Abstract

Optimization of internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is investigated. Staggered InGaN QWs with large electron-hole wavefunction overlap and improved radiative recombination rate are investigated for nitride LEDs application. The effect of interface abruptness in staggered InGaN QWs on radiative recombination rate is studied. Studies show that the less interface abruptness between the InGaN sub-layers will not affect the performance of the staggered InGaN QWs detrimentally. The growths of linearly-shaped staggered InGaN QWs by employing graded growth temperature grading are presented. The effect of current injection efficiency on IQE of InGaN QWs LEDs and other approaches to reduce dislocation in InGaN QWs LEDs are also discussed. The optimization of both radiative efficiency and current injection efficiency in InGaN QWs LEDs are required for achieving high IQE devices emitting in the green spectral regime and longer.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Mutta, P. Ruterana, J. L. Doualan, M. P. Chauvat, F. Ivaldi, S. Kret, N. A. K. Kaufmann, A. Dussaigne, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “Investigation of the In composition in InGaN/GaN quantum wells deposited by MOVPE and/or MBE with emission from violet to green,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(5), 1187–1190 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Y. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, J. S. Lee, H. K. Kwon, J. S. Park, and D. Ahn, “Spontaneous emission rate of green strain-compensated InGaN/InGaN LEDs using InGaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(1), 195–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Investigation of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with step-like quantum well,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 319–323 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Caro, S. Schulz, S. B. Healy, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Built-in field control in alloyed c-plane III-N quantum dots and wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in iii-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. W. Sun, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Venkatachalam, B. Klein, J.-H. Ryou, S. C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, and P. D. Yoder, “Design strategies for InGaN-based green lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 238–245 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various misfit dislocations in green and yellow GaInN GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Liao, M. C. Tsai, B. T. Liou, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 063507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500-540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron. 3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520-525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and J. W. Kim, “High-efficiency Staggered 530 nm InGaN/InGaN/gan quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Electronic and optical properties of staggered InGaN/InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(11), 2637–2640 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, R. Li, Q. Wei, T. Yu, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “Analysis of optical gain property in the InGaN/GaN triangular shaped quantum well under the piezoelectric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Wu, Y. Y. Lin, H. H. Huang, and J. Singh, “Electronic and optical properties of InGaN quantum dot based light emitters for solid state lighting,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Limb, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Green light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN:Mg grown on C-plane sapphire and GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(4), 750–753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Jung, L. K. Lee, and P.-C. Ku, “Novel epitaxial nanostructures for the improvement of InGaN LEDs efficiency,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1073–1079 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Queren, A. Avramescu, G. Brüderl, A. Breidenassel, M. Schillgalies, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “500 nm electrically driven InGaN based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitters based on nanophotonics and plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, Y. T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN Multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Henson, A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Controlling the recombination rate of semiconductor active layers via coupling to dispersion-engineered surface plasmons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1328–1335 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and G. Pomrenke, “Thermoelectric properties of InxGa1−xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self consistent analysis of type-II 'W' InGaN-GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yen and Y. K. Kuo, “Improvement in piezoelectric effect of violet InGaN laser diodes,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4735–4740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Interplay of built-in potential and piezoelectric field on carrier recombination in green light emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, Y. Xia, Y. Xi, M. Zhu, W. Zhao, Y. Li, E. F. Schubert, L. Liu, D. Tsvetkov, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Dislocation analysis in homoepitaxial GaInN/GaN light emitting diode growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 272–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, J. Park, and E. Yoon, “Optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures with embedded AlGaN delta layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of internal electrostatic fields in InGaN quantum wells on the properties of green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light-emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 126–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the Joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chao, S. L. Chuang, and T. L. Wu, “Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1202–1208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Photoluminescence property of InGaN Single quantum well with embedded AlGaN δ layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2386–2388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, A. A. Allerman, C. C. Mitchell, K. C. Cross, S. R. Kurtz, J. J. Figiel, K. W. Fullmer, and W. G. Breiland, “Improved brightness of 380 nm GaN light emitting diodes through intentional delay of the nucleation island coalescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1940–1942 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Han and A. V. Nurmikko, “Advances in AlGaInN blue and ultraviolet light emitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 289–297 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park and S. L. Chuang, “Crystal orientation dependence of many-body optical gain in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum-well lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 686–691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Mishra, P. Parikh, and Y. F. Wu, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs-an overview of device operation and applications,” Proc. IEEE 90(6), 1022–1031 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. F. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, M. Sugiyama, T. Kitamura, Y. Ishida, H. Okumura, H. Nakanishi, T. Sota, and T. Mukai, “Optical and structural studies in InGaN quantum well structure laser diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(6), 2177 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park and S. L. Chuang, “Spontaneous polarization effects in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum wells and comparison with experiment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(15), 1981–1983 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park and S. L. Chuang, “Comparison of zinc-blende and wurtzite GaN semiconductors with spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric field effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(1), 353–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. P. D. Schenk, M. Leroux, and P. de Mierry, “Luminescence and absorption in InGaN epitaxial layers and the Van Roosbroeck–Shockley relation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(3), 1525–1534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. H. Park and S. L. Chuang, “Crystal-orientation effects on the piezoelectric field and electronic properties of strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 59(7), 4725–4737 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

X. Li, S. Kim, E. E. Reuter, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “The incorporation of arsenic in GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(16), 1990–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “GaN epitaxial lateral overgrowth and optical characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(9), 1179–1181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, J. S. Lee, H. K. Kwon, J. S. Park, and D. Ahn, “Spontaneous emission rate of green strain-compensated InGaN/InGaN LEDs using InGaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(1), 195–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and J. W. Kim, “High-efficiency Staggered 530 nm InGaN/InGaN/gan quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Electronic and optical properties of staggered InGaN/InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(11), 2637–2640 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 063507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allerman, A. A.

D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, A. A. Allerman, C. C. Mitchell, K. C. Cross, S. R. Kurtz, J. J. Figiel, K. W. Fullmer, and W. G. Breiland, “Improved brightness of 380 nm GaN light emitting diodes through intentional delay of the nucleation island coalescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1940–1942 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron. 3(6), 283–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500-540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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X. Li, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “GaN epitaxial lateral overgrowth and optical characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(9), 1179–1181 (1998).
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A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the Joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
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D. Queren, A. Avramescu, G. Brüderl, A. Breidenassel, M. Schillgalies, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “500 nm electrically driven InGaN based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081119 (2009).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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C. H. Chao, S. L. Chuang, and T. L. Wu, “Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091116 (2006).
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G. R. Mutta, P. Ruterana, J. L. Doualan, M. P. Chauvat, F. Ivaldi, S. Kret, N. A. K. Kaufmann, A. Dussaigne, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “Investigation of the In composition in InGaN/GaN quantum wells deposited by MOVPE and/or MBE with emission from violet to green,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(5), 1187–1190 (2011).
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Z. Yang, R. Li, Q. Wei, T. Yu, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “Analysis of optical gain property in the InGaN/GaN triangular shaped quantum well under the piezoelectric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061120 (2009).
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S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
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H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. W. Sun, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101102 (2010).
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S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in iii-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
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J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
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W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121105 (2010).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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C. H. Chao, S. L. Chuang, and T. L. Wu, “Theoretical demonstration of enhancement of light extraction of flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091116 (2006).
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S. H. Park and S. L. Chuang, “Crystal orientation dependence of many-body optical gain in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum-well lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 686–691 (2002).
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S. H. Park and S. L. Chuang, “Comparison of zinc-blende and wurtzite GaN semiconductors with spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric field effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(1), 353–364 (2000).
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S. H. Park and S. L. Chuang, “Crystal-orientation effects on the piezoelectric field and electronic properties of strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 59(7), 4725–4737 (1999).
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R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
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M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
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X. Li, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “GaN epitaxial lateral overgrowth and optical characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(9), 1179–1181 (1998).
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X. Li, S. Kim, E. E. Reuter, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “The incorporation of arsenic in GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(16), 1990–1992 (1998).
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M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121105 (2010).
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D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, A. A. Allerman, C. C. Mitchell, K. C. Cross, S. R. Kurtz, J. J. Figiel, K. W. Fullmer, and W. G. Breiland, “Improved brightness of 380 nm GaN light emitting diodes through intentional delay of the nucleation island coalescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1940–1942 (2002).
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C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
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K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
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C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
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M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
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R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
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T. Detchprohm, Y. Xia, Y. Xi, M. Zhu, W. Zhao, Y. Li, E. F. Schubert, L. Liu, D. Tsvetkov, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Dislocation analysis in homoepitaxial GaInN/GaN light emitting diode growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 272–275 (2007).
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H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron. 3(6), 283–295 (2009).
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H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520-525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
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G. R. Mutta, P. Ruterana, J. L. Doualan, M. P. Chauvat, F. Ivaldi, S. Kret, N. A. K. Kaufmann, A. Dussaigne, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “Investigation of the In composition in InGaN/GaN quantum wells deposited by MOVPE and/or MBE with emission from violet to green,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(5), 1187–1190 (2011).
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Dupuis, R. D.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in iii-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
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A. Venkatachalam, B. Klein, J.-H. Ryou, S. C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, and P. D. Yoder, “Design strategies for InGaN-based green lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 238–245 (2010).
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H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. W. Sun, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
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J. Liu, J. Limb, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Green light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN:Mg grown on C-plane sapphire and GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(4), 750–753 (2009).
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Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of internal electrostatic fields in InGaN quantum wells on the properties of green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041915 (2007).
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W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light-emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 126–132 (2007).
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G. R. Mutta, P. Ruterana, J. L. Doualan, M. P. Chauvat, F. Ivaldi, S. Kret, N. A. K. Kaufmann, A. Dussaigne, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “Investigation of the In composition in InGaN/GaN quantum wells deposited by MOVPE and/or MBE with emission from violet to green,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(5), 1187–1190 (2011).
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X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
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A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the Joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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W. Lee, J. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, D. Yoo, M. A. Ewing, Y. Korenblit, and R. D. Dupuis, “Nitride-based green light-emitting diodes with various p-type layers,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 126–132 (2007).
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C. L. Tsai, G. C. Fan, and Y. S. Lee, “Effects of strain-compensated AlGaN/InGaN superlattice barriers on the optical properties of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 319–323 (2011).
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X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
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M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, A. A. Allerman, C. C. Mitchell, K. C. Cross, S. R. Kurtz, J. J. Figiel, K. W. Fullmer, and W. G. Breiland, “Improved brightness of 380 nm GaN light emitting diodes through intentional delay of the nucleation island coalescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1940–1942 (2002).
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T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031906 (2010).
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H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. W. Sun, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in iii-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
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Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of internal electrostatic fields in InGaN quantum wells on the properties of green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041915 (2007).
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I. H. Brown, P. Blood, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, S. M. Olaizola, A. M. Fox, P. J. Parbrook, and W. W. Chow, “Time evolution of the screening of piezoelectric fields in InGaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1202–1208 (2006).
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M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. D. Koleske, A. J. Fischer, A. A. Allerman, C. C. Mitchell, K. C. Cross, S. R. Kurtz, J. J. Figiel, K. W. Fullmer, and W. G. Breiland, “Improved brightness of 380 nm GaN light emitting diodes through intentional delay of the nucleation island coalescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 1940–1942 (2002).
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N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
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X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the Joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
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N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN-GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
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G. R. Mutta, P. Ruterana, J. L. Doualan, M. P. Chauvat, F. Ivaldi, S. Kret, N. A. K. Kaufmann, A. Dussaigne, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “Investigation of the In composition in InGaN/GaN quantum wells deposited by MOVPE and/or MBE with emission from violet to green,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(5), 1187–1190 (2011).
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J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
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R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
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C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 193117 (2010).
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J. Han and A. V. Nurmikko, “Advances in AlGaInN blue and ultraviolet light emitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 289–297 (2002).
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T. Detchprohm, Y. Xia, Y. Xi, M. Zhu, W. Zhao, Y. Li, E. F. Schubert, L. Liu, D. Tsvetkov, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Dislocation analysis in homoepitaxial GaInN/GaN light emitting diode growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 272–275 (2007).
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M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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M. A. Caro, S. Schulz, S. B. Healy, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Built-in field control in alloyed c-plane III-N quantum dots and wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084110 (2011).
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J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Y. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053706 (2011).
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Honsberg, C.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
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Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
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K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
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Hu, X.

Z. Yang, R. Li, Q. Wei, T. Yu, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “Analysis of optical gain property in the InGaN/GaN triangular shaped quantum well under the piezoelectric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061120 (2009).
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Huang, G. S.

J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Y. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053706 (2011).
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H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron. 3(6), 283–295 (2009).
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H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520-525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
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Y. R. Wu, Y. Y. Lin, H. H. Huang, and J. Singh, “Electronic and optical properties of InGaN quantum dot based light emitters for solid state lighting,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013117 (2009).
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C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 193117 (2010).
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S. F. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, M. Sugiyama, T. Kitamura, Y. Ishida, H. Okumura, H. Nakanishi, T. Sota, and T. Mukai, “Optical and structural studies in InGaN quantum well structure laser diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(6), 2177 (2001).
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R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ivaldi, F.

G. R. Mutta, P. Ruterana, J. L. Doualan, M. P. Chauvat, F. Ivaldi, S. Kret, N. A. K. Kaufmann, A. Dussaigne, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “Investigation of the In composition in InGaN/GaN quantum wells deposited by MOVPE and/or MBE with emission from violet to green,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(5), 1187–1190 (2011).
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Iza, M.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
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K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jani, O.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
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Jiang, H. X.

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
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B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and G. Pomrenke, “Thermoelectric properties of InxGa1−xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042112 (2008).
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Johnson, N. M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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M. Kneissl, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2386–2388 (2003).
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Jung, T.

T. Jung, L. K. Lee, and P.-C. Ku, “Novel epitaxial nanostructures for the improvement of InGaN LEDs efficiency,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1073–1079 (2009).
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Kaufmann, N. A. K.

G. R. Mutta, P. Ruterana, J. L. Doualan, M. P. Chauvat, F. Ivaldi, S. Kret, N. A. K. Kaufmann, A. Dussaigne, D. Martin, and N. Grandjean, “Investigation of the In composition in InGaN/GaN quantum wells deposited by MOVPE and/or MBE with emission from violet to green,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(5), 1187–1190 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

K. Okamoto and Y. Kawakami, “High-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitters based on nanophotonics and plasmonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1199–1209 (2009).
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U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Interplay of built-in potential and piezoelectric field on carrier recombination in green light emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123503 (2007).
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J. Park and Y. Kawakami, “Photoluminescence property of InGaN Single quantum well with embedded AlGaN δ layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202107 (2006).
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Kelchner, K. M.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in iii-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. W. Sun, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in iii-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071102 (2011).
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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN Multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Kim, J. W.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Electronic and optical properties of staggered InGaN/InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(11), 2637–2640 (2009).
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S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and J. W. Kim, “High-efficiency Staggered 530 nm InGaN/InGaN/gan quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041109 (2009).
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S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Dip-shaped InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes with high efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 063507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-C.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN Multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

X. Li, S. Kim, E. E. Reuter, S. G. Bishop, and J. J. Coleman, “The incorporation of arsenic in GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(16), 1990–1992 (1998).
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Kim, S.-S.

H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. W. Sun, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in iii-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
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Kitamura, T.

S. F. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, M. Sugiyama, T. Kitamura, Y. Ishida, H. Okumura, H. Nakanishi, T. Sota, and T. Mukai, “Optical and structural studies in InGaN quantum well structure laser diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(6), 2177 (2001).
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Klein, B.

A. Venkatachalam, B. Klein, J.-H. Ryou, S. C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, and P. D. Yoder, “Design strategies for InGaN-based green lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 238–245 (2010).
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Knauer, A.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, M. H. Crawford, J. Y. Tsao, and M. Kneissl, “Internal efficiency of InGaN light-emitting diodes: beyond a quasiequilibrium model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2386–2388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
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M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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B. N. Pantha, R. Dahal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and G. Pomrenke, “Thermoelectric properties of InxGa1−xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042112 (2008).
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M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various misfit dislocations in green and yellow GaInN GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010).
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D. Queren, A. Avramescu, G. Brüderl, A. Breidenassel, M. Schillgalies, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauß, “500 nm electrically driven InGaN based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081119 (2009).
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Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of internal electrostatic fields in InGaN quantum wells on the properties of green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041915 (2007).
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S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in iii-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
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A. Venkatachalam, B. Klein, J.-H. Ryou, S. C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, and P. D. Yoder, “Design strategies for InGaN-based green lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 238–245 (2010).
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H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. W. Sun, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101102 (2010).
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J. Liu, J. Limb, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Green light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN:Mg grown on C-plane sapphire and GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(4), 750–753 (2009).
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M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN Multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
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C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 193117 (2010).
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M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
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M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN Multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
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Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
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M. A. Caro, S. Schulz, S. B. Healy, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Built-in field control in alloyed c-plane III-N quantum dots and wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084110 (2011).
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U. T. Schwarz, H. Braun, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Interplay of built-in potential and piezoelectric field on carrier recombination in green light emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123503 (2007).
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A. Venkatachalam, B. Klein, J.-H. Ryou, S. C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, and P. D. Yoder, “Design strategies for InGaN-based green lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 238–245 (2010).
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Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
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X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031906 (2010).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
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T. Li, A. M. Fischer, Q. Y. Wei, F. A. Ponce, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Carrier localization and nonradiative recombination in yellow emitting InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031906 (2010).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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Y. R. Wu, Y. Y. Lin, H. H. Huang, and J. Singh, “Electronic and optical properties of InGaN quantum dot based light emitters for solid state lighting,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013117 (2009).
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Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of internal electrostatic fields in InGaN quantum wells on the properties of green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041915 (2007).
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Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Xi, Y.

T. Detchprohm, Y. Xia, Y. Xi, M. Zhu, W. Zhao, Y. Li, E. F. Schubert, L. Liu, D. Tsvetkov, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Dislocation analysis in homoepitaxial GaInN/GaN light emitting diode growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 272–275 (2007).
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T. Detchprohm, Y. Xia, Y. Xi, M. Zhu, W. Zhao, Y. Li, E. F. Schubert, L. Liu, D. Tsvetkov, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Dislocation analysis in homoepitaxial GaInN/GaN light emitting diode growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 272–275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN Multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
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R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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Z. Yang, R. Li, Q. Wei, T. Yu, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “Analysis of optical gain property in the InGaN/GaN triangular shaped quantum well under the piezoelectric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. R. Hall, L. V. Dao, K. Koike, S. Sasa, H. H. Tan, M. Inoue, M. Yano, C. Jagadish, and J. A. Davis, “Using graded barriers to control the optical properties of ZnO/Zn0.7Mg0.3O quantum wells with an intrinsic internal electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(19), 193117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Investigation of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with step-like quantum well,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104, (2011), doi:.
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C. T. Liao, M. C. Tsai, B. T. Liou, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
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S. H. Yen and Y. K. Kuo, “Improvement in piezoelectric effect of violet InGaN laser diodes,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4735–4740 (2008).
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H. J. Kim, S. Choi, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, K. W. Sun, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of quantum efficiency by employing active-layer-friendly lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layer in green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Venkatachalam, B. Klein, J.-H. Ryou, S. C. Shen, R. D. Dupuis, and P. D. Yoder, “Design strategies for InGaN-based green lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 238–245 (2010).
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J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
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J. Liu, J. Limb, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Green light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN:Mg grown on C-plane sapphire and GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(4), 750–753 (2009).
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Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, W. Lee, J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, D. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of internal electrostatic fields in InGaN quantum wells on the properties of green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041915 (2007).
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S. H. Park, J. Park, and E. Yoon, “Optical gain in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures with embedded AlGaN delta layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(2), 023508 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various misfit dislocations in green and yellow GaInN GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010).
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Yu, T.

Z. Yang, R. Li, Q. Wei, T. Yu, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “Analysis of optical gain property in the InGaN/GaN triangular shaped quantum well under the piezoelectric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Tong, G. Y. Liu, J. A. Herbsommer, G. S. Huang, and N. Tansu, “Characterizations of seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric figures of merit for AlInN alloys with various in-contents,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053706 (2011).
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G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 342 (2011).
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H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Yang, R. Li, Q. Wei, T. Yu, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “Analysis of optical gain property in the InGaN/GaN triangular shaped quantum well under the piezoelectric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
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H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
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H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
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H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500-540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1104–1114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
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H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520-525 nm employing graded growth-temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
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H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self consistent analysis of type-II 'W' InGaN-GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
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Zhao, H. P.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, X. H. Li, R. A. Arif, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. Tafon Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Design and characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes in the green spectral regimes,” IET Optoelectron. 3(6), 283–295 (2009).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
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M. Krames, O. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
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M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various misfit dislocations in green and yellow GaInN GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010).
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T. Detchprohm, Y. Xia, Y. Xi, M. Zhu, W. Zhao, Y. Li, E. F. Schubert, L. Liu, D. Tsvetkov, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Dislocation analysis in homoepitaxial GaInN/GaN light emitting diode growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 272–275 (2007).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

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M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave operation of AlGaN-cladding-free nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett.

G. Liu, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. H. Park, L. J. Mawst, and N. Tansu, “Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 342 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. H. Yen and Y. K. Kuo, “Improvement in piezoelectric effect of violet InGaN laser diodes,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4735–4740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

S. H. Park, Y. T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.

J. Liu, J. Limb, Z. Lochner, D. Yoo, J.-H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Green light-emitting diodes with p-InGaN:Mg grown on C-plane sapphire and GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(4), 750–753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various misfit dislocations in green and yellow GaInN GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, Y. T. Moon, J. S. Lee, H. K. Kwon, J. S. Park, and D. Ahn, “Spontaneous emission rate of green strain-compensated InGaN/InGaN LEDs using InGaN substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(1), 195–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. W. Kim, “Electronic and optical properties of staggered InGaN/InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(11), 2637–2640 (2009).
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Proc. IEEE

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H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The concept of novel InGaN QWs / QDs structures with improved electron-hole wavefunction overlap.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of the (a) conventional InzGa1-zN-GaN QW; (b) two-layer staggered InxGa1-xN / InyGa1-yN QW; and (c) three-layer staggered InyGa1-yN / InxGa1-xN / InyGa1-yN QW structures [47].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The electroluminescence spectra for (a) conventional InGaN QW and (b) three-layer staggered InGaN QW LEDs emitting with peak wavelengths at 520-525 nm, as function of injection current levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light output power vs current density for conventional InGaN QW and three-layer staggered InGaN QW LEDs at λ~520–525 nm, with the band lineups schematic of three-layer staggered InGaN QW [48].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time resolved measurements on both 3-layer staggered InGaN QW and conventional InGaN QW LED samples, with peak emission wavelength at 520-525 nm. The measurements were carried out by employing 430-nm excitation lasers with pulse duration of 25 ps [48].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Total carrier lifetime as a function of carrier density for conventional InGaN QW and staggered InGaN QW at monomolecular coefficient A = 1.6x107 s−1 and Auger coefficient C = 5x10−33 cm6s−1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Energy band lineups and electron, hole wavefunction for staggered InGaN QWs with (a) 0-Å interface In-content linear-grading; (b) 6-Å interface In-content linear-grading.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Rsp spectra for staggered InGaN QWs with less abrupt interface by In-content linear-grading.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematics of the growth temperature, TMIn-flow rate, and In-content for the LS-1 staggered InGaN QW [Fig. 9(a)] and the corresponding real growth temperature profiles [Fig. 9(b)].

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematics of the growth temperature, TMIn-flow rate, and In-content for the LS-3 staggered InGaN QW [Fig. 11(a)] and the corresponding real growth temperature profiles [Fig. 11(b)].

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematics of the growth temperature, TMIn-flow rate, and In-content for the LS-2 staggered InGaN QW [Fig. 10(a)] and the corresponding real growth temperature profiles [Fig. 10(b)].

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) CL spectra of conventional, LS-1 staggered, LS-2 staggered, and LS-3 staggered InGaN QWs emitting at 460-480nm with various CL excitation currents; (b) Integrated CL intensity of conventional, LS-1 staggered, LS-2 staggered, and LS-3 staggered InGaN QW versus CL excitation currents at T = 300K.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Band lineups and electron and hole wavefunction for (a) conventional 30-Å InGaN QWs and (b) LS-3 staggered InGaN QW. (c) Schematic of the conduction band lineup without the polarization field for LS-3 staggered InGaN QW with GaN barriers, where the sub-layers at side contain 5-Å In0.18Ga0.82N, and the linearly-shaped 10-Å InxGa1-xN contain InGaN layers with In-content linearly modified from 0.18 to 0.4.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Spontaneous emission spectra for conventional InGaN QW and LS-3 staggered InGaN QW with carrier density from 1x1018 cm−3 up to 2x1019 cm−3; (b) spontaneous emission radiative recombination rate (Rsp) for conventional InGaN QW and LS-3 staggered InGaN QW at different carrier density upto 2x1019cm−3.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Schematic of the InGaN-GaN QW structure inserted with large bandgap barriers. (b) IQE (ηIQE ) as a function of total current density for 24-Å In0.28Ga0.72N / GaN QW, 24-Å In0.28Ga0.72N / 15-Å Al0.1Ga0.9N QW and 24-Å In0.28Ga0.72N / 15-Å Al0.83In0.17N QW.

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