Abstract

We have developed a unique optical interferometric technique for deformation analysis and have applied it to tensile analyses of aluminum based samples. Using a recent theory of plastic deformation, this technique is capable of diagnosing whether the sample is close to a fracture and where the fracture will occur. It is also capable of diagnosing the current degree of stress concentration being developed in the sample. The theoretical basis of this method and some experimental results are presented.

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References

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  1. V. E. Panin, Physical mesomechanics and computer-aided design of materials, vol.1, (Nauka, Nobisobirsk, 1995) (Russian).
  2. O. J. Lokberg, "Recent Developments in Video Speckle Interferometry," in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. Optical Engineering, Vol. 38, (Marcel Dekker, New York, Basel, Hong Kong, 1993) pp. 157-194.
  3. Sanichiro Yoshida, Suprapedi, Rini Widiastuti, Marincan Pardede, Septriyanti Hutagalung, Julinda S. Marpaung, A. Faizal Muhardy and Anung Kusnowo, "Direct Observation of Developed Plastic Deformation and Its application to Nondestructive Testing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L854-L857 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Yoshida, Suprapedi, R. Widiastuti, Marincan, Seprtiyanti, Julinda, A. Faisal and A. Kusnowo, "A novel, optical nondestructive deformation analyzer based on electronic speckle-pattern interferometry and a new plastic deformation theory," in Abstract Proceedings of the VIII International Congress on Experimental Mechanics and Experimental/Numerical Mechanics in Electronic Packaging, (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Nashville, Tennessee, June 10 - 13, 1996) pp. 168-169.
  5. S. Yoshida, Muhiar, I. Muhamad, R. Widiastuti, B. Siahaan, M. Pardede and A. Kusnowo, "New optical interferometric technique for stress analysis" in Proc., 3rd International conference on modern practice in stress and vibration analysis, M. D. Gilchrist ed, (A. A. Balkema, Dublin, Ireland, September 3-5, 1997) pp. 361-363.
  6. S. Yoshida, I. Muhamad, M. Pardede, R. Widiastuti, Muchiar, B. Siahaan and A. Kusnowo, "Optical interferometry applied to analyze deformation and fracture of aluminum alloys," Theor. and Appl. Fracture Mechanics 27, 85-98 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. E. Panin and V. S. Pleshanov, "Banded structure on meso- and macro-scale level in elastic polycrystal," in Physical Mesomechanics and Computer-aided Design of Materials, V. E. Panin, ed. Vol.1 (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1995), pp. 241-248 (Russian).
  8. S. Toyooka, private communication, July, 1997.
  9. V. E. Panin, "Physical basis of mesomechanics of plastic deformation and fracture of solid-state materials," in Physical Mesomechanics and Computer-aided Design of Materials, V. E. Panin, ed. Vol.1, (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1995), pp. 7-49 (Russian).
  10. V. E. Panin, "Physical mesomechanics of plastic deformation and experimental results obtained by optical methods," Oyobuturi 64, 888-894 (1995) (English).
  11. V. P. V. Makarov, "Dynamic theory of plasticity and fracture in structurally non-homogeneous media," in Physical Mesomechanics and Computer-aided Design of Materials, V. E. Panin, ed. Vol.1, (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1995), pp. 78-101 (Russian).
  12. See for example, R. S. Sirohi, "Speckle methods in experimental mechanics," in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. Optical Engineering Vol. 38, (Marcel Dekker, New York, Basel, Hong Kong, 1993) p. 125.
  13. V. E. Panin, "Contemporary problems in physics of plasticity and durability of solid-state media," Structure level of plastic deformation and fracture, V. E. Panin, ed. (Nauka, Nobisobirsk 1990) p. 8 (Russian).

Other (13)

V. E. Panin, Physical mesomechanics and computer-aided design of materials, vol.1, (Nauka, Nobisobirsk, 1995) (Russian).

O. J. Lokberg, "Recent Developments in Video Speckle Interferometry," in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. Optical Engineering, Vol. 38, (Marcel Dekker, New York, Basel, Hong Kong, 1993) pp. 157-194.

Sanichiro Yoshida, Suprapedi, Rini Widiastuti, Marincan Pardede, Septriyanti Hutagalung, Julinda S. Marpaung, A. Faizal Muhardy and Anung Kusnowo, "Direct Observation of Developed Plastic Deformation and Its application to Nondestructive Testing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L854-L857 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoshida, Suprapedi, R. Widiastuti, Marincan, Seprtiyanti, Julinda, A. Faisal and A. Kusnowo, "A novel, optical nondestructive deformation analyzer based on electronic speckle-pattern interferometry and a new plastic deformation theory," in Abstract Proceedings of the VIII International Congress on Experimental Mechanics and Experimental/Numerical Mechanics in Electronic Packaging, (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Nashville, Tennessee, June 10 - 13, 1996) pp. 168-169.

S. Yoshida, Muhiar, I. Muhamad, R. Widiastuti, B. Siahaan, M. Pardede and A. Kusnowo, "New optical interferometric technique for stress analysis" in Proc., 3rd International conference on modern practice in stress and vibration analysis, M. D. Gilchrist ed, (A. A. Balkema, Dublin, Ireland, September 3-5, 1997) pp. 361-363.

S. Yoshida, I. Muhamad, M. Pardede, R. Widiastuti, Muchiar, B. Siahaan and A. Kusnowo, "Optical interferometry applied to analyze deformation and fracture of aluminum alloys," Theor. and Appl. Fracture Mechanics 27, 85-98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Panin and V. S. Pleshanov, "Banded structure on meso- and macro-scale level in elastic polycrystal," in Physical Mesomechanics and Computer-aided Design of Materials, V. E. Panin, ed. Vol.1 (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1995), pp. 241-248 (Russian).

S. Toyooka, private communication, July, 1997.

V. E. Panin, "Physical basis of mesomechanics of plastic deformation and fracture of solid-state materials," in Physical Mesomechanics and Computer-aided Design of Materials, V. E. Panin, ed. Vol.1, (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1995), pp. 7-49 (Russian).

V. E. Panin, "Physical mesomechanics of plastic deformation and experimental results obtained by optical methods," Oyobuturi 64, 888-894 (1995) (English).

V. P. V. Makarov, "Dynamic theory of plasticity and fracture in structurally non-homogeneous media," in Physical Mesomechanics and Computer-aided Design of Materials, V. E. Panin, ed. Vol.1, (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1995), pp. 78-101 (Russian).

See for example, R. S. Sirohi, "Speckle methods in experimental mechanics," in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. Optical Engineering Vol. 38, (Marcel Dekker, New York, Basel, Hong Kong, 1993) p. 125.

V. E. Panin, "Contemporary problems in physics of plasticity and durability of solid-state media," Structure level of plastic deformation and fracture, V. E. Panin, ed. (Nauka, Nobisobirsk 1990) p. 8 (Russian).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (97 KB)     

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Figures (12)

FIG.1
FIG.1

Vortexes observed in a set of calculated displacement velocity fields (ref.11). (a) A pair of vortexes appear; (b) the material becomes discontinuous at the boundary region (see arrow); (c) some time later the vortexes disappear and the material recovers from the discontinuous situation.

FIG.2
FIG.2

Experimental setup. Two arms of interferometers have the same angle of incidence α For clarity only the horizontal interferometer is shown.

Fig.3
Fig.3

WB and a pair of vortexes observed at both sides of a WB (ref.6). (a) and (b) show displacement vector fields observed at time steps 31 and 32, respectively. (c) shows the change of these displacement fields. A pair of vortexes rotating clockwise (upper) and counterclockwise are observed. (d) shows a stationary WB that appears shortly after at the boundary of the vortexes. (e) The sample eventually fractures along this WB.

Fig.4
Fig.4

Typical WB observed in a sample free of initial stress concentration; (a) multiple WBs observed in an early stage; (b) dynamic WBs in the intermediate stage; (c) stationary WBs in the final stage; (d) the fracture; (e) the time historical change of WB location (dynamic characteristics of WB); and (f) transition from dynamic to stationary WBs as observed on a TV monitor (animated images). The white lines seen in the background of the images are part of the hands of a clock placed behind the sample. [Media 1]

Fig.5
Fig.5

Dynamic characteristics of WB observed in SFS. The image at the right shows the fracture.

Fig.6
Fig.6

Dynamic characteristics of WB observed in SFN. The image at the right shows the stationary WB.

Fig.7
Fig.7

Plastic factor and maximum load.

Fig.8
Fig.8

WB observed in shallow-welded (SW) sample.

Fig.9
Fig.9

WB observed in deep-welded (DW) sample.

Fig.10
Fig.10

WB observed in butt-welded (BW) sample.

Fig.11
Fig.11

WB observed in graphite-coated (GC) sample.

Fig.12
Fig.12

Voids observed around weld. Voids are seen as black dots.

Tables (3)

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Table 2. Summary of RS

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Table 3. Summary of welded samples

Equations (3)

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I bf x y = I 1 + I 2 + 2 ( I 1 I 2 ) 1 2 cos ( θ x y )
I af x y = I 1 + I 2 + 2 ( I 1 I 2 ) 1 2 cos ( θ x y + ϕ x y ) ,
ΔI x y = 2 ( I 1 I 2 ) 1 2 sin ( θ x y + ϕ x y 2 ) sin ( ϕ x y 2 ) .

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