Abstract

This study employed a UV-assisted roller imprinting technique using PDMS soft molds to imprint periodically inverted-pyramid structures on the surface of GaN-based LEDs. The refractive indices of the structures were 1.5, 1.7, and 1.9, which enhanced light output power by 26%, 43%, and 50%, respectively, compared to conventional LEDs. Materials with a greater refractive index indicate a larger critical angle of total internal reflection from the semi-conductor to the imprinted material. Once photons are extracted into the imprinted structure, they are prone to be extracted into the air through the structured surface. The numerical simulation performed using the ray tracing method proved useful for identifying the microstructure with optimal light extraction efficiency. Simulation results showed that LEDs with imprinted structures of varying refractive indices enhance optical efficiency in a manner similar to that demonstrated in these experiments.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light output enhancement for nitride-based light emitting diodes via imprinting lithography using spin-on glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Naoi, M. Matsumoto, T. Tan, M. Tohno, S. Sakai, A. Fukano, and S. Tanaka, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with periodic nano-structures on the surface fabricated by nanoimprint lithography technique,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2154–2156 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, S. Y. Kuo, K. Y. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes on embedded SiO2 nanorod array and nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263115 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nano patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3926–3928 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. T. Gale, “Replication technique for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34(3–4), 321–339 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Mäkelä, T. Haatainen, P. Majander, J. Ahopelto, and V. Lambertini, “Continuous double-sided roll-to-roll imprinting of polymer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 5142–5144 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light output enhancement for nitride-based light emitting diodes via imprinting lithography using spin-on glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Naoi, M. Matsumoto, T. Tan, M. Tohno, S. Sakai, A. Fukano, and S. Tanaka, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with periodic nano-structures on the surface fabricated by nanoimprint lithography technique,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, S. Y. Kuo, K. Y. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes on embedded SiO2 nanorod array and nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nano patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Mäkelä, T. Haatainen, P. Majander, J. Ahopelto, and V. Lambertini, “Continuous double-sided roll-to-roll imprinting of polymer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 5142–5144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3926–3928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. T. Gale, “Replication technique for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34(3–4), 321–339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, S. J.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ahopelto, J.

T. Mäkelä, T. Haatainen, P. Majander, J. Ahopelto, and V. Lambertini, “Continuous double-sided roll-to-roll imprinting of polymer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 5142–5144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nano patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. S.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B. S.

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W. T.

Chiu, C. H.

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. B.

J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3926–3928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ciou, M. J.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light output enhancement for nitride-based light emitting diodes via imprinting lithography using spin-on glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukano, A.

Y. Naoi, M. Matsumoto, T. Tan, M. Tohno, S. Sakai, A. Fukano, and S. Tanaka, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with periodic nano-structures on the surface fabricated by nanoimprint lithography technique,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, “Replication technique for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34(3–4), 321–339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, K. F.

Gilbertson, A.

H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3926–3928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haatainen, T.

T. Mäkelä, T. Haatainen, P. Majander, J. Ahopelto, and V. Lambertini, “Continuous double-sided roll-to-roll imprinting of polymer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 5142–5144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, S. Y. Kuo, K. Y. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes on embedded SiO2 nanorod array and nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. K.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, S. Y. Kuo, K. Y. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes on embedded SiO2 nanorod array and nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light output enhancement for nitride-based light emitting diodes via imprinting lithography using spin-on glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. J.

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, G.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. P.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nano patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khokhar, A. Z.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. H.

J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. T.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, S. Y. Kuo, K. Y. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes on embedded SiO2 nanorod array and nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, S. Y.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, S. Y. Kuo, K. Y. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes on embedded SiO2 nanorod array and nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. F.

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambertini, V.

T. Mäkelä, T. Haatainen, P. Majander, J. Ahopelto, and V. Lambertini, “Continuous double-sided roll-to-roll imprinting of polymer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 5142–5144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. D.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. J.

J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. Y.

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, S. Y. Kuo, K. Y. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes on embedded SiO2 nanorod array and nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y. C.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light output enhancement for nitride-based light emitting diodes via imprinting lithography using spin-on glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leung, K. M.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nano patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T. C.

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macintyre, D. S.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Majander, P.

T. Mäkelä, T. Haatainen, P. Majander, J. Ahopelto, and V. Lambertini, “Continuous double-sided roll-to-roll imprinting of polymer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 5142–5144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mäkelä, T.

T. Mäkelä, T. Haatainen, P. Majander, J. Ahopelto, and V. Lambertini, “Continuous double-sided roll-to-roll imprinting of polymer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 5142–5144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Massoubre, D.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, M.

Y. Naoi, M. Matsumoto, T. Tan, M. Tohno, S. Sakai, A. Fukano, and S. Tanaka, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with periodic nano-structures on the surface fabricated by nanoimprint lithography technique,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Min, G.

W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moran, B.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Naoi, Y.

Y. Naoi, M. Matsumoto, T. Tan, M. Tohno, S. Sakai, A. Fukano, and S. Tanaka, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with periodic nano-structures on the surface fabricated by nanoimprint lithography technique,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, K.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, F.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, S.

Y. Naoi, M. Matsumoto, T. Tan, M. Tohno, S. Sakai, A. Fukano, and S. Tanaka, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with periodic nano-structures on the surface fabricated by nanoimprint lithography technique,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. F.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Z.

W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y. K.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nano patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Tan, H.

H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3926–3928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tan, T.

Y. Naoi, M. Matsumoto, T. Tan, M. Tohno, S. Sakai, A. Fukano, and S. Tanaka, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with periodic nano-structures on the surface fabricated by nanoimprint lithography technique,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Naoi, M. Matsumoto, T. Tan, M. Tohno, S. Sakai, A. Fukano, and S. Tanaka, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with periodic nano-structures on the surface fabricated by nanoimprint lithography technique,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tillin, M.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tohno, M.

Y. Naoi, M. Matsumoto, T. Tan, M. Tohno, S. Sakai, A. Fukano, and S. Tanaka, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with periodic nano-structures on the surface fabricated by nanoimprint lithography technique,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, I. M.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. David, T. Fujii, B. Moran, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic crystal laser lift-off GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 013504 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, J. K. Huang, S. Y. Kuo, K. Y. Lee, and H. C. Kuo, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes on embedded SiO2 nanorod array and nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nano patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3926–3928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Mäkelä, T. Haatainen, P. Majander, J. Ahopelto, and V. Lambertini, “Continuous double-sided roll-to-roll imprinting of polymer film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 5142–5144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (4)

M. T. Gale, “Replication technique for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34(3–4), 321–339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Lee, S. Y. Park, K. B. Choi, and G. H. Kim, “Nano-scale patterning using the roll typed UV-nanoimprint,” Microelectron. Eng. 85(5–6), 861–865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “Light output enhancement for nitride-based light emitting diodes via imprinting lithography using spin-on glass,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2211–2217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(11), 2200–2207 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yu, B. D. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Enhanced light output from a nitride-based power chip of green light-emitting diodes with nano-rough surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(18), 185301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhou, G. Min, Z. Song, J. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced efficiency of light emitting diodes with a nano-patterned gallium nitride surface realized by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 21(20), 205304 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

Y. Naoi, M. Matsumoto, T. Tan, M. Tohno, S. Sakai, A. Fukano, and S. Tanaka, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with periodic nano-structures on the surface fabricated by nanoimprint lithography technique,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2154–2156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. S. Cheng, C. H. Chiu, K. J. Huang, C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lin, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Enhanced light extraction of InGaN-based green LEDs by nano-imprinted 2D photonic crystal pattern,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(5), 055002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Process flow to prepare a microstructure-LEDs; (b) Imprinted structure on LED surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light output power of LEDs with and without imprinted structures, as a function of the driving current.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pathways of light passing through the transparent conductive layer to imprinted material.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of ray tracing analysis: (a) LED without surface structures; (b) LED with inverted-pyramid structures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of experiment and simulation results of enhanced efficiency using various imprinted materials, compared to conventional LEDs.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Foward voltages and light ouput of conventional LED and imprinted LEDs with various refractive indices at 20 mA injection

Tables Icon

Table 2 Critical angles of TIR for ITO/imprinted material and imprinted material/air

Metrics