Abstract

We report broadband antireflective disordered subwavelength structures (d-SWSs), which were fabricated on 4-inch silicon wafers by spin-coating Ag ink and metal-assisted chemical etching. The antireflection properties of the d-SWSs depend on its dimensions and heights, which were changed by the sintering temperature of the spin-coated Ag ink and etching time. The fabricated d-SWSs drastically reduced surface reflection over a wide range of wavelengths and incident angles, providing good surface uniformity. The d-SWSs with the most appropriate geometry for practical solar cell applications exhibit only 1.23% solar-weighted reflectance in the wavelength range of 300-1100 nm and average reflectance <5% up to an incident angle of 55° in the wavelength range of 300-2500 nm. This simple and low-cost nanofabrication method for antireflection could be of great importance in optical device applications because it allows mass production without any lithography processes or sophisticated equipment.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  10. Y. Lee, K. Koh, H. Na, K. Kim, J.-J. Kang, and J. Kim, “Lithography-free fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures using thermally dewetted Pt/Pd alloy etch mask,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(4), 364–370 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, S. J. Jang, J. H. Ha, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Multifunctional light escaping architecture inspired by compound eye surface structures: from understanding to experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A157–A165 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Web site for NREL’s AM1.5 Standard Dataset: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/ .
  18. Y. Yasukawa, H. Asoh, and S. Ono, “Site-selective chemical etching of GaAs through a combination of self-organized spheres and silver particles as etching catalyst,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(5), 757–760 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Li, Y.-W. Kim, P. W. Bohn, and I. Adesida, “In-plane bandgap control in porous GaN through electroless wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 980–982 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective submicrometer gratings on thin-film silicon solar cells for light-absorption enhancement,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 276–278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. Lee, K. Koh, H. Na, K. Kim, J.-J. Kang, and J. Kim, “Lithography-free fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures using thermally dewetted Pt/Pd alloy etch mask,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(4), 364–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Chen, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, S. H. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and Y. C. Chang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection employing disordered GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8748–8754 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chartier, S. Bastide, and C. Lévy-Clément, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon in HF-H2O2,” Electrochim. Acta 53(17), 5509–5516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Zhang, K.-Q. Peng, X. Fan, J.-S. Jie, R.-Q. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, and N.-B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasukawa, H. Asoh, and S. Ono, “Site-selective chemical etching of GaAs through a combination of self-organized spheres and silver particles as etching catalyst,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(5), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, X. Z. Yu, and H. T. Fan, “Simple lithographic approach for subwavelength structure antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. Li, Y.-W. Kim, P. W. Bohn, and I. Adesida, “In-plane bandgap control in porous GaN through electroless wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 980–982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. A. Turner, “A realizable renewable energy future,” Science 285(5428), 687–689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adesida, I.

X. Li, Y.-W. Kim, P. W. Bohn, and I. Adesida, “In-plane bandgap control in porous GaN through electroless wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 980–982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aho, A.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arafune, K.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asoh, H.

Y. Yasukawa, H. Asoh, and S. Ono, “Site-selective chemical etching of GaAs through a combination of self-organized spheres and silver particles as etching catalyst,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(5), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bastide, S.

C. Chartier, S. Bastide, and C. Lévy-Clément, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon in HF-H2O2,” Electrochim. Acta 53(17), 5509–5516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, P. W.

X. Li, Y.-W. Kim, P. W. Bohn, and I. Adesida, “In-plane bandgap control in porous GaN through electroless wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 980–982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

Chartier, C.

C. Chartier, S. Bastide, and C. Lévy-Clément, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon in HF-H2O2,” Electrochim. Acta 53(17), 5509–5516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

Cheng, Y. J.

Chiu, C. H.

Choi, E. S.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H. T.

S. Wang, X. Z. Yu, and H. T. Fan, “Simple lithographic approach for subwavelength structure antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

M.-L. Zhang, K.-Q. Peng, X. Fan, J.-S. Jie, R.-Q. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, and N.-B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ge, H.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guina, M.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J. H.

Hsu, S. H.

Hu, J. J.

K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. J.

Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, S. J. Jang, J. H. Ha, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Multifunctional light escaping architecture inspired by compound eye surface structures: from understanding to experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A157–A165 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jie, J.-S.

M.-L. Zhang, K.-Q. Peng, X. Fan, J.-S. Jie, R.-Q. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, and N.-B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-J.

Y. Lee, K. Koh, H. Na, K. Kim, J.-J. Kang, and J. Kim, “Lithography-free fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures using thermally dewetted Pt/Pd alloy etch mask,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(4), 364–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keppner, H.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Y. Lee, K. Koh, H. Na, K. Kim, J.-J. Kang, and J. Kim, “Lithography-free fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures using thermally dewetted Pt/Pd alloy etch mask,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(4), 364–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

Y. Lee, K. Koh, H. Na, K. Kim, J.-J. Kang, and J. Kim, “Lithography-free fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures using thermally dewetted Pt/Pd alloy etch mask,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(4), 364–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-W.

X. Li, Y.-W. Kim, P. W. Bohn, and I. Adesida, “In-plane bandgap control in porous GaN through electroless wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 980–982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koh, K.

Y. Lee, K. Koh, H. Na, K. Kim, J.-J. Kang, and J. Kim, “Lithography-free fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures using thermally dewetted Pt/Pd alloy etch mask,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(4), 364–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kontio, J. M.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Lee, S. T.

K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-T.

M.-L. Zhang, K.-Q. Peng, X. Fan, J.-S. Jie, R.-Q. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, and N.-B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, K. Koh, H. Na, K. Kim, J.-J. Kang, and J. Kim, “Lithography-free fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures using thermally dewetted Pt/Pd alloy etch mask,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(4), 364–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. T.

Lévy-Clément, C.

C. Chartier, S. Bastide, and C. Lévy-Clément, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon in HF-H2O2,” Electrochim. Acta 53(17), 5509–5516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, Y.-W. Kim, P. W. Bohn, and I. Adesida, “In-plane bandgap control in porous GaN through electroless wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 980–982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

Na, H.

Y. Lee, K. Koh, H. Na, K. Kim, J.-J. Kang, and J. Kim, “Lithography-free fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures using thermally dewetted Pt/Pd alloy etch mask,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(4), 364–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niemi, T.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohshita, Y.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ono, S.

Y. Yasukawa, H. Asoh, and S. Ono, “Site-selective chemical etching of GaAs through a combination of self-organized spheres and silver particles as etching catalyst,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(5), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. Y.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, G. C.

Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, S. J. Jang, J. H. Ha, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Multifunctional light escaping architecture inspired by compound eye surface structures: from understanding to experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A157–A165 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K. Q.

K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K.-Q.

M.-L. Zhang, K.-Q. Peng, X. Fan, J.-S. Jie, R.-Q. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, and N.-B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polojärvi, V.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salmi, J.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schramm, A.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Y. M.

Tommila, J.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torres, P.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tscharner, R.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tukiainen, A.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J. A.

J. A. Turner, “A realizable renewable energy future,” Science 285(5428), 687–689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turtiainen, A.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Viheriälä, J.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, X. Z. Yu, and H. T. Fan, “Simple lithographic approach for subwavelength structure antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Wong, N.-B.

M.-L. Zhang, K.-Q. Peng, X. Fan, J.-S. Jie, R.-Q. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, and N.-B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wyrsch, N.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. J.

K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasukawa, Y.

Y. Yasukawa, H. Asoh, and S. Ono, “Site-selective chemical etching of GaAs through a combination of self-organized spheres and silver particles as etching catalyst,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(5), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Yu, P.

Yu, X. Z.

S. Wang, X. Z. Yu, and H. T. Fan, “Simple lithographic approach for subwavelength structure antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.-L.

M.-L. Zhang, K.-Q. Peng, X. Fan, J.-S. Jie, R.-Q. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, and N.-B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.-Q.

M.-L. Zhang, K.-Q. Peng, X. Fan, J.-S. Jie, R.-Q. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, and N.-B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

K. Q. Peng, J. J. Hu, Y. J. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Fang, Y. Xu, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of single-crystalline silicon nanowires by scratching a silicon surface with catalytic metal particles,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(3), 387–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y.-W. Kim, P. W. Bohn, and I. Adesida, “In-plane bandgap control in porous GaN through electroless wet chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 980–982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, X. Z. Yu, and H. T. Fan, “Simple lithographic approach for subwavelength structure antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Commun. (1)

Y. Yasukawa, H. Asoh, and S. Ono, “Site-selective chemical etching of GaAs through a combination of self-organized spheres and silver particles as etching catalyst,” Electrochem. Commun. 10(5), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electrochim. Acta (1)

C. Chartier, S. Bastide, and C. Lévy-Clément, “Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon in HF-H2O2,” Electrochim. Acta 53(17), 5509–5516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

M.-L. Zhang, K.-Q. Peng, X. Fan, J.-S. Jie, R.-Q. Zhang, S.-T. Lee, and N.-B. Wong, “Preparation of large-area uniform silicon nanowires arrays through metal-assisted chemical etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(12), 4444–4450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

Y. Lee, K. Koh, H. Na, K. Kim, J.-J. Kang, and J. Kim, “Lithography-free fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures using thermally dewetted Pt/Pd alloy etch mask,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(4), 364–370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. A. Turner, “A realizable renewable energy future,” Science 285(5428), 687–689 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Kontio, A. Turtiainen, T. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Web site for NREL’s AM1.5 Standard Dataset: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/ .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration (left column) of the process steps for fabricating the d-SWSs by spin-coating Ag ink and metal-assisted chemical etching. Tilted cross-sectional view SEM images (right column) in each process step.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Exposed surface ratio of silicon wafers as a function of sintering temperature. The insets show top view SEM images of Ag mesh structure (gray contrast region). (b) Top view SEM images of d-SWSs after metal-assisted chemical etching process for 10min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured hemispherical reflectance spectra as a function of wavelength for the fabricated d-SWSs with an etching time of 10 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The etching depth of silicon wafers as a function of etching time, the gradient of the line is about 44.3 nm/min. (b) The calculated SWR of silicon wafers with SWSs as a function of sintering temperatures and etching time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Incidence-angle-dependent reflectance as a function of wavelength for 10 min etched silicon SWSs with various sintering temperatures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Comparison of 4-inch processed antireflective black silicon (right) with reflective polished bare silicon (left). (b) Surface map of bare silicon wafer. (c) Surface map of black silicon wafer.

Equations (1)

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S W R = R ( λ ) N p h o t o n ( λ ) d λ N p h o t o n ( λ ) d λ ,

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