Abstract

Thorough analyses of the photo- and devicephysics of poly-7-tert-butyl-1,3-pyrenylene (PPyr) by the means of absorption and photoluminescence emission, time resolved photoluminescence and photoinduced absorption spectroscopy as well as organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are presented in this contribution. Thereby we find that this novel class of polymers shows deep blue light emission as required for OLEDs and does not exhibit excimer or aggregate emission when processed from solvents with low polarity. Moreover the decay dynamics of the compound is found to be comparable to that of well blue emitting conjugated polymers such as polyfluorene. OLEDs built in an improved device assembly show stable bright blue emission for the PPyr homopolymer and further a considerable efficiency enhancement can be demonstrated using a triphenylamine(TPA)/pyrene copolymer.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, P. G. Del Rosso, R. Trattnig, S. Sax, E. J. List, and K. Müllen, “Designed suppression of aggregation in polypyrene: toward high-performance blue-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(9), 990–993 (2010).
[PubMed]

2008

S. Kawano, C. Yang, M. Ribas, S. Baluschev, M. Baumgarten, and K. Müllen, “Blue-emitting poly(2,7-pyrenylene)s: synthesis and optical properties,” Macromolecules41(21), 7933–7937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, S. C. Simon, M. Wagner, S. I. Druzhinin, K. A. Zachariasse, and K. Müllen, “Polypyrene dendrimers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(52), 10175–10178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Duhm, G. Heimel, I. Salzmann, H. Glowatzki, R. L. Johnson, A. Vollmer, J. P. Rabe, and N. Koch, “Orientation-dependent ionization energies and interface dipoles in ordered molecular assemblies,” Nat. Mater.7(4), 326–332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Y. Shirota and H. Kageyama, “Charge carrier transporting molecular materials and their applications in devices,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 953–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fogel, M. Kastler, Z. Wang, D. Andrienko, G. J. Bodwell, and K. Müllen, “Electron-deficient N-heteroaromatic linkers for the elaboration of large, soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their use in the synthesis of some very large transition metal complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(38), 11743–11749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Yanga, T.-F. Guob, and I.-W. Sun, “Highly efficient greenish blue-emitting organic diodes based on pyrene derivatives,” J. Lumin.124(1), 93–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Moorthy, P. Natarajan, P. Venkatakrishnan, D. F. Huang, and T. J. Chow, “Steric inhibition of π-stacking: 1,3,6,8-tetraarylpyrenes as efficient blue emitters in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Org. Lett.9(25), 5215–5218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. A. Mikroyannidis, L. Fenenko, and C. Adachi, “Synthesis and photophysical characteristics of 2,7-fluorenevinylene-based trimers and their electroluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(41), 20317–20326 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Y. Shen, A. R. Hosseini, M. H. Wong, and G. G. Malliaras, “How to make ohmic contacts to organic semiconductors,” ChemPhysChem5(1), 16–25 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gamerith, H.-G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, and E. J. W. List, “Identification of emissive interface-related defects in polyfluorene-based light emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 7A), 891–893 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. J. W. List, R. Guentner, P. S. de Freitas, and U. Scherf, “The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(5), 374–378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. W. List, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, W. Graupner, C.-H. Kim, and J. Shinar, “Direct evidence for singlet-triplet exciton annihilation in π-conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B66(23), 235203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Scherf and E. J. W. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes — towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(7), 477–487 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. List, C.-H. Kim, A. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Epshtein, G. Nakhmanovich, Y. Eichen, and E. Ehrenfreund, “Dispersive dynamics of photoexcitations in conjugated polymers by photomodulation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B63(12), 125206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Baumgarten, L. Gherghel, J. Friedrich, M. Jurczok, and W. Rettig, “Electronic decoupling in ground and excited states of asymmetric biaryls,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(6), 1130–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Tao, E. Balasubramaniam, A. Danel, and P. Tomasik, “Dipyrazolopyridine derivatives as bright blue electroluminescent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(7), 933–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Jurczok, P. Plaza, W. Rettig, and M. M. Martin, “Ultrafast electron transfer in acceptor substituted bianthryl derivatives,” Chem. Phys.256(1), 137–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. G. Malliaras and J. C. Scott, “The roles of injection and mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.83(10), 5399–5403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

N. Tamoto, C. Adachi, and K. Nagai, “Electroluminescence of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and triphenylamine-containing molecules as an emitter in organic multilayer light emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.9(5), 1077–1085 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

E. M. S. Castanheira and J. M. G. Martinho, “Solvatochromic shifts of pyrene excimer fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett.185(3-4), 319–323 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Saleneck, “Photoelectron spectroscopy of polyconjugated polymer surfaces and interfaces,” Rep. Prog. Phys.54(9), 1215–1249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

C. W. Tang and S. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, and G. Alan, “Mac Diarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, jr., Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.39, 1098–1101 (1977).

1973

P. C. Johnson and H. W. Offen, “Pyrene fluorescence in ethanol and cyclohexane under pressure,” J. Chem. Phys.59(2), 801–806 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969

J. L. Kropp, W. R. Dawson, and M. W. Windsor, “Radiative and radiationless processes in aromatic molecules. Pyrene,” J. Phys. Chem.73(6), 1747–1752 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kim, R. A. Beardslee, D. T. Phillips, and H. W. Offen, “Fluorescence lifetimes of pyrene monomer and excimer at high pressures,” J. Chem. Phys.51(6), 2761–2762 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965

W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider, “Recombination radiation in anthracene crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.14(7), 229–231 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

J. A. Mikroyannidis, L. Fenenko, and C. Adachi, “Synthesis and photophysical characteristics of 2,7-fluorenevinylene-based trimers and their electroluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(41), 20317–20326 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tamoto, C. Adachi, and K. Nagai, “Electroluminescence of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and triphenylamine-containing molecules as an emitter in organic multilayer light emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.9(5), 1077–1085 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alan, G.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, and G. Alan, “Mac Diarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, jr., Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.39, 1098–1101 (1977).

Andrienko, D.

Y. Fogel, M. Kastler, Z. Wang, D. Andrienko, G. J. Bodwell, and K. Müllen, “Electron-deficient N-heteroaromatic linkers for the elaboration of large, soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their use in the synthesis of some very large transition metal complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(38), 11743–11749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balasubramaniam, E.

Y. T. Tao, E. Balasubramaniam, A. Danel, and P. Tomasik, “Dipyrazolopyridine derivatives as bright blue electroluminescent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(7), 933–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baluschev, S.

S. Kawano, C. Yang, M. Ribas, S. Baluschev, M. Baumgarten, and K. Müllen, “Blue-emitting poly(2,7-pyrenylene)s: synthesis and optical properties,” Macromolecules41(21), 7933–7937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baumgarten, M.

S. Kawano, C. Yang, M. Ribas, S. Baluschev, M. Baumgarten, and K. Müllen, “Blue-emitting poly(2,7-pyrenylene)s: synthesis and optical properties,” Macromolecules41(21), 7933–7937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Baumgarten, L. Gherghel, J. Friedrich, M. Jurczok, and W. Rettig, “Electronic decoupling in ground and excited states of asymmetric biaryls,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(6), 1130–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beardslee, R. A.

J. J. Kim, R. A. Beardslee, D. T. Phillips, and H. W. Offen, “Fluorescence lifetimes of pyrene monomer and excimer at high pressures,” J. Chem. Phys.51(6), 2761–2762 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bodwell, G. J.

Y. Fogel, M. Kastler, Z. Wang, D. Andrienko, G. J. Bodwell, and K. Müllen, “Electron-deficient N-heteroaromatic linkers for the elaboration of large, soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their use in the synthesis of some very large transition metal complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(38), 11743–11749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, D. D. C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brédas, J.-L.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burn, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Castanheira, E. M. S.

E. M. S. Castanheira and J. M. G. Martinho, “Solvatochromic shifts of pyrene excimer fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett.185(3-4), 319–323 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chow, T. J.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Natarajan, P. Venkatakrishnan, D. F. Huang, and T. J. Chow, “Steric inhibition of π-stacking: 1,3,6,8-tetraarylpyrenes as efficient blue emitters in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Org. Lett.9(25), 5215–5218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danel, A.

Y. T. Tao, E. Balasubramaniam, A. Danel, and P. Tomasik, “Dipyrazolopyridine derivatives as bright blue electroluminescent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(7), 933–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, W. R.

J. L. Kropp, W. R. Dawson, and M. W. Windsor, “Radiative and radiationless processes in aromatic molecules. Pyrene,” J. Phys. Chem.73(6), 1747–1752 (1969).
[CrossRef]

de Freitas, P. S.

E. J. W. List, R. Guentner, P. S. de Freitas, and U. Scherf, “The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(5), 374–378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Del Rosso, P. G.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, P. G. Del Rosso, R. Trattnig, S. Sax, E. J. List, and K. Müllen, “Designed suppression of aggregation in polypyrene: toward high-performance blue-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(9), 990–993 (2010).
[PubMed]

dos Santos, D. A.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Druzhinin, S. I.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, S. C. Simon, M. Wagner, S. I. Druzhinin, K. A. Zachariasse, and K. Müllen, “Polypyrene dendrimers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(52), 10175–10178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duggal, A. R.

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duhm, S.

S. Duhm, G. Heimel, I. Salzmann, H. Glowatzki, R. L. Johnson, A. Vollmer, J. P. Rabe, and N. Koch, “Orientation-dependent ionization energies and interface dipoles in ordered molecular assemblies,” Nat. Mater.7(4), 326–332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrenfreund, E.

O. Epshtein, G. Nakhmanovich, Y. Eichen, and E. Ehrenfreund, “Dispersive dynamics of photoexcitations in conjugated polymers by photomodulation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B63(12), 125206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eichen, Y.

O. Epshtein, G. Nakhmanovich, Y. Eichen, and E. Ehrenfreund, “Dispersive dynamics of photoexcitations in conjugated polymers by photomodulation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B63(12), 125206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ekström, O.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Epshtein, O.

O. Epshtein, G. Nakhmanovich, Y. Eichen, and E. Ehrenfreund, “Dispersive dynamics of photoexcitations in conjugated polymers by photomodulation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B63(12), 125206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fenenko, L.

J. A. Mikroyannidis, L. Fenenko, and C. Adachi, “Synthesis and photophysical characteristics of 2,7-fluorenevinylene-based trimers and their electroluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(41), 20317–20326 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueira-Duarte, T. M.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, P. G. Del Rosso, R. Trattnig, S. Sax, E. J. List, and K. Müllen, “Designed suppression of aggregation in polypyrene: toward high-performance blue-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(9), 990–993 (2010).
[PubMed]

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, S. C. Simon, M. Wagner, S. I. Druzhinin, K. A. Zachariasse, and K. Müllen, “Polypyrene dendrimers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(52), 10175–10178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fogel, Y.

Y. Fogel, M. Kastler, Z. Wang, D. Andrienko, G. J. Bodwell, and K. Müllen, “Electron-deficient N-heteroaromatic linkers for the elaboration of large, soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their use in the synthesis of some very large transition metal complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(38), 11743–11749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedrich, J.

M. Baumgarten, L. Gherghel, J. Friedrich, M. Jurczok, and W. Rettig, “Electronic decoupling in ground and excited states of asymmetric biaryls,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(6), 1130–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gamerith, S.

S. Gamerith, H.-G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, and E. J. W. List, “Identification of emissive interface-related defects in polyfluorene-based light emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 7A), 891–893 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gau, S. C.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, and G. Alan, “Mac Diarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, jr., Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.39, 1098–1101 (1977).

Geerts, Y.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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M. Baumgarten, L. Gherghel, J. Friedrich, M. Jurczok, and W. Rettig, “Electronic decoupling in ground and excited states of asymmetric biaryls,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(6), 1130–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glowatzki, H.

S. Duhm, G. Heimel, I. Salzmann, H. Glowatzki, R. L. Johnson, A. Vollmer, J. P. Rabe, and N. Koch, “Orientation-dependent ionization energies and interface dipoles in ordered molecular assemblies,” Nat. Mater.7(4), 326–332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graupner, W.

E. J. W. List, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, W. Graupner, C.-H. Kim, and J. Shinar, “Direct evidence for singlet-triplet exciton annihilation in π-conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B66(23), 235203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. List, C.-H. Kim, A. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guentner, R.

E. J. W. List, R. Guentner, P. S. de Freitas, and U. Scherf, “The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(5), 374–378 (2002).
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C.-H. Yanga, T.-F. Guob, and I.-W. Sun, “Highly efficient greenish blue-emitting organic diodes based on pyrene derivatives,” J. Lumin.124(1), 93–98 (2007).
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R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heimel, G.

S. Duhm, G. Heimel, I. Salzmann, H. Glowatzki, R. L. Johnson, A. Vollmer, J. P. Rabe, and N. Koch, “Orientation-dependent ionization energies and interface dipoles in ordered molecular assemblies,” Nat. Mater.7(4), 326–332 (2008).
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W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider, “Recombination radiation in anthracene crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.14(7), 229–231 (1965).
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A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, A. R.

Y. Shen, A. R. Hosseini, M. H. Wong, and G. G. Malliaras, “How to make ohmic contacts to organic semiconductors,” ChemPhysChem5(1), 16–25 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D. F.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Natarajan, P. Venkatakrishnan, D. F. Huang, and T. J. Chow, “Steric inhibition of π-stacking: 1,3,6,8-tetraarylpyrenes as efficient blue emitters in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Org. Lett.9(25), 5215–5218 (2007).
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L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. C.

P. C. Johnson and H. W. Offen, “Pyrene fluorescence in ethanol and cyclohexane under pressure,” J. Chem. Phys.59(2), 801–806 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. L.

S. Duhm, G. Heimel, I. Salzmann, H. Glowatzki, R. L. Johnson, A. Vollmer, J. P. Rabe, and N. Koch, “Orientation-dependent ionization energies and interface dipoles in ordered molecular assemblies,” Nat. Mater.7(4), 326–332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jurczok, M.

M. Baumgarten, L. Gherghel, J. Friedrich, M. Jurczok, and W. Rettig, “Electronic decoupling in ground and excited states of asymmetric biaryls,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(6), 1130–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Jurczok, P. Plaza, W. Rettig, and M. M. Martin, “Ultrafast electron transfer in acceptor substituted bianthryl derivatives,” Chem. Phys.256(1), 137–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Shirota and H. Kageyama, “Charge carrier transporting molecular materials and their applications in devices,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 953–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kastler, M.

Y. Fogel, M. Kastler, Z. Wang, D. Andrienko, G. J. Bodwell, and K. Müllen, “Electron-deficient N-heteroaromatic linkers for the elaboration of large, soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their use in the synthesis of some very large transition metal complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(38), 11743–11749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawano, S.

S. Kawano, C. Yang, M. Ribas, S. Baluschev, M. Baumgarten, and K. Müllen, “Blue-emitting poly(2,7-pyrenylene)s: synthesis and optical properties,” Macromolecules41(21), 7933–7937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.-H.

E. J. W. List, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, W. Graupner, C.-H. Kim, and J. Shinar, “Direct evidence for singlet-triplet exciton annihilation in π-conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B66(23), 235203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. List, C.-H. Kim, A. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

J. J. Kim, R. A. Beardslee, D. T. Phillips, and H. W. Offen, “Fluorescence lifetimes of pyrene monomer and excimer at high pressures,” J. Chem. Phys.51(6), 2761–2762 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, M.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, N.

S. Duhm, G. Heimel, I. Salzmann, H. Glowatzki, R. L. Johnson, A. Vollmer, J. P. Rabe, and N. Koch, “Orientation-dependent ionization energies and interface dipoles in ordered molecular assemblies,” Nat. Mater.7(4), 326–332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. L. Kropp, W. R. Dawson, and M. W. Windsor, “Radiative and radiationless processes in aromatic molecules. Pyrene,” J. Phys. Chem.73(6), 1747–1752 (1969).
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Leising, G.

E. List, C.-H. Kim, A. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, L. N.

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

List, E.

E. List, C.-H. Kim, A. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

List, E. J.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, P. G. Del Rosso, R. Trattnig, S. Sax, E. J. List, and K. Müllen, “Designed suppression of aggregation in polypyrene: toward high-performance blue-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(9), 990–993 (2010).
[PubMed]

List, E. J. W.

S. Gamerith, H.-G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, and E. J. W. List, “Identification of emissive interface-related defects in polyfluorene-based light emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 7A), 891–893 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Scherf and E. J. W. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes — towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(7), 477–487 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. W. List, R. Guentner, P. S. de Freitas, and U. Scherf, “The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(5), 374–378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. W. List, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, W. Graupner, C.-H. Kim, and J. Shinar, “Direct evidence for singlet-triplet exciton annihilation in π-conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B66(23), 235203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lóglund, M.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Louis, E. J.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, and G. Alan, “Mac Diarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, jr., Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.39, 1098–1101 (1977).

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Malliaras, G. G.

Y. Shen, A. R. Hosseini, M. H. Wong, and G. G. Malliaras, “How to make ohmic contacts to organic semiconductors,” ChemPhysChem5(1), 16–25 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Malliaras and J. C. Scott, “The roles of injection and mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.83(10), 5399–5403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. M.

M. Jurczok, P. Plaza, W. Rettig, and M. M. Martin, “Ultrafast electron transfer in acceptor substituted bianthryl derivatives,” Chem. Phys.256(1), 137–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinho, J. M. G.

E. M. S. Castanheira and J. M. G. Martinho, “Solvatochromic shifts of pyrene excimer fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett.185(3-4), 319–323 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mikroyannidis, J. A.

J. A. Mikroyannidis, L. Fenenko, and C. Adachi, “Synthesis and photophysical characteristics of 2,7-fluorenevinylene-based trimers and their electroluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(41), 20317–20326 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moorthy, J. N.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Natarajan, P. Venkatakrishnan, D. F. Huang, and T. J. Chow, “Steric inhibition of π-stacking: 1,3,6,8-tetraarylpyrenes as efficient blue emitters in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Org. Lett.9(25), 5215–5218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müllen, K.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, P. G. Del Rosso, R. Trattnig, S. Sax, E. J. List, and K. Müllen, “Designed suppression of aggregation in polypyrene: toward high-performance blue-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(9), 990–993 (2010).
[PubMed]

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, S. C. Simon, M. Wagner, S. I. Druzhinin, K. A. Zachariasse, and K. Müllen, “Polypyrene dendrimers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(52), 10175–10178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawano, C. Yang, M. Ribas, S. Baluschev, M. Baumgarten, and K. Müllen, “Blue-emitting poly(2,7-pyrenylene)s: synthesis and optical properties,” Macromolecules41(21), 7933–7937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fogel, M. Kastler, Z. Wang, D. Andrienko, G. J. Bodwell, and K. Müllen, “Electron-deficient N-heteroaromatic linkers for the elaboration of large, soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their use in the synthesis of some very large transition metal complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(38), 11743–11749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. W. List, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, W. Graupner, C.-H. Kim, and J. Shinar, “Direct evidence for singlet-triplet exciton annihilation in π-conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B66(23), 235203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

N. Tamoto, C. Adachi, and K. Nagai, “Electroluminescence of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and triphenylamine-containing molecules as an emitter in organic multilayer light emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.9(5), 1077–1085 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naik, A.

E. List, C.-H. Kim, A. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakhmanovich, G.

O. Epshtein, G. Nakhmanovich, Y. Eichen, and E. Ehrenfreund, “Dispersive dynamics of photoexcitations in conjugated polymers by photomodulation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B63(12), 125206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, P.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Natarajan, P. Venkatakrishnan, D. F. Huang, and T. J. Chow, “Steric inhibition of π-stacking: 1,3,6,8-tetraarylpyrenes as efficient blue emitters in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Org. Lett.9(25), 5215–5218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nothofer, H.-G.

S. Gamerith, H.-G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, and E. J. W. List, “Identification of emissive interface-related defects in polyfluorene-based light emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 7A), 891–893 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Offen, H. W.

P. C. Johnson and H. W. Offen, “Pyrene fluorescence in ethanol and cyclohexane under pressure,” J. Chem. Phys.59(2), 801–806 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Kim, R. A. Beardslee, D. T. Phillips, and H. W. Offen, “Fluorescence lifetimes of pyrene monomer and excimer at high pressures,” J. Chem. Phys.51(6), 2761–2762 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. T.

J. J. Kim, R. A. Beardslee, D. T. Phillips, and H. W. Offen, “Fluorescence lifetimes of pyrene monomer and excimer at high pressures,” J. Chem. Phys.51(6), 2761–2762 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Plaza, P.

M. Jurczok, P. Plaza, W. Rettig, and M. M. Martin, “Ultrafast electron transfer in acceptor substituted bianthryl derivatives,” Chem. Phys.256(1), 137–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, J. P.

S. Duhm, G. Heimel, I. Salzmann, H. Glowatzki, R. L. Johnson, A. Vollmer, J. P. Rabe, and N. Koch, “Orientation-dependent ionization energies and interface dipoles in ordered molecular assemblies,” Nat. Mater.7(4), 326–332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rettig, W.

M. Baumgarten, L. Gherghel, J. Friedrich, M. Jurczok, and W. Rettig, “Electronic decoupling in ground and excited states of asymmetric biaryls,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(6), 1130–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Jurczok, P. Plaza, W. Rettig, and M. M. Martin, “Ultrafast electron transfer in acceptor substituted bianthryl derivatives,” Chem. Phys.256(1), 137–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ribas, M.

S. Kawano, C. Yang, M. Ribas, S. Baluschev, M. Baumgarten, and K. Müllen, “Blue-emitting poly(2,7-pyrenylene)s: synthesis and optical properties,” Macromolecules41(21), 7933–7937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rohr, U.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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W. R. Saleneck, “Photoelectron spectroscopy of polyconjugated polymer surfaces and interfaces,” Rep. Prog. Phys.54(9), 1215–1249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Salzmann, I.

S. Duhm, G. Heimel, I. Salzmann, H. Glowatzki, R. L. Johnson, A. Vollmer, J. P. Rabe, and N. Koch, “Orientation-dependent ionization energies and interface dipoles in ordered molecular assemblies,” Nat. Mater.7(4), 326–332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sax, S.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, P. G. Del Rosso, R. Trattnig, S. Sax, E. J. List, and K. Müllen, “Designed suppression of aggregation in polypyrene: toward high-performance blue-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(9), 990–993 (2010).
[PubMed]

Scherf, U.

S. Gamerith, H.-G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, and E. J. W. List, “Identification of emissive interface-related defects in polyfluorene-based light emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 7A), 891–893 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. W. List, R. Guentner, P. S. de Freitas, and U. Scherf, “The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(5), 374–378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Scherf and E. J. W. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes — towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(7), 477–487 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. W. List, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, W. Graupner, C.-H. Kim, and J. Shinar, “Direct evidence for singlet-triplet exciton annihilation in π-conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B66(23), 235203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. List, C.-H. Kim, A. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schlichting, P.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, W. G.

W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider, “Recombination radiation in anthracene crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.14(7), 229–231 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. C.

G. G. Malliaras and J. C. Scott, “The roles of injection and mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.83(10), 5399–5403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, A. R. Hosseini, M. H. Wong, and G. G. Malliaras, “How to make ohmic contacts to organic semiconductors,” ChemPhysChem5(1), 16–25 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiang, J. J.

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinar, J.

E. J. W. List, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, W. Graupner, C.-H. Kim, and J. Shinar, “Direct evidence for singlet-triplet exciton annihilation in π-conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B66(23), 235203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. List, C.-H. Kim, A. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shirakawa, H.

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, and G. Alan, “Mac Diarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, jr., Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.39, 1098–1101 (1977).

Shirota, Y.

Y. Shirota and H. Kageyama, “Charge carrier transporting molecular materials and their applications in devices,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 953–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, S. C.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, S. C. Simon, M. Wagner, S. I. Druzhinin, K. A. Zachariasse, and K. Müllen, “Polypyrene dendrimers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(52), 10175–10178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, I.-W.

C.-H. Yanga, T.-F. Guob, and I.-W. Sun, “Highly efficient greenish blue-emitting organic diodes based on pyrene derivatives,” J. Lumin.124(1), 93–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taliani, C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamoto, N.

N. Tamoto, C. Adachi, and K. Nagai, “Electroluminescence of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and triphenylamine-containing molecules as an emitter in organic multilayer light emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.9(5), 1077–1085 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y. T.

Y. T. Tao, E. Balasubramaniam, A. Danel, and P. Tomasik, “Dipyrazolopyridine derivatives as bright blue electroluminescent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(7), 933–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tasch, S.

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tomasik, P.

Y. T. Tao, E. Balasubramaniam, A. Danel, and P. Tomasik, “Dipyrazolopyridine derivatives as bright blue electroluminescent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(7), 933–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trattnig, R.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, P. G. Del Rosso, R. Trattnig, S. Sax, E. J. List, and K. Müllen, “Designed suppression of aggregation in polypyrene: toward high-performance blue-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(9), 990–993 (2010).
[PubMed]

VanSlyke, S.

C. W. Tang and S. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Venkatakrishnan, P.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Natarajan, P. Venkatakrishnan, D. F. Huang, and T. J. Chow, “Steric inhibition of π-stacking: 1,3,6,8-tetraarylpyrenes as efficient blue emitters in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Org. Lett.9(25), 5215–5218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, A.

S. Duhm, G. Heimel, I. Salzmann, H. Glowatzki, R. L. Johnson, A. Vollmer, J. P. Rabe, and N. Koch, “Orientation-dependent ionization energies and interface dipoles in ordered molecular assemblies,” Nat. Mater.7(4), 326–332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, M.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, S. C. Simon, M. Wagner, S. I. Druzhinin, K. A. Zachariasse, and K. Müllen, “Polypyrene dendrimers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(52), 10175–10178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Y. Fogel, M. Kastler, Z. Wang, D. Andrienko, G. J. Bodwell, and K. Müllen, “Electron-deficient N-heteroaromatic linkers for the elaboration of large, soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their use in the synthesis of some very large transition metal complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(38), 11743–11749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windsor, M. W.

J. L. Kropp, W. R. Dawson, and M. W. Windsor, “Radiative and radiationless processes in aromatic molecules. Pyrene,” J. Phys. Chem.73(6), 1747–1752 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. H.

Y. Shen, A. R. Hosseini, M. H. Wong, and G. G. Malliaras, “How to make ohmic contacts to organic semiconductors,” ChemPhysChem5(1), 16–25 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

S. Kawano, C. Yang, M. Ribas, S. Baluschev, M. Baumgarten, and K. Müllen, “Blue-emitting poly(2,7-pyrenylene)s: synthesis and optical properties,” Macromolecules41(21), 7933–7937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yanga, C.-H.

C.-H. Yanga, T.-F. Guob, and I.-W. Sun, “Highly efficient greenish blue-emitting organic diodes based on pyrene derivatives,” J. Lumin.124(1), 93–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zachariasse, K. A.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, S. C. Simon, M. Wagner, S. I. Druzhinin, K. A. Zachariasse, and K. Müllen, “Polypyrene dendrimers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(52), 10175–10178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

U. Scherf and E. J. W. List, “Semiconducting polyfluorenes — towards reliable structure–property relationships,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(7), 477–487 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, P. G. Del Rosso, R. Trattnig, S. Sax, E. J. List, and K. Müllen, “Designed suppression of aggregation in polypyrene: toward high-performance blue-light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(9), 990–993 (2010).
[PubMed]

E. J. W. List, R. Guentner, P. S. de Freitas, and U. Scherf, “The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(5), 374–378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

T. M. Figueira-Duarte, S. C. Simon, M. Wagner, S. I. Druzhinin, K. A. Zachariasse, and K. Müllen, “Polypyrene dendrimers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(52), 10175–10178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. T. Tao, E. Balasubramaniam, A. Danel, and P. Tomasik, “Dipyrazolopyridine derivatives as bright blue electroluminescent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(7), 933–935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tasch, E. J. W. List, O. Ekström, W. Graupner, G. Leising, P. Schlichting, U. Rohr, Y. Geerts, U. Scherf, and K. Müllen, “Efficient white light-emitting diodes realized with new processable blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(20), 2883–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

N. Tamoto, C. Adachi, and K. Nagai, “Electroluminescence of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and triphenylamine-containing molecules as an emitter in organic multilayer light emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater.9(5), 1077–1085 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

M. Jurczok, P. Plaza, W. Rettig, and M. M. Martin, “Ultrafast electron transfer in acceptor substituted bianthryl derivatives,” Chem. Phys.256(1), 137–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

E. M. S. Castanheira and J. M. G. Martinho, “Solvatochromic shifts of pyrene excimer fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett.185(3-4), 319–323 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

Y. Shirota and H. Kageyama, “Charge carrier transporting molecular materials and their applications in devices,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 953–1010 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ChemPhysChem

Y. Shen, A. R. Hosseini, M. H. Wong, and G. G. Malliaras, “How to make ohmic contacts to organic semiconductors,” ChemPhysChem5(1), 16–25 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

Y. Fogel, M. Kastler, Z. Wang, D. Andrienko, G. J. Bodwell, and K. Müllen, “Electron-deficient N-heteroaromatic linkers for the elaboration of large, soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their use in the synthesis of some very large transition metal complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(38), 11743–11749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. G. Malliaras and J. C. Scott, “The roles of injection and mobility in organic light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.83(10), 5399–5403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. J. Kim, R. A. Beardslee, D. T. Phillips, and H. W. Offen, “Fluorescence lifetimes of pyrene monomer and excimer at high pressures,” J. Chem. Phys.51(6), 2761–2762 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Johnson and H. W. Offen, “Pyrene fluorescence in ethanol and cyclohexane under pressure,” J. Chem. Phys.59(2), 801–806 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Tech.

A. R. Duggal, C. M. Heller, J. J. Shiang, J. Liu, and L. N. Lewis, “Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes for lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 184–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

C.-H. Yanga, T.-F. Guob, and I.-W. Sun, “Highly efficient greenish blue-emitting organic diodes based on pyrene derivatives,” J. Lumin.124(1), 93–98 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

J. L. Kropp, W. R. Dawson, and M. W. Windsor, “Radiative and radiationless processes in aromatic molecules. Pyrene,” J. Phys. Chem.73(6), 1747–1752 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

M. Baumgarten, L. Gherghel, J. Friedrich, M. Jurczok, and W. Rettig, “Electronic decoupling in ground and excited states of asymmetric biaryls,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(6), 1130–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

J. A. Mikroyannidis, L. Fenenko, and C. Adachi, “Synthesis and photophysical characteristics of 2,7-fluorenevinylene-based trimers and their electroluminescence,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(41), 20317–20326 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Gamerith, H.-G. Nothofer, U. Scherf, and E. J. W. List, “Identification of emissive interface-related defects in polyfluorene-based light emitting devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 7A), 891–893 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

S. Kawano, C. Yang, M. Ribas, S. Baluschev, M. Baumgarten, and K. Müllen, “Blue-emitting poly(2,7-pyrenylene)s: synthesis and optical properties,” Macromolecules41(21), 7933–7937 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.

L. S. Hung and C. H. Chen, “Recent progress of molecular organic electroluminescent materials and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.39(5-6), 143–222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

S. Duhm, G. Heimel, I. Salzmann, H. Glowatzki, R. L. Johnson, A. Vollmer, J. P. Rabe, and N. Koch, “Orientation-dependent ionization energies and interface dipoles in ordered molecular assemblies,” Nat. Mater.7(4), 326–332 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. dos Santos, J.-L. Brédas, M. Lóglund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Org. Lett.

J. N. Moorthy, P. Natarajan, P. Venkatakrishnan, D. F. Huang, and T. J. Chow, “Steric inhibition of π-stacking: 1,3,6,8-tetraarylpyrenes as efficient blue emitters in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” Org. Lett.9(25), 5215–5218 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

E. J. W. List, U. Scherf, K. Müllen, W. Graupner, C.-H. Kim, and J. Shinar, “Direct evidence for singlet-triplet exciton annihilation in π-conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B66(23), 235203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. List, C.-H. Kim, A. Naik, U. Scherf, G. Leising, W. Graupner, and J. Shinar, “Interaction of singlet excitons with polarons in wide band-gap organic semiconductors: A quantitative study,” Phys. Rev. B64(15), 155204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Epshtein, G. Nakhmanovich, Y. Eichen, and E. Ehrenfreund, “Dispersive dynamics of photoexcitations in conjugated polymers by photomodulation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B63(12), 125206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider, “Recombination radiation in anthracene crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.14(7), 229–231 (1965).
[CrossRef]

H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, S. C. Gau, and G. Alan, “Mac Diarmid, C. K. Chiang, C. R. Fincher, jr., Y. W. Park, and A. J. Heeger, “Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.39, 1098–1101 (1977).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

W. R. Saleneck, “Photoelectron spectroscopy of polyconjugated polymer surfaces and interfaces,” Rep. Prog. Phys.54(9), 1215–1249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Hoffmann, E. M. Hotze, and M. R. Wiesner, “Reactive oxygen species generation on nanoparticulate material,” in Environmental nanotechnology: applications and impacts of Nanomaterials, J.-Y. Bottero and M. R. Wiesner, eds. (Mcgraw-Hill Professional, New York, NY, 2007).

E. List and U. Scherf, “Blue emitting poly(para-phenylene) type polymers,” in Handbook of Conducting Polymers, T. A. Skrotheim, J. R. Reynolds, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2007).

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