Abstract

In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a convenient and flexible approach for preparation large-area of photonic crystals (PhCs) structures on the GaN-based LED chip. The highly-ordered porous anodic alumina (AAO) with pitch of wavelength scale was adopted as a selective dry etching mask for PhCs-pattern transfer. The PhCs with different pore depths were simultaneously formed on the entire surfaces of GaN-based LED chip including ITO, GaN surrounding contacts and the sidewall of the mesa by one-step reactive ion etching (RIE). The light output power improvement of PhCs-based GaN LED was achieved as high as 94% compared to that of the conventional GaN-based LED.

© 2011 OSA

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  2. C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).
  3. C. Xiong, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, and G. Y. Zhang, “Diffracted transmission effects of GaN and polymer two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23684–23689 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-23684 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Dai, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, K. Bao, D. S. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. Z. Gan, “Light Extraction Improvement From GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes With Nano-Patterned Surface Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1974–1976 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, C. Xiong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Lattice Constant Effects of Photonic Crystal on the Extraction of Guided Modes of GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Sci. China Tech. Sci. 54(1), 1–5 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Yanagishita, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Composed of Ordered Polymer Nanopillar Arrays with High Aspect Ratios Using Anodic Porous Alumina Templates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012002 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

X. X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, C. Xiong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Lattice Constant Effects of Photonic Crystal on the Extraction of Guided Modes of GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Sci. China Tech. Sci. 54(1), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Light-extraction enhancement of red AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20991–20997 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-23-20991 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, and G. Y. Zhang, “Diffracted transmission effects of GaN and polymer two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23684–23689 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-23684 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Dai, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, K. Bao, D. S. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. Z. Gan, “Light Extraction Improvement From GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes With Nano-Patterned Surface Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1974–1976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagishita, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Composed of Ordered Polymer Nanopillar Arrays with High Aspect Ratios Using Anodic Porous Alumina Templates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S. J.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, K.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, K. Bao, D. S. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. Z. Gan, “Light Extraction Improvement From GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes With Nano-Patterned Surface Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1974–1976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

Chao, C. H.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. H.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y. W.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, C. O.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. S.

Choi, W. J.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, T.

C. Xiong, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, and G. Y. Zhang, “Diffracted transmission effects of GaN and polymer two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23684–23689 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-23684 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dai, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, K. Bao, D. S. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. Z. Gan, “Light Extraction Improvement From GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes With Nano-Patterned Surface Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1974–1976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, W. M.

X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X. X.

X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, C. Xiong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Lattice Constant Effects of Photonic Crystal on the Extraction of Guided Modes of GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Sci. China Tech. Sci. 54(1), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Z. Z.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, K. Bao, D. S. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. Z. Gan, “Light Extraction Improvement From GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes With Nano-Patterned Surface Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1974–1976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y. G.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. Y.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. J.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Im, J. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. Z.

X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, X. N.

X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, C. Xiong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Lattice Constant Effects of Photonic Crystal on the Extraction of Guided Modes of GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Sci. China Tech. Sci. 54(1), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, and G. Y. Zhang, “Diffracted transmission effects of GaN and polymer two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23684–23689 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-23684 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dai, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, K. Bao, D. S. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. Z. Gan, “Light Extraction Improvement From GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes With Nano-Patterned Surface Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1974–1976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M. Y.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. K.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. F.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Lim, K. Y.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

Liu, D.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

T. Yanagishita, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Composed of Ordered Polymer Nanopillar Arrays with High Aspect Ratios Using Anodic Porous Alumina Templates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishio, K.

T. Yanagishita, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Composed of Ordered Polymer Nanopillar Arrays with High Aspect Ratios Using Anodic Porous Alumina Templates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, K. M.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Q. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. H.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roh, Y. G.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

Shim, K. H.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. K.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

Speck, J. S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

Wu, H. M.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, C.

X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, C. Xiong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Lattice Constant Effects of Photonic Crystal on the Extraction of Guided Modes of GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Sci. China Tech. Sci. 54(1), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, and G. Y. Zhang, “Diffracted transmission effects of GaN and polymer two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23684–23689 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-23684 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D. S.

X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Dai, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, K. Bao, D. S. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. Z. Gan, “Light Extraction Improvement From GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes With Nano-Patterned Surface Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1974–1976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yanagishita, T.

T. Yanagishita, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Composed of Ordered Polymer Nanopillar Arrays with High Aspect Ratios Using Anodic Porous Alumina Templates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. S.

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, W. Y.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H. H.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Zhang, B.

X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, C. Xiong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Lattice Constant Effects of Photonic Crystal on the Extraction of Guided Modes of GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Sci. China Tech. Sci. 54(1), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, and G. Y. Zhang, “Diffracted transmission effects of GaN and polymer two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23684–23689 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-23684 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dai, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, K. Bao, D. S. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. Z. Gan, “Light Extraction Improvement From GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes With Nano-Patterned Surface Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1974–1976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, C. Xiong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Lattice Constant Effects of Photonic Crystal on the Extraction of Guided Modes of GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Sci. China Tech. Sci. 54(1), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, T. Dai, and G. Y. Zhang, “Diffracted transmission effects of GaN and polymer two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23684–23689 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-23684 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dai, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, K. Bao, D. S. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. Z. Gan, “Light Extraction Improvement From GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes With Nano-Patterned Surface Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1974–1976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. S.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

T. Yanagishita, K. Nishio, and H. Masuda, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Composed of Ordered Polymer Nanopillar Arrays with High Aspect Ratios Using Anodic Porous Alumina Templates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 012002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, K. Y. Lim, S. J. Bae, and G. M. Yang, “GaN-based light-emitting diode with textured indium tin oxide transparent layer coated with Al2O3 powder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 161107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, and X. Zhu, “Surface light extraction mapping from two-dimensional array of 12-fold photonic quasicrystal on current injected GaN-based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24(4), 979–982 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, K. Bao, D. S. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Z. Z. Gan, “Light Extraction Improvement From GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes With Nano-Patterned Surface Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1974–1976 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

X. X. Fu, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, C. Xiong, X. Z. Jiang, D. S. Xu, W. M. Du, and G. Y. Zhang, “Light transmission from the large-area highly ordered epoxy conical pillar arrays and application to GaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(26), 9576–9581 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

Nanotechnology

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology 20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Sci. China Tech. Sci.

X. X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, C. Xiong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Lattice Constant Effects of Photonic Crystal on the Extraction of Guided Modes of GaN-based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Sci. China Tech. Sci. 54(1), 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003), pp. 89–91.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-inch diameter large-area AAO template; (b) Top view of AAO PhCs structures; (c) The corresponding PhCs structures of the GaN

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The PhC structures on the surfaces of GaN-based LED. (a) Schematic diagram of light traces emitting from the PhCs-based LED; (b) The side view SEM image of PhCs on the ITO surface of GaN-based LED; (c) the side view SEM image of PhCs on the surfaces of p-GaN layer, side-wall and n-GaN layer, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical L-I-V curves of conventional GaN-based LED and surface-patterned GaN-based LED with PhC structures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The typical surface EL images of (a) C-LED and (b) PhC-LED at the injection current of 0.5 mA, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured wavelength-resolved angular EL spectrum for PhC-LED and C-LED

Metrics