Abstract

We herein present the results of a study of the direct fabrication of buckled patterns in flexible organic light-emitting devices (FOLEDs) that had a conducting polymer anode on a polyethersulfone substrate. These patterns were produced spontaneously by the thermal deposition of an aluminum cathode on an electroluminescent (EL) composite layer. The polymer used for the anode was modified poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) and the EL layer was composed of a solution-processable small molecular composite including phosphorescent Iridium complex mixed with a poly(vinylcarbazole) host. It is shown that FOLEDs produced with buckled patterns can exhibit a luminance as high as ca. 14,900 cd/m2 with a peak efficiency of 50.5 cd/A. The patterned structure formed by the buckling of the EL layer allows FOLEDs to be produced with a high peak external quantum efficiency of 15% with an increase in light extraction by a factor of ca. 3.1. These results show that spontaneous buckling yields patterned structures that offer considerable promise for the production of high performance, reproducible and reliable FOLEDs.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, “Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 7B), L783–L784 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thomspon, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Fehse, K. Walzer, K. Leo, W. Lövenich, and A. Elschner, “Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes as Replacements for Inorganic Materials in High-Efficiency Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(3), 441–444 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

W. H. Koo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simultaneous Extraction of Indium Tin Oxide/Organic and Substrate Waveguide Modes from Buckled Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032101-1-032101-3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization Conversion in Surface-Plasmon-Coupled Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, H. J. Yun, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Spontaneously Buckled Microlens for Improving Outcoupled Organic Electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082501-1-082501-3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, J. Sun, H. E. Katz, F. Fang, and R. L. Opila, “Promising thermoelectric properties of commercial PEDOT:PSS materials and their bi2Te3 powder composites,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(11), 3170–3178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Park, C. H. Park, Y. Yim, and J. Park, “Electrical annealing for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 084508-1-084508-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, “Thermal transport properties of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073709-1-073709-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307-1-083307-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, and D.-Y. Kim, “Efficient and Flexible ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Using Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. Saleem, L. Frormann, and A. Iqbal, “High performance thermoplastic composites: Study on the mechanical,” Polym. Compos. 28(6), 785–796 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Fehse, K. Walzer, K. Leo, W. Lövenich, and A. Elschner, “Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes as Replacements for Inorganic Materials in High-Efficiency Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(3), 441–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114-1-111114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106-1-073106-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. Ke, R. S. Kumar, S. J. Chua, and A. P. Burden, “Degradation study in flexible substrate organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(5), 969–974 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, P. F. Miller, J. S. Wilson, A. J. de Mello, J. C. de Mello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Investigation of the Effects of Dopong,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 290–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Improvement of coupling-out efficiency in organic electroluminescent devices by addition of a diffusive layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6016–6022 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting Light from Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Using Stamped Bragg Grating,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Yang and D. Neher, “Polymer electrophosphorescence devices with high power conversion efficiencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2476–2478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, “Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 7B), L783–L784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thomspon, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

N. Bowden, S. Brittain, A. G. Evans, J. W. Hutchinson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Spontaneous formation of ordered structures in thin films of metals supported on an elastomeric polymer,” Nature 393(6681), 146–149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission fromorganic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

R. A. Pearson, “On convection cells induced by surface tension,” J. Fluid Mech. 4(05), 489–500 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, H.

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, “Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 7B), L783–L784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simultaneous Extraction of Indium Tin Oxide/Organic and Substrate Waveguide Modes from Buckled Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032101-1-032101-3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization Conversion in Surface-Plasmon-Coupled Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, H. J. Yun, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Spontaneously Buckled Microlens for Improving Outcoupled Organic Electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082501-1-082501-3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307-1-083307-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114-1-111114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ashida, T.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, “Thermal transport properties of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073709-1-073709-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, “Thermal transport properties of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073709-1-073709-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thomspon, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission fromorganic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, N.

N. Bowden, S. Brittain, A. G. Evans, J. W. Hutchinson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Spontaneous formation of ordered structures in thin films of metals supported on an elastomeric polymer,” Nature 393(6681), 146–149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

J. Huang, P. F. Miller, J. S. Wilson, A. J. de Mello, J. C. de Mello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Investigation of the Effects of Dopong,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 290–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brittain, S.

N. Bowden, S. Brittain, A. G. Evans, J. W. Hutchinson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Spontaneous formation of ordered structures in thin films of metals supported on an elastomeric polymer,” Nature 393(6681), 146–149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burden, A. P.

L. Ke, R. S. Kumar, S. J. Chua, and A. P. Burden, “Degradation study in flexible substrate organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(5), 969–974 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thomspon, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

L. Ke, R. S. Kumar, S. J. Chua, and A. P. Burden, “Degradation study in flexible substrate organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(5), 969–974 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Mello, A. J.

J. Huang, P. F. Miller, J. S. Wilson, A. J. de Mello, J. C. de Mello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Investigation of the Effects of Dopong,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 290–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Mello, J. C.

J. Huang, P. F. Miller, J. S. Wilson, A. J. de Mello, J. C. de Mello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Investigation of the Effects of Dopong,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 290–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elschner, A.

K. Fehse, K. Walzer, K. Leo, W. Lövenich, and A. Elschner, “Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes as Replacements for Inorganic Materials in High-Efficiency Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(3), 441–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, A. G.

N. Bowden, S. Brittain, A. G. Evans, J. W. Hutchinson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Spontaneous formation of ordered structures in thin films of metals supported on an elastomeric polymer,” Nature 393(6681), 146–149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting Light from Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Using Stamped Bragg Grating,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, F.

B. Zhang, J. Sun, H. E. Katz, F. Fang, and R. L. Opila, “Promising thermoelectric properties of commercial PEDOT:PSS materials and their bi2Te3 powder composites,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(11), 3170–3178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fehse, K.

K. Fehse, K. Walzer, K. Leo, W. Lövenich, and A. Elschner, “Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes as Replacements for Inorganic Materials in High-Efficiency Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(3), 441–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106-1-073106-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106-1-073106-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, G.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307-1-083307-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, “Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 7B), L783–L784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taketoshi, N.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, “Thermal transport properties of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073709-1-073709-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simultaneous Extraction of Indium Tin Oxide/Organic and Substrate Waveguide Modes from Buckled Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032101-1-032101-3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization Conversion in Surface-Plasmon-Coupled Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, H. J. Yun, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Spontaneously Buckled Microlens for Improving Outcoupled Organic Electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082501-1-082501-3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307-1-083307-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, “Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 7B), L783–L784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission fromorganic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thomspon, M. E.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thomspon, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization Conversion in Surface-Plasmon-Coupled Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simultaneous Extraction of Indium Tin Oxide/Organic and Substrate Waveguide Modes from Buckled Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032101-1-032101-3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, H. J. Yun, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Spontaneously Buckled Microlens for Improving Outcoupled Organic Electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082501-1-082501-3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, T.

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Improvement of coupling-out efficiency in organic electroluminescent devices by addition of a diffusive layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6016–6022 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, T.

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Fehse, K. Walzer, K. Leo, W. Lövenich, and A. Elschner, “Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes as Replacements for Inorganic Materials in High-Efficiency Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(3), 441–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

N. Bowden, S. Brittain, A. G. Evans, J. W. Hutchinson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Spontaneous formation of ordered structures in thin films of metals supported on an elastomeric polymer,” Nature 393(6681), 146–149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. S.

J. Huang, P. F. Miller, J. S. Wilson, A. J. de Mello, J. C. de Mello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Investigation of the Effects of Dopong,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 290–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, T.

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, “Thermal transport properties of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073709-1-073709-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamaji, T.

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, “Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 7B), L783–L784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. H.

X. H. Yang and D. Neher, “Polymer electrophosphorescence devices with high power conversion efficiencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2476–2478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yim, Y.

B. Park, C. H. Park, Y. Yim, and J. Park, “Electrical annealing for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 084508-1-084508-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, Y.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission fromorganic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yun, H. J.

W. H. Koo, H. J. Yun, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Spontaneously Buckled Microlens for Improving Outcoupled Organic Electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082501-1-082501-3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, J. Sun, H. E. Katz, F. Fang, and R. L. Opila, “Promising thermoelectric properties of commercial PEDOT:PSS materials and their bi2Te3 powder composites,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(11), 3170–3178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziebarth, J. M.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting Light from Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Using Stamped Bragg Grating,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

B. Zhang, J. Sun, H. E. Katz, F. Fang, and R. L. Opila, “Promising thermoelectric properties of commercial PEDOT:PSS materials and their bi2Te3 powder composites,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(11), 3170–3178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting Light from Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Using Stamped Bragg Grating,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, P. F. Miller, J. S. Wilson, A. J. de Mello, J. C. de Mello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Investigation of the Effects of Dopong,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(2), 290–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (4)

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, and D.-Y. Kim, “Efficient and Flexible ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells Using Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization Conversion in Surface-Plasmon-Coupled Emission from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Spontaneously Formed Buckles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased Efficiency and Controlled Light Output from a Microstructured Light-Emitting Diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Fehse, K. Walzer, K. Leo, W. Lövenich, and A. Elschner, “Highly Conductive Polymer Anodes as Replacements for Inorganic Materials in High-Efficiency Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(3), 441–444 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

W. H. Koo, H. J. Yun, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Spontaneously Buckled Microlens for Improving Outcoupled Organic Electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(8), 082501-1-082501-3 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simultaneous Extraction of Indium Tin Oxide/Organic and Substrate Waveguide Modes from Buckled Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032101-1-032101-3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307-1-083307-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114-1-111114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thomspon, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Yang and D. Neher, “Polymer electrophosphorescence devices with high power conversion efficiencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2476–2478 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

L. Ke, R. S. Kumar, S. J. Chua, and A. P. Burden, “Degradation study in flexible substrate organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(5), 969–974 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 372–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

T. Ashida, A. Miyamura, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, “Thermal transport properties of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073709-1-073709-4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Park, C. H. Park, Y. Yim, and J. Park, “Electrical annealing for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 084508-1-084508-6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106-1-073106-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakamura, N. Tsutsumi, N. Juni, and H. Fujii, “Improvement of coupling-out efficiency in organic electroluminescent devices by addition of a diffusive layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6016–6022 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

R. A. Pearson, “On convection cells induced by surface tension,” J. Fluid Mech. 4(05), 489–500 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Okamoto, K. Tanaka, Y. Izumi, H. Adachi, T. Yamaji, and T. Suzuki, “Simple Measurement of Quantum Efficiency in Organic Electroluminescent Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 7B), L783–L784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

N. Bowden, S. Brittain, A. G. Evans, J. W. Hutchinson, and G. M. Whitesides, “Spontaneous formation of ordered structures in thin films of metals supported on an elastomeric polymer,” Nature 393(6681), 146–149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission fromorganic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polym. Compos. (1)

A. Saleem, L. Frormann, and A. Iqbal, “High performance thermoplastic composites: Study on the mechanical,” Polym. Compos. 28(6), 785–796 (2007).
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G. P. Grawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the fabrication process for a buckled FOLED with a PEDOT:PSS anode on a flexible PES substrate. The buckled EL layer was spontaneously formed by a thermal expansion technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmittance spectra of PEDOT:PSS anodes on a flexible PES substrate (solid curve) and a glass substrate (dotted curve). (b) Photograph of the PEDOT:PSS layers on PES (left) and glass (right) substrates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM analyses of buckling patterns. Upper panels: topographic images of buckled structures formed in the FOLED. Lower panels: cross-sectional views of the FOLED with buckling on PES substrate (left) and the reference OLED without buckling on glass substrate (right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photograph of an operating FOLED with a buckled surface on a PES substrate at 10 V. (b) J-V (red) and L-V (blue) characteristics and (c) current efficiency (red) and power efficiency (blue) for the sample FOLED (solid curves) and the reference OLED (dotted curves).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized viewing angle dependence of EL intensity for the sample FOLED (circles) and the reference OLED (squares). The dotted line represents the Lambertian emission pattern. (b) Normalized EL spectra measured at the surface normal direction for the sample FOLED (blue) and reference OLED (red).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) EQE as a function of input power for the sample FOLED (blue) and reference OLED (red). (b) Spectral ratio of output radiant power measured by using an integrated sphere for the sample FOLED to that for the reference OLED at a fixed input power (222 mW/cm2). Inset shows the total EL spectral outputs of the radiant power from the devices by using the integrated sphere.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The current efficiencies (a) and power efficiencies (b) of the sample FOLED and reference OLED as functions of output luminance.

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