Abstract

LEDs on Si offer excellent potential of low cost manufacturing for solid state lighting and display, taking advantage of the well-developed IC technologies of silicon. In this paper, we report how the performance of LEDs grown on Si can be improved. Multiple quantum well InGaN LED structure was grown on patterned silicon substrates and circular LEDs 160 µm in radius were processed. Fabricated LEDs were then transferred to an electroplated copper substrate with a reflective mirror inserted by a double-flip transfer process, to improve the light extraction efficiency and heat dissipation. The light output power of LEDs on copper increased by ~80% after the transfer. The operating current before the onset of light output power saturation also increased by 25% because of the good thermal conductivity of copper. The light output power of packaged LEDs on copper was 6.5 mW under 20 mA current injection and as high as 14 mW driven at 55 mA.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si(1 1 1) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. F. Shih, N. C. Chen, C. A. Chang, and K. S. Liu, “Blue, green and white InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Part II), L140–L143 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Growth of III-nitride photonic structures on large area silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171909 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Zhang, H. Liang, Y. Wang, Z. Feng, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “High-performance III-nitride blue LEDs grown and fabricated on patterned Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 725–730 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Zhou, M. Tao, L. Chen, and H. Yang, “Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(10), 103105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, G. Christmann, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Recent Progress in the Growth of Highly Reflective Nitride-Based Distributed Bragg Reflectors and Their Use in Microcavities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7207–7216 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thin-film InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes transferred from Si (111) substrate onto copper carrier by selective lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071113 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. S. Yu, Y. Wang, H. Wang, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Improved GaN grown on Si (111) substrate using ammonia flow modulation on SiNx mask layer by MOCVD,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(9), 2758–2761 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. H. Wang, S. E. Mohney, and R. Birkhahn, “Environmental and thermal aging of Au/Ni/p-GaN ohmic contacts annealed in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(6), 3711–3716 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Maeda, Y. Koide, and M. Murakami, “Effects of NiO on electrical properties of NiAu-based ohmic contacts for p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(26), 4145–4147 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride based Power Chip with Indium-Tin-Oxide p-Contact and Al Back-Side Reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Bno. 4B), 2462–2464 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricatged using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 142–143 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Wei and Y. Joshi, “Stacked Microchannel Heat Sinks for Liquid Cooling of Microelectronic Components,” J. Electron. Packag. 126(1), 60 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

N. S. Yu, Y. Wang, H. Wang, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Improved GaN grown on Si (111) substrate using ammonia flow modulation on SiNx mask layer by MOCVD,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(9), 2758–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. Zhang, H. Liang, Y. Wang, Z. Feng, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “High-performance III-nitride blue LEDs grown and fabricated on patterned Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 725–730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, M. Tao, L. Chen, and H. Yang, “Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Growth of III-nitride photonic structures on large area silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride based Power Chip with Indium-Tin-Oxide p-Contact and Al Back-Side Reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Bno. 4B), 2462–2464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, G. Christmann, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Recent Progress in the Growth of Highly Reflective Nitride-Based Distributed Bragg Reflectors and Their Use in Microcavities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7207–7216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thin-film InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes transferred from Si (111) substrate onto copper carrier by selective lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si(1 1 1) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Shih, N. C. Chen, C. A. Chang, and K. S. Liu, “Blue, green and white InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Part II), L140–L143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. Wei and Y. Joshi, “Stacked Microchannel Heat Sinks for Liquid Cooling of Microelectronic Components,” J. Electron. Packag. 126(1), 60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. H. Wang, S. E. Mohney, and R. Birkhahn, “Environmental and thermal aging of Au/Ni/p-GaN ohmic contacts annealed in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(6), 3711–3716 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricatged using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Maeda, Y. Koide, and M. Murakami, “Effects of NiO on electrical properties of NiAu-based ohmic contacts for p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(26), 4145–4147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Birkhahn, R.

S. H. Wang, S. E. Mohney, and R. Birkhahn, “Environmental and thermal aging of Au/Ni/p-GaN ohmic contacts annealed in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(6), 3711–3716 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Butté, R.

R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, G. Christmann, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Recent Progress in the Growth of Highly Reflective Nitride-Based Distributed Bragg Reflectors and Their Use in Microcavities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7207–7216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carlin, J. F.

R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, G. Christmann, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Recent Progress in the Growth of Highly Reflective Nitride-Based Distributed Bragg Reflectors and Their Use in Microcavities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7207–7216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. A.

C. F. Shih, N. C. Chen, C. A. Chang, and K. S. Liu, “Blue, green and white InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Part II), L140–L143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride based Power Chip with Indium-Tin-Oxide p-Contact and Al Back-Side Reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Bno. 4B), 2462–2464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride based Power Chip with Indium-Tin-Oxide p-Contact and Al Back-Side Reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Bno. 4B), 2462–2464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

W. Zhou, M. Tao, L. Chen, and H. Yang, “Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N. C.

C. F. Shih, N. C. Chen, C. A. Chang, and K. S. Liu, “Blue, green and white InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Part II), L140–L143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. S.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride based Power Chip with Indium-Tin-Oxide p-Contact and Al Back-Side Reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Bno. 4B), 2462–2464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christmann, G.

R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, G. Christmann, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Recent Progress in the Growth of Highly Reflective Nitride-Based Distributed Bragg Reflectors and Their Use in Microcavities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7207–7216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorsaz, J.

R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, G. Christmann, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Recent Progress in the Growth of Highly Reflective Nitride-Based Distributed Bragg Reflectors and Their Use in Microcavities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7207–7216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Egawa, T.

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thin-film InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes transferred from Si (111) substrate onto copper carrier by selective lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si(1 1 1) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feltin, E.

R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, G. Christmann, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Recent Progress in the Growth of Highly Reflective Nitride-Based Distributed Bragg Reflectors and Their Use in Microcavities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7207–7216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z.

B. Zhang, H. Liang, Y. Wang, Z. Feng, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “High-performance III-nitride blue LEDs grown and fabricated on patterned Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 725–730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, G. Christmann, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Recent Progress in the Growth of Highly Reflective Nitride-Based Distributed Bragg Reflectors and Their Use in Microcavities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7207–7216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricatged using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ilegems, M.

R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, G. Christmann, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Recent Progress in the Growth of Highly Reflective Nitride-Based Distributed Bragg Reflectors and Their Use in Microcavities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7207–7216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thin-film InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes transferred from Si (111) substrate onto copper carrier by selective lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, F.

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si(1 1 1) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Growth of III-nitride photonic structures on large area silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jimbo, T.

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thin-film InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes transferred from Si (111) substrate onto copper carrier by selective lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, Y.

X. Wei and Y. Joshi, “Stacked Microchannel Heat Sinks for Liquid Cooling of Microelectronic Components,” J. Electron. Packag. 126(1), 60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricatged using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, X.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koide, Y.

T. Maeda, Y. Koide, and M. Murakami, “Effects of NiO on electrical properties of NiAu-based ohmic contacts for p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(26), 4145–4147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. M.

N. S. Yu, Y. Wang, H. Wang, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Improved GaN grown on Si (111) substrate using ammonia flow modulation on SiNx mask layer by MOCVD,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(9), 2758–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, H. Liang, Y. Wang, Z. Feng, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “High-performance III-nitride blue LEDs grown and fabricated on patterned Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 725–730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Growth of III-nitride photonic structures on large area silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lian, G.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

B. Zhang, H. Liang, Y. Wang, Z. Feng, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “High-performance III-nitride blue LEDs grown and fabricated on patterned Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 725–730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Growth of III-nitride photonic structures on large area silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. Y.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si(1 1 1) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K. S.

C. F. Shih, N. C. Chen, C. A. Chang, and K. S. Liu, “Blue, green and white InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Part II), L140–L143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thin-film InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes transferred from Si (111) substrate onto copper carrier by selective lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H. M.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride based Power Chip with Indium-Tin-Oxide p-Contact and Al Back-Side Reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Bno. 4B), 2462–2464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

T. Maeda, Y. Koide, and M. Murakami, “Effects of NiO on electrical properties of NiAu-based ohmic contacts for p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(26), 4145–4147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mo, C.

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si(1 1 1) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mohney, S. E.

S. H. Wang, S. E. Mohney, and R. Birkhahn, “Environmental and thermal aging of Au/Ni/p-GaN ohmic contacts annealed in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(6), 3711–3716 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, M.

T. Maeda, Y. Koide, and M. Murakami, “Effects of NiO on electrical properties of NiAu-based ohmic contacts for p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(26), 4145–4147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K. W.

N. S. Yu, Y. Wang, H. Wang, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Improved GaN grown on Si (111) substrate using ammonia flow modulation on SiNx mask layer by MOCVD,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(9), 2758–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, H. Liang, Y. Wang, Z. Feng, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “High-performance III-nitride blue LEDs grown and fabricated on patterned Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 725–730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, K. F.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Y.

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si(1 1 1) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qi, S.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricatged using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride based Power Chip with Indium-Tin-Oxide p-Contact and Al Back-Side Reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Bno. 4B), 2462–2464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. F.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride based Power Chip with Indium-Tin-Oxide p-Contact and Al Back-Side Reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Bno. 4B), 2462–2464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shih, C. F.

C. F. Shih, N. C. Chen, C. A. Chang, and K. S. Liu, “Blue, green and white InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Part II), L140–L143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride based Power Chip with Indium-Tin-Oxide p-Contact and Al Back-Side Reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Bno. 4B), 2462–2464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. Y.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tao, M.

W. Zhou, M. Tao, L. Chen, and H. Yang, “Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

N. S. Yu, Y. Wang, H. Wang, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Improved GaN grown on Si (111) substrate using ammonia flow modulation on SiNx mask layer by MOCVD,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(9), 2758–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. H.

S. H. Wang, S. E. Mohney, and R. Birkhahn, “Environmental and thermal aging of Au/Ni/p-GaN ohmic contacts annealed in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(6), 3711–3716 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

N. S. Yu, Y. Wang, H. Wang, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Improved GaN grown on Si (111) substrate using ammonia flow modulation on SiNx mask layer by MOCVD,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(9), 2758–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, H. Liang, Y. Wang, Z. Feng, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “High-performance III-nitride blue LEDs grown and fabricated on patterned Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 725–730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

X. Wei and Y. Joshi, “Stacked Microchannel Heat Sinks for Liquid Cooling of Microelectronic Components,” J. Electron. Packag. 126(1), 60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

W. Zhou, M. Tao, L. Chen, and H. Yang, “Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N. S.

N. S. Yu, Y. Wang, H. Wang, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Improved GaN grown on Si (111) substrate using ammonia flow modulation on SiNx mask layer by MOCVD,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(9), 2758–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, H.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricatged using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, H. Liang, Y. Wang, Z. Feng, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “High-performance III-nitride blue LEDs grown and fabricated on patterned Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 725–730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thin-film InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes transferred from Si (111) substrate onto copper carrier by selective lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, M. Tao, L. Chen, and H. Yang, “Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Growth of III-nitride photonic structures on large area silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, T. Egawa, H. Ishikawa, Y. Liu, and T. Jimbo, “Thin-film InGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes transferred from Si (111) substrate onto copper carrier by selective lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Maeda, Y. Koide, and M. Murakami, “Effects of NiO on electrical properties of NiAu-based ohmic contacts for p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(26), 4145–4147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricatged using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 142–143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. Zhou, M. Tao, L. Chen, and H. Yang, “Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(10), 103105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Wang, S. E. Mohney, and R. Birkhahn, “Environmental and thermal aging of Au/Ni/p-GaN ohmic contacts annealed in air,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(6), 3711–3716 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

B. Zhang, H. Liang, Y. Wang, Z. Feng, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “High-performance III-nitride blue LEDs grown and fabricated on patterned Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 725–730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Mo, W. Fang, Y. Pu, H. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Growth and characterization of InGaN blue LED structure on Si(1 1 1) by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 285(3), 312–317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Packag. (1)

X. Wei and Y. Joshi, “Stacked Microchannel Heat Sinks for Liquid Cooling of Microelectronic Components,” J. Electron. Packag. 126(1), 60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, and H. M. Lo, “Nitride based Power Chip with Indium-Tin-Oxide p-Contact and Al Back-Side Reflector,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Bno. 4B), 2462–2464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Shih, N. C. Chen, C. A. Chang, and K. S. Liu, “Blue, green and white InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4Part II), L140–L143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Butté, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, G. Christmann, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, and M. Ilegems, “Recent Progress in the Growth of Highly Reflective Nitride-Based Distributed Bragg Reflectors and Their Use in Microcavities,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7207–7216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. (1)

N. S. Yu, Y. Wang, H. Wang, K. W. Ng, and K. M. Lau, “Improved GaN grown on Si (111) substrate using ammonia flow modulation on SiNx mask layer by MOCVD,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci. 52(9), 2758–2761 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of LEDs structure grown on Si substrate (a) and SEM image of GaN island on patterned Si substrate (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of fabricated LEDs on Si. (b) Microscope picture of a circular LED with 160 µm in radius mesa on Si. (c) Emission image of a circular LED on Si at 5 mA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram of fabricated LEDs on Cu. (b) Microscope picture of a circular LED with 160 µm in radius mesa on Cu. (c) Emission image of a circular LED on Cu at 5 mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Current-voltage characteristics of LEDs on Si and on copper substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) EL spectra of LEDs on Si and on copper substrate at 20 mA. (b) Light output power versus injection current (L-I) characteristics of LEDs on Si and on copper substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Packaged LEDs on copper substrate. (b) Lateral view of packaged LEDs with hemispherical lens.

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