence of Manufacturing Variables on Characteristics and Effectiveness of Chitosan Products. 1. Chemical Composition, Viscosity, and Molecular-Weight Distribution of Chitosan Products,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 20(12), 1931–1943 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sastry, M.

S. P. Chandran, M. Chaudhary, R. Pasricha, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract,” Biotechnol. Prog. 22(2), 577–583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Shankar, A. Rai, B. Ankamwar, A. Singh, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 482–488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shankar, S. S.

S. S. Shankar, A. Rai, B. Ankamwar, A. Singh, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 482–488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shipway, A. N.

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Singh, A.

S. S. Shankar, A. Rai, B. Ankamwar, A. Singh, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 482–488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, P. C.

J. Turkevich, P. C. Stevenson, and J. Hillier, “A Study of the Nucleation and Growth Processes in the Synthesis of Colloidal Gold,” Discuss. Faraday Soc.55-75 (1951).

Theisen, D.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turkevich, J.

J. Turkevich, P. C. Stevenson, and J. Hillier, “A Study of the Nucleation and Growth Processes in the Synthesis of Colloidal Gold,” Discuss. Faraday Soc.55-75 (1951).

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7488–7495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wei, D. W.

D. W. Wei and W. P. Qian, “Facile synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles utilizing chitosan as a mediator agent,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 62(1), 136–142 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Wei and W. P. Qian, “Chitosan-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles by UV photoactivation and their characterization,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 2508–2514 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Willner, B.

I. Willner, R. Baron, and B. Willner, “Growing metal nanoparticles by enzymes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(9), 1109–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willner, I.

I. Willner, R. Baron, and B. Willner, “Growing metal nanoparticles by enzymes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(9), 1109–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, A. C. M.

W. A. Bough, W. L. Salter, A. C. M. Wu, and B. E. Perkins, “Influence of Manufacturing Variables on Characteristics and Effectiveness of Chitosan Products. 1. Chemical Composition, Viscosity, and Molecular-Weight Distribution of Chitosan Products,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 20(12), 1931–1943 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. R.

H. Z. Huang and X. R. Yang, “Synthesis of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles in the absence/presence of tripolyphosphate,” Biomacromolecules 5(6), 2340–2346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

T. Hassenkam, K. Norgaard, L. Iversen, C. J. Kiely, M. Brust, and T. Bjornholm, “Fabrication of 2D gold nanowires by self-assembly of gold nanoparticles on water surfaces in the presence of surfactants,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(16), 1126–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Willner, R. Baron, and B. Willner, “Growing metal nanoparticles by enzymes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(9), 1109–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, “Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,” Appl. Phys. B 68(2), 271–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biomacromolecules (1)

H. Z. Huang and X. R. Yang, “Synthesis of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles in the absence/presence of tripolyphosphate,” Biomacromolecules 5(6), 2340–2346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biotechnol. Bioeng. (1)

W. A. Bough, W. L. Salter, A. C. M. Wu, and B. E. Perkins, “Influence of Manufacturing Variables on Characteristics and Effectiveness of Chitosan Products. 1. Chemical Composition, Viscosity, and Molecular-Weight Distribution of Chitosan Products,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 20(12), 1931–1943 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Biotechnol. Prog. (1)

S. P. Chandran, M. Chaudhary, R. Pasricha, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract,” Biotechnol. Prog. 22(2), 577–583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

S. Eustis and M. A. el-Sayed, “Why gold nanoparticles are more precious than pretty gold: noble metal surface plasmon resonance and its enhancement of the radiative and nonradiative properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 35(3), 209–217 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ChemPhysChem (1)

A. N. Shipway, E. Katz, and I. Willner, “Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications,” ChemPhysChem 1(1), 18–52 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces (1)

D. W. Wei and W. P. Qian, “Facile synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles utilizing chitosan as a mediator agent,” Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 62(1), 136–142 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Discuss. Faraday Soc. (1)

J. Turkevich, P. C. Stevenson, and J. Hillier, “A Study of the Nucleation and Growth Processes in the Synthesis of Colloidal Gold,” Discuss. Faraday Soc.55-75 (1951).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, “Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(12), 7488–7495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

D. W. Wei and W. P. Qian, “Chitosan-mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles by UV photoactivation and their characterization,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 2508–2514 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

J. Grant, M. Blicker, M. Piquette-Miller, and C. Allen, “Hybrid films from blends of chitosan and egg phosphatidylcholine for localized delivery of paclitaxel,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(7), 1512–1527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. (1)

M. Sakamoto, M. Fujistuka, and T. Majima, “Light as a construction tool of metal nanoparticles: Synthesis and mechanism,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 10(1), 33–56 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

D. S. dos Santos, P. J. G. Goulet, N. P. W. Pieczonka, O. N. Oliveira, and R. F. Aroca, “Gold nanoparticle embedded, self-sustained chitosan films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir 20(23), 10273–10277 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grant, J. Cho, and C. Allen, “Self-assembly and physicochemical and rheological properties of a polysaccharide-surfactant system formed from the cationic biopolymer chitosan and nonionic sorbitan esters,” Langmuir 22(9), 4327–4335 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. D. Bunge, T. J. Boyle, and T. J. Headley, “Synthesis of coinage-metal nanoparticles from mesityl precursors,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 901–905 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. S. Shankar, A. Rai, B. Ankamwar, A. Singh, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 482–488 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

G. Frens, “Controlled Nucleation for Regulation of Particle-Size in Monodisperse Gold Suspensions,” Nature 241, 20–22 (1973).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-Enhanced Spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(3), 783–826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

Y. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science 297(5586), 1536–1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used to measure the plasmon band during the nanoparticles formation. In the detail, we display the molecular structure of chitosan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) UV-Vis absorption spectra of the solution containing HAuCl4 and chitosan before and after the fs-laser irradiation (6.8 × 1011 W/cm2 and 2 hours). (b) Growth of the surface plasmon absorption band with the reaction time, indicating the production of gold nanoparticles (6.8 × 1011 W/cm2). Each curve was obtained at 10 minutes intervals. The last curve corresponds to 120 minutes, when the process was stopped.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized absorption at 535 nm as a function of time during the fs-laser irradiation for distinct pulse intensities. The inset shows TEM images of the nanoparticles synthesized by fs-laser irradiation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FTIR spectra in the finger print region of pristine chitosan (a), chitosan/gold chloride (b) and irradiated chitosan/gold chloride (c).

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