Abstract

A novel method of producing squeezed vacuum uses cross phase modulation between a linearly polarized pump signal and the orthogonal polarized vacuum. Here we report on such cross phase modulation using 1-nJ 150-fs pulses from a low noise stretched pulse laser. The nonlinear medium was a single mode fiber and the noise reduction was 3 dB.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. P. Yuen and J. Shapiro, “Generation and detection of two photon coherent states in degenerate four wave mixing”, Opt. Lett. 4, 334–336 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Yurke, “Squeezed state generation via four wave mixing and detection via homodyne detectors”, Phs. Rev. A. 32, 300–310 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, “Squeezed optical solitons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153–156 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, “Squeezing in a fiber interferometer with a gigahertz pump”, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. D. Drummond and S. J. Carter, “Quantum-field theory of squeezing in solitons”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 1565–1573 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Quantum theory of soliton squeezing-a linearized approach”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 386–392 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Boivin, C.R. Doerr, K. Bergman, and H. A. Haus “Quantum Noise Reduction Using a Nonlinear Sagnac Loop with Positive Dispersion” in Proceedings on Quantum Communications and Measurement (Plenum Press, New York1995), p. 487.
  8. F. R. Friberg, S. Machida, M. J. Werner, A. Levanon, and T. Mukai,, “Observation of optical soliton photon-number squeezing”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 7, 3775–3778 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. M. Fox, M. Dabbicco, G. von Plessen, and J. F. Ryan,“Quadrature squeezed light generation by cross-phase modulation in semiconductors”, Opt. Lett. 20, 2523–2525 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. K. Udo, X. Zhang, and H. Seng-Tiong, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of squeezed-state generation in χ(3) semiconductor waveguides”, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 9 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p203-204.
  11. L. Boivin and H. A. Haus, “χ(3) squeezed vacuum generation without a Sagnac loop interferometer”, Opt. Lett. 21, 146–148 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995). p. 147.
  13. K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, “Analysis and measurement of GAWBS spectrum in a nonlinear fiber ring”, App. Phys. B. 55, 242–249 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched pulse additive pulse modelocking in fiber ring lasers: Theory and experiment” J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

F. R. Friberg, S. Machida, M. J. Werner, A. Levanon, and T. Mukai,, “Observation of optical soliton photon-number squeezing”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 7, 3775–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Boivin and H. A. Haus, “χ(3) squeezed vacuum generation without a Sagnac loop interferometer”, Opt. Lett. 21, 146–148 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched pulse additive pulse modelocking in fiber ring lasers: Theory and experiment” J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fox, M. Dabbicco, G. von Plessen, and J. F. Ryan,“Quadrature squeezed light generation by cross-phase modulation in semiconductors”, Opt. Lett. 20, 2523–2525 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, “Analysis and measurement of GAWBS spectrum in a nonlinear fiber ring”, App. Phys. B. 55, 242–249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, “Squeezed optical solitons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153–156 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

P. D. Drummond and S. J. Carter, “Quantum-field theory of squeezing in solitons”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 1565–1573 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

B. Yurke, “Squeezed state generation via four wave mixing and detection via homodyne detectors”, Phs. Rev. A. 32, 300–310 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995). p. 147.

Bergman, K.

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, “Squeezing in a fiber interferometer with a gigahertz pump”, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, “Analysis and measurement of GAWBS spectrum in a nonlinear fiber ring”, App. Phys. B. 55, 242–249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Boivin, C.R. Doerr, K. Bergman, and H. A. Haus “Quantum Noise Reduction Using a Nonlinear Sagnac Loop with Positive Dispersion” in Proceedings on Quantum Communications and Measurement (Plenum Press, New York1995), p. 487.

Boivin, L.

L. Boivin and H. A. Haus, “χ(3) squeezed vacuum generation without a Sagnac loop interferometer”, Opt. Lett. 21, 146–148 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Boivin, C.R. Doerr, K. Bergman, and H. A. Haus “Quantum Noise Reduction Using a Nonlinear Sagnac Loop with Positive Dispersion” in Proceedings on Quantum Communications and Measurement (Plenum Press, New York1995), p. 487.

Carter, S. J.

P. D. Drummond and S. J. Carter, “Quantum-field theory of squeezing in solitons”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 1565–1573 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dabbicco, M.

Doerr, C.R.

L. Boivin, C.R. Doerr, K. Bergman, and H. A. Haus “Quantum Noise Reduction Using a Nonlinear Sagnac Loop with Positive Dispersion” in Proceedings on Quantum Communications and Measurement (Plenum Press, New York1995), p. 487.

Drummond, P. D.

P. D. Drummond and S. J. Carter, “Quantum-field theory of squeezing in solitons”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 1565–1573 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. M.

Friberg, F. R.

F. R. Friberg, S. Machida, M. J. Werner, A. Levanon, and T. Mukai,, “Observation of optical soliton photon-number squeezing”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 7, 3775–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

L. Boivin and H. A. Haus, “χ(3) squeezed vacuum generation without a Sagnac loop interferometer”, Opt. Lett. 21, 146–148 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched pulse additive pulse modelocking in fiber ring lasers: Theory and experiment” J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, “Squeezing in a fiber interferometer with a gigahertz pump”, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, “Analysis and measurement of GAWBS spectrum in a nonlinear fiber ring”, App. Phys. B. 55, 242–249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus and Y. Lai, “Quantum theory of soliton squeezing-a linearized approach”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 386–392 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Boivin, C.R. Doerr, K. Bergman, and H. A. Haus “Quantum Noise Reduction Using a Nonlinear Sagnac Loop with Positive Dispersion” in Proceedings on Quantum Communications and Measurement (Plenum Press, New York1995), p. 487.

Ippen, E. P.

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched pulse additive pulse modelocking in fiber ring lasers: Theory and experiment” J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, “Squeezing in a fiber interferometer with a gigahertz pump”, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, Y.

Levanon, A.

F. R. Friberg, S. Machida, M. J. Werner, A. Levanon, and T. Mukai,, “Observation of optical soliton photon-number squeezing”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 7, 3775–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, S.

F. R. Friberg, S. Machida, M. J. Werner, A. Levanon, and T. Mukai,, “Observation of optical soliton photon-number squeezing”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 7, 3775–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

F. R. Friberg, S. Machida, M. J. Werner, A. Levanon, and T. Mukai,, “Observation of optical soliton photon-number squeezing”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 7, 3775–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, L. E.

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched pulse additive pulse modelocking in fiber ring lasers: Theory and experiment” J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluh, M.

M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, “Squeezed optical solitons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153–156 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, J. F.

Seng-Tiong, H.

M. K. Udo, X. Zhang, and H. Seng-Tiong, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of squeezed-state generation in χ(3) semiconductor waveguides”, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 9 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p203-204.

Shapiro, J.

Shelby, R. M.

M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, “Squeezed optical solitons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153–156 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirasaki, M.

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and M. Shirasaki, “Squeezing in a fiber interferometer with a gigahertz pump”, Opt. Lett. 19, 290–292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, “Analysis and measurement of GAWBS spectrum in a nonlinear fiber ring”, App. Phys. B. 55, 242–249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched pulse additive pulse modelocking in fiber ring lasers: Theory and experiment” J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Udo, M. K.

M. K. Udo, X. Zhang, and H. Seng-Tiong, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of squeezed-state generation in χ(3) semiconductor waveguides”, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 9 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p203-204.

von Plessen, G.

Werner, M. J.

F. R. Friberg, S. Machida, M. J. Werner, A. Levanon, and T. Mukai,, “Observation of optical soliton photon-number squeezing”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 7, 3775–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuen, H. P.

Yurke, B.

B. Yurke, “Squeezed state generation via four wave mixing and detection via homodyne detectors”, Phs. Rev. A. 32, 300–310 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. K. Udo, X. Zhang, and H. Seng-Tiong, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of squeezed-state generation in χ(3) semiconductor waveguides”, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 9 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p203-204.

App. Phys. B. (1)

K. Bergman, H. A. Haus, and M. Shirasaki, “Analysis and measurement of GAWBS spectrum in a nonlinear fiber ring”, App. Phys. B. 55, 242–249 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

P. D. Drummond and S. J. Carter, “Quantum-field theory of squeezing in solitons”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 1565–1573 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched pulse additive pulse modelocking in fiber ring lasers: Theory and experiment” J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phs. Rev. A. (1)

B. Yurke, “Squeezed state generation via four wave mixing and detection via homodyne detectors”, Phs. Rev. A. 32, 300–310 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, “Squeezed optical solitons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153–156 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. R. Friberg, S. Machida, M. J. Werner, A. Levanon, and T. Mukai,, “Observation of optical soliton photon-number squeezing”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 7, 3775–3778 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. K. Udo, X. Zhang, and H. Seng-Tiong, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of squeezed-state generation in χ(3) semiconductor waveguides”, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 9 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p203-204.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, 1995). p. 147.

L. Boivin, C.R. Doerr, K. Bergman, and H. A. Haus “Quantum Noise Reduction Using a Nonlinear Sagnac Loop with Positive Dispersion” in Proceedings on Quantum Communications and Measurement (Plenum Press, New York1995), p. 487.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic description of cross phase modulation squeezing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup, (PBS-polarization beam splitter, BS-beam splitter)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum of pulses after single mode fiber, with output power of 35mW. (dashed line is the spectrum of the laser).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Auto-correlation of pulses after single mode fiber with output power of 35 mW. (dotted line is fitted to hyperbolic secant).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

RF spectrum of homodyne detector. Shot noise is obtained by blocking vacuum port.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dependence of noise on the relative local oscillator phase.

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