Abstract

Solid state lighting seeks to replace both, incandescent and fluorescent lighting by energy efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Just like compact fluorescent tubes, current white LEDs employ costly rare earth-based phosphors, a drawback we propose to overcome with direct emitting LEDs of all colors. We show the benefits of homoepitaxial LEDs on bulk GaN substrate for wavelength-stable green spectrum LEDs. By use of non-polar growth orientation we avoid big color shifts with drive current and demonstrate polarized light emitters that prove ideal for pairing with liquid crystal display modulators in back light units of television monitors. We further offer a comparison of the prospects of non-polar a- and m-plane growth over conventional c-plane growth.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. Zhao, Y. Li, Y. Xia, M. Zhu, T. Detchprohm, E. F. Schubert, and C. Wetzel, “Analysis of Quantum Efficiency of GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes in the Range of 390 - 580 nm,” in “GaN, AlN, InN, and Related Materials,” Eds. M. Kuball, T.H. Myers, J.M. Redwing, T. Mukai, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Vol. 892, FF12.2 (2006).

2010 (3)

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Inclined Dislocation Pair Relaxation Mechanism in Homoepitaxial Green GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125325 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125325 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various Misfit Dislocations in Green and Yellow GaInN GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200983645 .
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Growth and Characterization of Green GaInN-Based Light Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing Non-Polar GaN Templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2937–2941 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.060 .
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Structural Characterization of Homoepitaxial Blue GaInN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(5), 641–645 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s11664-008-0392-9 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/22/225104 .
[CrossRef]

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2824886 .
[CrossRef]

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased Polarization Ratio on Semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Indium Composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.7854 .
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200778747 (a).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. Hanser, M. Tutor, E. Preble, M. Williams, X. P. Xu, D. Tsvetkov, and L. H. Liu, “Surface preparation of substrates from bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 305(2), 372–376 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.03.039 .
[CrossRef]

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2793180 .
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Wetzel, T. Salagaj, T. Detchprohm, P. Li, and J. S. Nelson, “GaInN/GaN Growth Optimization for High Power Green Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 866 (2004), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.1779960 .
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Wetzel, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Piezoelectric Franz-Keldysh Effect in Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(7), 3786–3791 (1999), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.369749 .
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

I. Akasaki and C. Wetzel, “Future Challenges and Directions for Nitride Materials and Light Emitters,” Proc. IEEE 85(11), 1750–1751 (1997), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1109/5.649652 .
[CrossRef]

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s003390050498 .
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353 (1986), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.96549 .
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

C. Wetzel, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Piezoelectric Franz-Keldysh Effect in Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(7), 3786–3791 (1999), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.369749 .
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

I. Akasaki and C. Wetzel, “Future Challenges and Directions for Nitride Materials and Light Emitters,” Proc. IEEE 85(11), 1750–1751 (1997), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1109/5.649652 .
[CrossRef]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353 (1986), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.96549 .
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

C. Wetzel, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Piezoelectric Franz-Keldysh Effect in Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(7), 3786–3791 (1999), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.369749 .
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353 (1986), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.96549 .
[CrossRef]

Camras, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200778747 (a).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200778747 (a).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

Craven, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200778747 (a).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/22/225104 .
[CrossRef]

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased Polarization Ratio on Semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Indium Composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.7854 .
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various Misfit Dislocations in Green and Yellow GaInN GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200983645 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Inclined Dislocation Pair Relaxation Mechanism in Homoepitaxial Green GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125325 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125325 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Growth and Characterization of Green GaInN-Based Light Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing Non-Polar GaN Templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2937–2941 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.060 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Structural Characterization of Homoepitaxial Blue GaInN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(5), 641–645 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s11664-008-0392-9 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, T. Salagaj, T. Detchprohm, P. Li, and J. S. Nelson, “GaInN/GaN Growth Optimization for High Power Green Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 866 (2004), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.1779960 .
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased Polarization Ratio on Semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Indium Composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.7854 .
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2793180 .
[CrossRef]

Götz, W.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200778747 (a).
[CrossRef]

Hanser, D.

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Inclined Dislocation Pair Relaxation Mechanism in Homoepitaxial Green GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125325 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125325 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Growth and Characterization of Green GaInN-Based Light Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing Non-Polar GaN Templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2937–2941 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.060 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

D. Hanser, M. Tutor, E. Preble, M. Williams, X. P. Xu, D. Tsvetkov, and L. H. Liu, “Surface preparation of substrates from bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 305(2), 372–376 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.03.039 .
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2793180 .
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/22/225104 .
[CrossRef]

Jani, O.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2793180 .
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

Ke, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

Kim, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200778747 (a).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, M.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2824886 .
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

Kuo, S. Y.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2793180 .
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

C. Wetzel, T. Salagaj, T. Detchprohm, P. Li, and J. S. Nelson, “GaInN/GaN Growth Optimization for High Power Green Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 866 (2004), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.1779960 .
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Growth and Characterization of Green GaInN-Based Light Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing Non-Polar GaN Templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2937–2941 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.060 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Structural Characterization of Homoepitaxial Blue GaInN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(5), 641–645 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s11664-008-0392-9 .
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Growth and Characterization of Green GaInN-Based Light Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing Non-Polar GaN Templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2937–2941 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.060 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. H.

D. Hanser, M. Tutor, E. Preble, M. Williams, X. P. Xu, D. Tsvetkov, and L. H. Liu, “Surface preparation of substrates from bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 305(2), 372–376 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.03.039 .
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. H.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/22/225104 .
[CrossRef]

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased Polarization Ratio on Semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Indium Composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.7854 .
[CrossRef]

Munkholm, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200778747 (a).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/22/225104 .
[CrossRef]

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased Polarization Ratio on Semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Indium Composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.7854 .
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

C. Wetzel, T. Salagaj, T. Detchprohm, P. Li, and J. S. Nelson, “GaInN/GaN Growth Optimization for High Power Green Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 866 (2004), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.1779960 .
[CrossRef]

Ohta, H.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2824886 .
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2824886 .
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Inclined Dislocation Pair Relaxation Mechanism in Homoepitaxial Green GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125325 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125325 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various Misfit Dislocations in Green and Yellow GaInN GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200983645 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

Persans, P. D.

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

Preble, E.

D. Hanser, M. Tutor, E. Preble, M. Williams, X. P. Xu, D. Tsvetkov, and L. H. Liu, “Surface preparation of substrates from bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 305(2), 372–376 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.03.039 .
[CrossRef]

Preble, E. A.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Inclined Dislocation Pair Relaxation Mechanism in Homoepitaxial Green GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125325 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125325 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various Misfit Dislocations in Green and Yellow GaInN GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200983645 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

Salagaj, T.

C. Wetzel, T. Salagaj, T. Detchprohm, P. Li, and J. S. Nelson, “GaInN/GaN Growth Optimization for High Power Green Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 866 (2004), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.1779960 .
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased Polarization Ratio on Semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Indium Composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.7854 .
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, N.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353 (1986), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.96549 .
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, P.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s003390050498 .
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s003390050498 .
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s003390050498 .
[CrossRef]

Senawiratne, J.

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Structural Characterization of Homoepitaxial Blue GaInN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(5), 641–645 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s11664-008-0392-9 .
[CrossRef]

Steranka, F.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200778747 (a).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

C. Wetzel, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Piezoelectric Franz-Keldysh Effect in Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(7), 3786–3791 (1999), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.369749 .
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2824886 .
[CrossRef]

Tomasulo, S.

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, Y.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353 (1986), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.96549 .
[CrossRef]

Tsvetkov, D.

D. Hanser, M. Tutor, E. Preble, M. Williams, X. P. Xu, D. Tsvetkov, and L. H. Liu, “Surface preparation of substrates from bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 305(2), 372–376 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.03.039 .
[CrossRef]

Tutor, M.

D. Hanser, M. Tutor, E. Preble, M. Williams, X. P. Xu, D. Tsvetkov, and L. H. Liu, “Surface preparation of substrates from bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 305(2), 372–376 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.03.039 .
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200778747 (a).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various Misfit Dislocations in Green and Yellow GaInN GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200983645 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Inclined Dislocation Pair Relaxation Mechanism in Homoepitaxial Green GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125325 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125325 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Growth and Characterization of Green GaInN-Based Light Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing Non-Polar GaN Templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2937–2941 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.060 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Structural Characterization of Homoepitaxial Blue GaInN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(5), 641–645 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s11664-008-0392-9 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, T. Salagaj, T. Detchprohm, P. Li, and J. S. Nelson, “GaInN/GaN Growth Optimization for High Power Green Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 866 (2004), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.1779960 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Piezoelectric Franz-Keldysh Effect in Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(7), 3786–3791 (1999), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.369749 .
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

I. Akasaki and C. Wetzel, “Future Challenges and Directions for Nitride Materials and Light Emitters,” Proc. IEEE 85(11), 1750–1751 (1997), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1109/5.649652 .
[CrossRef]

Williams, M.

D. Hanser, M. Tutor, E. Preble, M. Williams, X. P. Xu, D. Tsvetkov, and L. H. Liu, “Surface preparation of substrates from bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 305(2), 372–376 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.03.039 .
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Growth and Characterization of Green GaInN-Based Light Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing Non-Polar GaN Templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2937–2941 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.060 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Structural Characterization of Homoepitaxial Blue GaInN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(5), 641–645 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s11664-008-0392-9 .
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. P.

D. Hanser, M. Tutor, E. Preble, M. Williams, X. P. Xu, D. Tsvetkov, and L. H. Liu, “Surface preparation of substrates from bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 305(2), 372–376 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.03.039 .
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/22/225104 .
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

You, S.

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Inclined Dislocation Pair Relaxation Mechanism in Homoepitaxial Green GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125325 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125325 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various Misfit Dislocations in Green and Yellow GaInN GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200983645 .
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Structural Characterization of Homoepitaxial Blue GaInN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(5), 641–645 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s11664-008-0392-9 .
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various Misfit Dislocations in Green and Yellow GaInN GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200983645 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Inclined Dislocation Pair Relaxation Mechanism in Homoepitaxial Green GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125325 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125325 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Growth and Characterization of Green GaInN-Based Light Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing Non-Polar GaN Templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2937–2941 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.060 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Structural Characterization of Homoepitaxial Blue GaInN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(5), 641–645 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s11664-008-0392-9 .
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2793180 .
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel, T. Salagaj, T. Detchprohm, P. Li, and J. S. Nelson, “GaInN/GaN Growth Optimization for High Power Green Light Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(6), 866 (2004), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.1779960 .
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells Using the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.122247 .
[CrossRef]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, and Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353 (1986), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.96549 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green Light Emitting Diodes on a-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 24119 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2945664 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S. You, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Wavelength-Stable Cyan and Green Light Emitting Diodes on Non-Polar m-Plane GaN Bulk Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051101 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3299257 .
[CrossRef]

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.2824886 .
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, and J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s003390050498 .
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Wetzel, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Piezoelectric Franz-Keldysh Effect in Strained GaInN/GaN Heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(7), 3786–3791 (1999), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.369749 .
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3083074 .
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

C. Wetzel, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, M. Zhu, Y. Xia, S. Tomasulo, P. D. Persans, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and T. Detchprohm, “Characterization of GaInN/GaN layers for green emitting laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2942–2947 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.067 .
[CrossRef]

D. Hanser, M. Tutor, E. Preble, M. Williams, X. P. Xu, D. Tsvetkov, and L. H. Liu, “Surface preparation of substrates from bulk GaN crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 305(2), 372–376 (2007), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.03.039 .
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, L. Liu, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Growth and Characterization of Green GaInN-Based Light Emitting Diodes on Free-Standing Non-Polar GaN Templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2937–2941 (2009), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.01.060 .
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

M. Zhu, Y. Xia, W. Zhao, Y. Li, J. Senawiratne, T. Detchprohm, and C. Wetzel, “Structural Characterization of Homoepitaxial Blue GaInN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(5), 641–645 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s11664-008-0392-9 .
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/22/225104 .
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased Polarization Ratio on Semipolar (11-22) InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Indium Composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1143/JJAP.47.7854 .
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, and C. Wetzel, “Inclined Dislocation Pair Relaxation Mechanism in Homoepitaxial Green GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 81(12), 125325 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125325 .
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200778747 (a).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. Zhu, S. You, T. Detchprohm, T. Paskova, E. A. Preble, and C. Wetzel, “Various Misfit Dislocations in Green and Yellow GaInN GaN Light Emitting Diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1305–1308 (2010), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssa.200983645 .
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

I. Akasaki and C. Wetzel, “Future Challenges and Directions for Nitride Materials and Light Emitters,” Proc. IEEE 85(11), 1750–1751 (1997), http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1109/5.649652 .
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

S. E. Brinkley, Y.-D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Let. 98, 011110 (2011). http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1063/1.3541655

W. Zhao, Y. Li, Y. Xia, M. Zhu, T. Detchprohm, E. F. Schubert, and C. Wetzel, “Analysis of Quantum Efficiency of GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes in the Range of 390 - 580 nm,” in “GaN, AlN, InN, and Related Materials,” Eds. M. Kuball, T.H. Myers, J.M. Redwing, T. Mukai, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Vol. 892, FF12.2 (2006).

C. Wetzel, Rump Session; The Second International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors - ICNS 97, 27–31 October 1997, Tokushima, Japan.

R.F. Karlicek, Jr., “UV-LEDS and Curing Applications,” Radtech Report, Nov/Dec 2009, pp. 17–23.

W. Zhao, Y. Li, Y. Xia, M. Zhu, T. Detchprohm, E. F. Schubert, and C. Wetzel, “Analysis of Quantum Efficiency of GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes in the Range of 390 - 580 nm,” in “GaN, AlN, InN, and Related Materials,” Eds. M. Kuball, T.H. Myers, J.M. Redwing, T. Mukai, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Vol. 892, FF12.2 (2006).

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Exp. 3, 102103 (2010). http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1143/APEX.3.102103

C. Wetzel, M. Zhu, Y. Li, W. Hou, L. Zhao, W. Zhao, S. You, C. Stark, Y. Xia, M. DiBiccari, and T. Detchprohm, “Green LED development in polar and non-polar growth orientation,” Ninth International Conference on Solid State Lighting, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7422, 742204 (Aug. 18, 2009). http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1117/12.829513

K. Kojima, H. Kamon, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Theoretical investigations on anisotropic optical properties in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C, 5, 3038 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssc.200779277

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Zhao, Y. Wang, Y. Li, Y. Xia, and C. Wetzel, Enhanced Device Performance of GaInN-Based Deep Green Light Emitting Diodes with V-Defect-Free Active Region,” Phys. Stat. Solidi C 6(S2), S840–S843 (2009). http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/pssc.200880800

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross sectional transmission electron micrographs of the active region in homoeptiaxlly grown GaIn/GaN LED structures revealing absence of structural defects and highly uniform quantum well regions. a) green a-plane structure; b) the same viewed over a length of 7.4 μm; c) a cyan m-plane structure. After [17,18]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Peak wavelength versus current density in (a) polar c-plane, (b) non-polar a-plane, and (c) non-polar m-plane LEDs. In the polar structures, wavelength stability is satisfactory only for blue LEDs, while non-polar structures offer the same also in the green. After [17,18].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Non-polar 520 nm green LED die (700 x 700 μm2) on m-plane bulk GaN substrate. There is only a minimal change of color as the current is varied from 20 mA to 100 mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CIE 1931 color loci of a) c-plane polar and b) a- and m-plane non-polar LEDs as current is varied in the range of 0.1 – 100 A/cm2. Perceived cyan and green colors remain stable only in the non-polar LED structures. Symbols correspond to those in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linear polarization analyzed emission spectra of the top emission of a green m-plane LED. Spectra differ in peak wavelength and intensity revealing a polarization ratio ρ = 0.85. Inset: the LED in operation which schematics of the polarization geometry.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission polarization ratio versus peak wavelength in PL and EL of this and other work for various growth orientations. m-plane structures offer the highest values and a trend to increase with wavelength. After [13].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Upper limit of the internal quantum efficiency as a function of incident 408 nm optical beam power density. Room temperature data was obtained by scaling to the respective PL maximum at T = 4 K. Most interestingly, under highest excitation, values in a-plane material surpass those of c-plane material at similar wavelength.

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