Abstract

In this letter, we report the antireflection and light absorption enhancement by forming sub-wavelength nano-patterned Si structures via nano-sphere lithography technique. It is found that the surface reflection can be significantly suppressed in a wide spectral range (400-1000 nm) and the weighted mean reflection is less than 5%. Meanwhile, the broad band optical absorption enhancement is achieved consequently. Heterojunction solar cells are prepared by depositing ultrathin amorphous Si film on the nano-patterned Si structures, the short circuit current density increases to 37.2 mA/cm2 and the power conversion efficiency is obviously improved compared to the reference cell on flat Si substrate.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu and Y. Cui, “Photovoltaics: More solar cells for less,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 183–184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2251–2257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Xu, D. Wei, H. Sun, L. Xu, T. Wang, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Improved emission efficiency of electroluminescent device containing nc-Si/SiO(2) multilayers by using nano-patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 18(2), 917–922 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin □lms for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, “High-efficiency hydrogenated amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells,” Philos. Mag. 89(28), 2587–2598 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and M. Tanaka, “Temperature Dependence of Amorphous/Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 814–818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel re〉ection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

2006

S. Koynov, M. S. Brandt, and M. Stutzmann, “Black nonreflecting silicon surfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Wang, J. Rybezynski, D. Z. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Large-scale triangular lattice arrays of sub-micron island by microsphere self-assembly,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 819–822 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Q. Wang, S. Ward, L. Gedvilas, B. Keyes, E. Sanchez, and S. Wang, “Conformal thin-film silicon nitride deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(3), 338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andrä, G.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnall, D. M.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boden, S. A.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandt, M. S.

S. Koynov, M. S. Brandt, and M. Stutzmann, “Black nonreflecting silicon surfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Chen, K.

Chen, K. H.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel re〉ection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Christiansen, S. H.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu and Y. Cui, “Photovoltaics: More solar cells for less,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 183–184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, F.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganguly, A.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gawlik, A.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gedvilas, L.

Q. Wang, S. Ward, L. Gedvilas, B. Keyes, E. Sanchez, and S. Wang, “Conformal thin-film silicon nitride deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(3), 338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M. C.

V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2251–2257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. F.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iyengar, V. V.

V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2251–2257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. J.

Jen, Y. J.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keyes, B.

Q. Wang, S. Ward, L. Gedvilas, B. Keyes, E. Sanchez, and S. Wang, “Conformal thin-film silicon nitride deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(3), 338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel re〉ection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Koynov, S.

S. Koynov, M. S. Brandt, and M. Stutzmann, “Black nonreflecting silicon surfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin □lms for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, Y. Li, F. Wang, M. Yang, and S. M. Wong, “Low aspect-ratio hemispherical nanopit surface texturing for enhancing light absorption in crystalline Si thin film-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. S.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin □lms for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Li, Y.

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, Y. Li, F. Wang, M. Yang, and S. M. Wong, “Low aspect-ratio hemispherical nanopit surface texturing for enhancing light absorption in crystalline Si thin film-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel re〉ection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Liu, W.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel re〉ection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Liu, Y.

Lo, P. G.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin □lms for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, E.

M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and M. Tanaka, “Temperature Dependence of Amorphous/Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 814–818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nayak, B. K.

V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2251–2257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Owens, J. M.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plentz, J.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Z. F.

Y. Wang, J. Rybezynski, D. Z. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Large-scale triangular lattice arrays of sub-micron island by microsphere self-assembly,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 819–822 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rybezynski, J.

Y. Wang, J. Rybezynski, D. Z. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Large-scale triangular lattice arrays of sub-micron island by microsphere self-assembly,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 819–822 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, E.

Q. Wang, S. Ward, L. Gedvilas, B. Keyes, E. Sanchez, and S. Wang, “Conformal thin-film silicon nitride deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(3), 338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel re〉ection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel re〉ection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Sivakov, V.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivec, L.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel re〉ection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Song, Y. M.

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stutzmann, M.

S. Koynov, M. S. Brandt, and M. Stutzmann, “Black nonreflecting silicon surfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

Sun, S.

Sun, X. W.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin □lms for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, M.

M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and M. Tanaka, “Temperature Dependence of Amorphous/Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 814–818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and M. Tanaka, “Temperature Dependence of Amorphous/Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 814–818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D. Z.

Y. Wang, J. Rybezynski, D. Z. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Large-scale triangular lattice arrays of sub-micron island by microsphere self-assembly,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 819–822 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, Y. Li, F. Wang, M. Yang, and S. M. Wong, “Low aspect-ratio hemispherical nanopit surface texturing for enhancing light absorption in crystalline Si thin film-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, “High-efficiency hydrogenated amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells,” Philos. Mag. 89(28), 2587–2598 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, S. Ward, L. Gedvilas, B. Keyes, E. Sanchez, and S. Wang, “Conformal thin-film silicon nitride deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(3), 338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Q. Wang, S. Ward, L. Gedvilas, B. Keyes, E. Sanchez, and S. Wang, “Conformal thin-film silicon nitride deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(3), 338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, J. Rybezynski, D. Z. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Large-scale triangular lattice arrays of sub-micron island by microsphere self-assembly,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 819–822 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ward, S.

Q. Wang, S. Ward, L. Gedvilas, B. Keyes, E. Sanchez, and S. Wang, “Conformal thin-film silicon nitride deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(3), 338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, D.

Wong, S. M.

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, Y. Li, F. Wang, M. Yang, and S. M. Wong, “Low aspect-ratio hemispherical nanopit surface texturing for enhancing light absorption in crystalline Si thin film-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin □lms for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel re〉ection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Xu, J.

Xu, L.

Xu, W.

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, B.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, Y. Li, F. Wang, M. Yang, and S. M. Wong, “Low aspect-ratio hemispherical nanopit surface texturing for enhancing light absorption in crystalline Si thin film-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, C. I.

Yu, H. Y.

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, Y. Li, F. Wang, M. Yang, and S. M. Wong, “Low aspect-ratio hemispherical nanopit surface texturing for enhancing light absorption in crystalline Si thin film-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin □lms for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yue, G.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin □lms for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu and Y. Cui, “Photovoltaics: More solar cells for less,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 183–184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Koynov, M. S. Brandt, and M. Stutzmann, “Black nonreflecting silicon surfaces for solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 203107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, Y. Li, F. Wang, M. Yang, and S. M. Wong, “Low aspect-ratio hemispherical nanopit surface texturing for enhancing light absorption in crystalline Si thin film-based solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, S. Ward, L. Gedvilas, B. Keyes, E. Sanchez, and S. Wang, “Conformal thin-film silicon nitride deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(3), 338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. W. Sun, P. G. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin □lms for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and M. Tanaka, “Temperature Dependence of Amorphous/Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 814–818 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.

S. Chattopadhyay, Y. F. Huang, Y. J. Jen, A. Ganguly, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Anti-reflecting and photonic nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 69(1-3), 1–35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

Y. Wang, J. Rybezynski, D. Z. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Large-scale triangular lattice arrays of sub-micron island by microsphere self-assembly,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 819–822 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. Zhu and Y. Cui, “Photovoltaics: More solar cells for less,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 183–184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel re〉ection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Mag.

Q. Wang, “High-efficiency hydrogenated amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells,” Philos. Mag. 89(28), 2587–2598 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2251–2257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the cross-sectional structure of nano-patterned solar cells. (b) Cross-sectional TEM image of etched Si substrate. (c) SEM micrograph of nano-patterned sample after deposition of intrinsic and P-doped amorphous Si films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection spectra for the front surface of flat substrate and nano-patterned substrate after 12 min etching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Weighted mean reflection versus the etching time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectra of nano-patterned (12 min etching) and flat Si wafer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

External quantum efficiency of heterojunction solar cells on flat and nano-patterned substrates, respectively.

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