Abstract

In recent years, we realize the usefulness of feature extraction for optical correlator and hereby, we investigate the capability of Laplace operator in feature extraction of multiple targets. The first-order terms and the false alarm terms in the correlation output would be removed using electronic power spectrum subtraction technique. Most importantly, the entire magneto-optic SLM is completely utilized for displaying only targets in the input scene. A new cost efficient hardware implementation is proposed and aforementioned result of the proposed system is evaluated through computer simulation.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. S. Weaver and J. W. Goodman, “Technique for optically convolving two functions,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1248–1249 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10139–145 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. T. S. Yu and D. A. Gregory, “Optical Pattern Recognition: Architectures and Techniques,” Proc. IEEE 84, 733–752 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Javidi and C. K. Kuo, “Joint transform image correlation using a binary spatial light modulator at the Fourier plane,” Appl. Opt. 27, 663–665 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. F. T. S. Yu, F. Cheng, T. Nagata, and D. A. Gregory, “Effects of fringe binarization of multiobject joint transform correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2988–2990 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W. B. Hahn and D. L. Flannery, “Design elements of binary joint transform correlation and selected optimization techniques,” Opt. Eng. 31, 896–905 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. M.S. Alam and M. A. Karim, “Fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4344–4350 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. S. Alam and M. A. Karim, “Multiple target detection using a modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1610–1617 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. S. Alam, “Fractional power fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 43, 3208–3216 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. Javidi, F. Parchekani, and G. S. Zhang, “Minimum-mean-square-error filters for detecting a noisy target in background noise,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6964–6975 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. X. J. Lu, A. Katz, E. G. Kanterakis, and N. P. Caviris, “Joint transform correlator that uses wavelet transforms,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1700–1702 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. L. Wang, G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and M. X. Wu, “Joint wavelet-transform correlator for image feature extraction,” Appl. Opt. 34, 370–376 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. F. Ahmed, M. A. Karim, and M. S. Alam, “Wavelet transform-based correlatorfor the recognition of rotationally distorted images,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3187–3192 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  14. I. Ouzieli and D. Mendlovic, “Two-dimensional wavelet processor,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5839–5846 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. S. Alam, O. Perez, and M. A. Karim, “Preprocessed multiobject joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3102–3107 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. Zhong, J. Jiang, and C. Li, “Joint wavelet transform correlator with power spectrum subtraction for improved performance,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2787–2792 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  17. X. Huang, H. Lai, and Z. Gao, “Multiple-Target detection with the use of a modified amplitude-modulated joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9198–9204 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  18. Q. Tang and B. Javidi, “Multiple-object detection with chirp-encoded joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5079–5088 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. K. Jain, “Image Analysis and Computer Vision”, Chap. 9 in Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, T. Kailath, Ed., (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1989) pp. 351–353.

1997 (2)

S. Zhong, J. Jiang, and C. Li, “Joint wavelet transform correlator with power spectrum subtraction for improved performance,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2787–2792 (1997).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Lai, and Z. Gao, “Multiple-Target detection with the use of a modified amplitude-modulated joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9198–9204 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

1995 (3)

W. L. Wang, G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and M. X. Wu, “Joint wavelet-transform correlator for image feature extraction,” Appl. Opt. 34, 370–376 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ahmed, M. A. Karim, and M. S. Alam, “Wavelet transform-based correlatorfor the recognition of rotationally distorted images,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3187–3192 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. S. Alam, “Fractional power fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 43, 3208–3216 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. S. Alam and M. A. Karim, “Multiple target detection using a modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1610–1617 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (3)

1992 (2)

X. J. Lu, A. Katz, E. G. Kanterakis, and N. P. Caviris, “Joint transform correlator that uses wavelet transforms,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1700–1702 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Hahn and D. L. Flannery, “Design elements of binary joint transform correlation and selected optimization techniques,” Opt. Eng. 31, 896–905 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1966 (1)

1964 (1)

A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10139–145 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, F.

F. Ahmed, M. A. Karim, and M. S. Alam, “Wavelet transform-based correlatorfor the recognition of rotationally distorted images,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3187–3192 (1995).
[Crossref]

Alam, M. S.

F. Ahmed, M. A. Karim, and M. S. Alam, “Wavelet transform-based correlatorfor the recognition of rotationally distorted images,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3187–3192 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. S. Alam, “Fractional power fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 43, 3208–3216 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. S. Alam and M. A. Karim, “Multiple target detection using a modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1610–1617 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. S. Alam, O. Perez, and M. A. Karim, “Preprocessed multiobject joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3102–3107 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alam, M.S.

Caviris, N. P.

Cheng, F.

Flannery, D. L.

W. B. Hahn and D. L. Flannery, “Design elements of binary joint transform correlation and selected optimization techniques,” Opt. Eng. 31, 896–905 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gao, Z.

Goodman, J. W.

Gregory, D. A.

Hahn, W. B.

W. B. Hahn and D. L. Flannery, “Design elements of binary joint transform correlation and selected optimization techniques,” Opt. Eng. 31, 896–905 (1992).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Jain, A. K.

A. K. Jain, “Image Analysis and Computer Vision”, Chap. 9 in Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, T. Kailath, Ed., (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1989) pp. 351–353.

Javidi, B.

Jiang, J.

S. Zhong, J. Jiang, and C. Li, “Joint wavelet transform correlator with power spectrum subtraction for improved performance,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2787–2792 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jin, G. F.

Kanterakis, E. G.

Karim, M. A.

F. Ahmed, M. A. Karim, and M. S. Alam, “Wavelet transform-based correlatorfor the recognition of rotationally distorted images,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3187–3192 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. S. Alam and M. A. Karim, “Multiple target detection using a modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1610–1617 (1994).
[Crossref]

M.S. Alam and M. A. Karim, “Fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4344–4350 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Alam, O. Perez, and M. A. Karim, “Preprocessed multiobject joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3102–3107 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katz, A.

Kuo, C. K.

Lai, H.

Li, C.

S. Zhong, J. Jiang, and C. Li, “Joint wavelet transform correlator with power spectrum subtraction for improved performance,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2787–2792 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lu, X. J.

Mendlovic, D.

Nagata, T.

Ouzieli, I.

Parchekani, F.

Perez, O.

Tang, Q.

VanderLugt, A. B.

A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10139–145 (1964).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. L.

Weaver, C. S.

Wu, M. X.

Yan, Y. B.

Yu, F. T. S.

Zhang, G. S.

Zhong, S.

S. Zhong, J. Jiang, and C. Li, “Joint wavelet transform correlator with power spectrum subtraction for improved performance,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2787–2792 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (10)

C. S. Weaver and J. W. Goodman, “Technique for optically convolving two functions,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1248–1249 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Javidi and C. K. Kuo, “Joint transform image correlation using a binary spatial light modulator at the Fourier plane,” Appl. Opt. 27, 663–665 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. S. Yu, F. Cheng, T. Nagata, and D. A. Gregory, “Effects of fringe binarization of multiobject joint transform correlation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2988–2990 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.S. Alam and M. A. Karim, “Fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4344–4350 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, F. Parchekani, and G. S. Zhang, “Minimum-mean-square-error filters for detecting a noisy target in background noise,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6964–6975 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Wang, G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and M. X. Wu, “Joint wavelet-transform correlator for image feature extraction,” Appl. Opt. 34, 370–376 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Ouzieli and D. Mendlovic, “Two-dimensional wavelet processor,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5839–5846 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Alam, O. Perez, and M. A. Karim, “Preprocessed multiobject joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3102–3107 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Lai, and Z. Gao, “Multiple-Target detection with the use of a modified amplitude-modulated joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9198–9204 (1997).
[Crossref]

Q. Tang and B. Javidi, “Multiple-object detection with chirp-encoded joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5079–5088 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10139–145 (1964).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (5)

W. B. Hahn and D. L. Flannery, “Design elements of binary joint transform correlation and selected optimization techniques,” Opt. Eng. 31, 896–905 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. S. Alam and M. A. Karim, “Multiple target detection using a modified fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1610–1617 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. S. Alam, “Fractional power fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator,” Opt. Eng. 43, 3208–3216 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Zhong, J. Jiang, and C. Li, “Joint wavelet transform correlator with power spectrum subtraction for improved performance,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2787–2792 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Ahmed, M. A. Karim, and M. S. Alam, “Wavelet transform-based correlatorfor the recognition of rotationally distorted images,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3187–3192 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

F. T. S. Yu and D. A. Gregory, “Optical Pattern Recognition: Architectures and Techniques,” Proc. IEEE 84, 733–752 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. K. Jain, “Image Analysis and Computer Vision”, Chap. 9 in Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, T. Kailath, Ed., (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1989) pp. 351–353.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The single SLM correlator architecture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The power spectrum of the Laplace operator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The joint input scene of the four cartoon images and the Laplace operator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The correlator output of the four cartoon images.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The rotated and superimposed crosscorrelation output of the four cartoon images.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ( x , y ) = i = 1 4 t i ( x x i , y y i ) + r ( x x 0 , y + y 0 ) ,
F ( u , v ) = i = 1 4 T i ( u , v ) e j 2 π ( u x i v y i ) + R ( u , v ) e j 2 π ( u x 0 + v y 0 ) ,
F ( u , v ) 2 = R ( u , v ) 2 + i = 1 4 T i ( u , v ) 2
+ 2 i = 1 4 R ( u , v ) T i ( u , v ) cos [ ϕ t i ϕ r + j 2 π ( u ( x i + x 0 ) + v ( y i y 0 ) ) ]
+ 2 i = 1 4 k = 1 4 T i ( u , v ) T k ( u , v ) cos [ ϕ t i ϕ t k
+ j 2 π ( u ( x i + x k ) + v ( y i y k ) ) ] ,
F T ( u , v ) 2 = i = 1 4 T i ( u , v ) 2
+ 2 i = 1 4 k = 1 4 T i ( u , v ) T k ( u , v ) cos [ ϕ t i ϕ t k
+ j 2 π ( u ( x i + x k ) + v ( y i y k ) ) ] ,
F R ( u , v ) 2 = R ( u , v ) 2 .
M ( u , v ) 2 = F ( u , v ) 2 F T ( u , v ) 2 F R ( u , v ) 2
= 2 i = 1 4 R ( u , v ) T i ( u , v ) cos [ ϕ t i ϕ r + j 2 π ( u ( x i + x 0 ) + v ( y i y 0 ) ) ] .
[ 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 1 1 ] .

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