Abstract

We describe recent experiments on generation and applications of amplitude-squeezed states of light from a semiconductor diode laser. Amplitude-squeezed light with intensity noise 2 dB below the standard shot- noise limit was observed from a diode laser with a weak optical feedback from an external grating. Applications of this amplitude-squeezed light as a local oscillator in heterodyne detection in Doppler velocity measurement and weak light-scattering measurement are discussed.

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  1. S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, "Observation of amplitude squeezing in a constant-current-driven semiconductor laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000-1003 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P.R. Tapster, J.G. Rarity, J.S. Satchell, "Generation of sub-Poissonian light by high-efficiency light-emitting-diodes," Europhys. Lett. 4, 293-299 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H.J. Kimble, D.F. Walls eds., "Special issues on squeezed states of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4, 1450-1741 (1987).
  4. W.H. Richardson, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, "Squeezed photon-number noise and sub-Poissonian electrical partition noise in a semiconductor laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867-2870 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Wang, M.J. Freeman, D.G. Steel, "Squeezed light from injection-locked quantum well lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951-3954 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Kitching, A. Yariv, Y. Shevy, "Room temperature generation of amplitude squeezed light from a semiconductor laser with weak optical feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372-3375 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M.D. Levenson, E. Giacobino, "Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diodes," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601-613 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y.-Q. Li, P.-J. Edwards, P. Lynam, W.-N. Cheung, "Quantum-correlated light from transverse junction stripe laser diodes," Int. J. Optoelectron. 10, 417-421 (1995).
  9. S.F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H.J. Kimble, J.L. Hall, "Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling," Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931-4934 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R.-D. Li, P. Kumar, "Quantum-noise reduction in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2157-2166 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R.-D. Li, S.-K. Choi, C. Kim, P. Kumar, "Generation of sub-Poissonian pulses of light," Phys. Rev. A 51, R3429-R3432 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Paschotta, M. Collet, P. Kurz, K. Fiedler, H.A. Bachor, J. Mlynek, "Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807-3810 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Tsuchida, "Generation of amplitude-squeezed light at 431 nm from a singly resonant frequency doubler," Opt. Lett. 20, 2240-2242 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D.C. Kilper, D.G. Steel, R. Craig, D.R. Scifres, "Polarization-dependent noise in photon-number squeezed light generated by quantum well lasers," Opt. Lett. 21, 1283-1285 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H.J. Kimble, "Precision measurement beyond the shot-noise limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278-281 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H.J. Kimble, "Detection of amplitude modulation with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the shot-noise limit," Opt. Lett. 13, 476-478 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Grangier, R.E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, "Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153-2156 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E.S. Polzik, J. Carri, H.J. Kimble, "Spectroscopy with squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020-3023 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N.P. Georgiades, E.S. Polzik, K. Edamtsu, H.J. Kimble, "Nonclassical excitation for atoms in a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3426-3429 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Lai, H.A. Haus, Y. Yamamoto, "Squeezed vacuum from amplitude squeezed states," Opt. Lett. 16, 1517-1519 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D.C. Kilper, A.C. Schaefer, J. Erland, D.G. Steel, "Coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopy using photon-number squeezed light," Phys. Rev. A 54, R1785-R1788 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Kasapi, S. Lathi, Y. Yamamoto, "Amplitude-squeezed, frequency-modulated, tunable, diode-laser-based source for sub-shot-noise FM spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 22, 478-480 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, E. Giacobino, "Demonstration of high sensitivity spectroscopy with squeezed semiconductor lasers," Opt. Commun. 140, 146 - 157 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y.-Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, P.J. Edwards, "Sub-shot-noise Doppler anemometry with amplitude- squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105-3108 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Jin, Y.-Q. Li, M. Xiao, "Single-mode diode laser with a large frequency-scanning range based on weak grating feedback," Appl. Opt. 35, 1436-1441 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L.E. Drain, The laser Doppler technique, (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1980).
  27. L. Fabiny, "Sensing rogue particles with optical scattering," Opt. Photonics News 9 (1), 34-38 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P.C.D. Hobbs, "ISICL: In situ coherent lidar for particle detection in semiconductor-processing equipment," Appl. Opt. 34, 1579-1590 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, "Observation of amplitude squeezing in a constant-current-driven semiconductor laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000-1003 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.R. Tapster, J.G. Rarity, J.S. Satchell, "Generation of sub-Poissonian light by high-efficiency light-emitting-diodes," Europhys. Lett. 4, 293-299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H.J. Kimble, D.F. Walls eds., "Special issues on squeezed states of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4, 1450-1741 (1987).

W.H. Richardson, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, "Squeezed photon-number noise and sub-Poissonian electrical partition noise in a semiconductor laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2867-2870 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M.J. Freeman, D.G. Steel, "Squeezed light from injection-locked quantum well lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951-3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kitching, A. Yariv, Y. Shevy, "Room temperature generation of amplitude squeezed light from a semiconductor laser with weak optical feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3372-3375 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M.D. Levenson, E. Giacobino, "Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diodes," Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601-613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Li, P.-J. Edwards, P. Lynam, W.-N. Cheung, "Quantum-correlated light from transverse junction stripe laser diodes," Int. J. Optoelectron. 10, 417-421 (1995).

S.F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H.J. Kimble, J.L. Hall, "Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling," Phys. Rev. A 38, 4931-4934 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.-D. Li, P. Kumar, "Quantum-noise reduction in traveling-wave second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2157-2166 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.-D. Li, S.-K. Choi, C. Kim, P. Kumar, "Generation of sub-Poissonian pulses of light," Phys. Rev. A 51, R3429-R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, M. Collet, P. Kurz, K. Fiedler, H.A. Bachor, J. Mlynek, "Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807-3810 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tsuchida, "Generation of amplitude-squeezed light at 431 nm from a singly resonant frequency doubler," Opt. Lett. 20, 2240-2242 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.C. Kilper, D.G. Steel, R. Craig, D.R. Scifres, "Polarization-dependent noise in photon-number squeezed light generated by quantum well lasers," Opt. Lett. 21, 1283-1285 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H.J. Kimble, "Precision measurement beyond the shot-noise limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278-281 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, H.J. Kimble, "Detection of amplitude modulation with squeezed light for sensitivity beyond the shot-noise limit," Opt. Lett. 13, 476-478 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R.E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, "Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153-2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.S. Polzik, J. Carri, H.J. Kimble, "Spectroscopy with squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020-3023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.P. Georgiades, E.S. Polzik, K. Edamtsu, H.J. Kimble, "Nonclassical excitation for atoms in a squeezed vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3426-3429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, H.A. Haus, Y. Yamamoto, "Squeezed vacuum from amplitude squeezed states," Opt. Lett. 16, 1517-1519 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.C. Kilper, A.C. Schaefer, J. Erland, D.G. Steel, "Coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopy using photon-number squeezed light," Phys. Rev. A 54, R1785-R1788 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kasapi, S. Lathi, Y. Yamamoto, "Amplitude-squeezed, frequency-modulated, tunable, diode-laser-based source for sub-shot-noise FM spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 22, 478-480 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, E. Giacobino, "Demonstration of high sensitivity spectroscopy with squeezed semiconductor lasers," Opt. Commun. 140, 146 - 157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, P.J. Edwards, "Sub-shot-noise Doppler anemometry with amplitude- squeezed light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105-3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Jin, Y.-Q. Li, M. Xiao, "Single-mode diode laser with a large frequency-scanning range based on weak grating feedback," Appl. Opt. 35, 1436-1441 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.E. Drain, The laser Doppler technique, (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1980).

L. Fabiny, "Sensing rogue particles with optical scattering," Opt. Photonics News 9 (1), 34-38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.C.D. Hobbs, "ISICL: In situ coherent lidar for particle detection in semiconductor-processing equipment," Appl. Opt. 34, 1579-1590 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for generation of amplitude-squeezed states of light from a diode laser. The laser diode (LD) and collimating lens are cooled in a cryostat. LD - laser diode; BS - beamsplitter; NDF - neutral density filter; PZT - PZT controlled mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured noise power spectral densities for the output beam of the squeezed source. Curve a is the shot-noise level with dc detector current of 12 mA. Curve b is for the output beam with a 12 mA detector current. Curve c is for the amplifier noise.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured Fano factor (at 10.0 MHz) of the diode laser at different bias currents. The feedback intensity was set at the maximum value and the threshold current Ith was 3.5 mA at 80 K. η is the transfer efficiency from the bias current of the laser diode to the dc photocurrent of the detector.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured Fano factor (at 10.0 MHz) of the diode laser at different feedback intensities. The bias current of the laser diode was set at 26.7 mA and the dc photocurrent of the detector was 12.0 mA. A weak optical feedback intensity of 1.5×10-4 was sufficient to suppress the laser diode noise below the SNL.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental sketch of sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometer with amplitude-squeezed light as a local oscillator (reference beam).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measurements of Doppler shift signals at different nitrogen gas pressures. The flow velocities were inferred to be (a) 32.4 cm/s, and (b) 26.7 cm/s. The dc detector current is 10.0 mA. The spectrum analyzer was set with a resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz, a video bandwidth of 100 Hz, and a scan time of 2.0s.

Equations (2)

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ν D = ( n / λ ) u ( k S k 0 ) = ( 2 n u / λ ) sin ( α / 2 )
< i s 2 > / < i n 2 > = η I s / ( B F o ) .

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