Abstract

We report high-efficiency blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with air voids embedded in GaN. The air void structures were created by the lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of GaN using a tungsten mask. The optical output power was increased by 60% at an injection current of 20 mA compared with that of conventional LEDs without air voids. The enhancement is attributed to improved internal quantum efficiency because the air voids reduce the threading dislocation and strain in the LEO GaN epilayer. A ray-tracing simulation revealed that the path length of light escaping from the LED with air voids is much shorter because the air voids efficiently change the light path toward the top direction to improve the light extraction of the LED.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273-274, 24–32 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. F. Schubert, Light-emitting diodes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Hao, J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different degree of localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5129 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Wang, X. J. Pei, Z. G. Xing, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of barrier growth temperature ramp-up time on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033509 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. Wang, X. J. Pei, Z. G. Xing, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of barrier growth temperature ramp-up time on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Hao, J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different degree of localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273-274, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ager, J. W.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bremser, M.

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bremser, M. D.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Y.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Y. Wang, X. J. Pei, Z. G. Xing, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of barrier growth temperature ramp-up time on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. T.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. J.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-Y.

Chua, S.

M. Hao, J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different degree of localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chua, S. J.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. J.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. F.

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fonstad, C. G.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. W.

Y. Wang, X. J. Pei, Z. G. Xing, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of barrier growth temperature ramp-up time on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haino, M.

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, N.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-H.

Hao, M.

M. Hao, J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different degree of localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hiramatsu, K.

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. C.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. C.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hung, C. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iyechika, Y.

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jia, H. Q.

Y. Wang, X. J. Pei, Z. G. Xing, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of barrier growth temperature ramp-up time on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, R. H.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, E.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. G.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-W.

Kim, Y. C.

Kisielowski, C.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krüger, J.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-B.

Lee, S.-J.

Liliental-Weber, Z.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. F.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. M.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. S.

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, H.

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Motogaito, A.

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nam, O.

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

Park, T.-Y.

Pei, X. J.

Y. Wang, X. J. Pei, Z. G. Xing, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of barrier growth temperature ramp-up time on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosner, S. J.

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273-274, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, M.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruvimov, S.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, J. H.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, N.

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273-274, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tu, P. M.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uthirakumar, P.

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. J. Pei, Z. G. Xing, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of barrier growth temperature ramp-up time on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. D.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E. R.

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wetzel, C.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Z. G.

Y. Wang, X. J. Pei, Z. G. Xing, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of barrier growth temperature ramp-up time on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, Y.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zan, H. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zang, K. Y.

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

M. Hao, J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different degree of localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

M. Hao, J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different degree of localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheleva, T. S.

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. M.

Y. Wang, X. J. Pei, Z. G. Xing, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of barrier growth temperature ramp-up time on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, J. H. Kang, N. Han, P. Uthirakumar, and C. H. Hong, “Impact of two-floor air prism arrays as an embedded reflector for enhancing the output power of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and S. C. Huang, “High efficiency light emitting diode with anisotropically etched GaN-sapphire interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, C. M. Lin, K. T. Chen, W. C. Huang, M. S. Lin, J. J. Dai, R. H. Jiang, Y. C. Huang, and C. Y. Chang, “Blue light-emitting diodes with a roughened backside fabricated by wet etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Wang, K. Y. Zang, S. J. Chua, S. Tripathy, P. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Nanoair-bridged lateral overgrowth of GaN on ordered nanoporous GaN template,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hao, J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Chua, “Photoluminescence studies on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different degree of localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(27), 5129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Nam, M. Bremser, T. S. Zheleva, and R. F. Davis, “Lateral epitaxy of low defect density GaN layers via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(18), 2638 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Wang, X. J. Pei, Z. G. Xing, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Effects of barrier growth temperature ramp-up time on the photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Haino, M. Yamaguchi, H. Miyake, A. Motogaito, K. Hiramatsu, Y. Kawaguchi, N. Sawaki, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Buried Tungsten Metal Structure Fabricated by Epitaxial-Lateral-Overgrown GaN via Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 2, No. 5B), L449–L452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

C. Kisielowski, J. Krüger, S. Ruvimov, T. Suski, J. W. Ager, E. Jones, Z. Liliental-Weber, M. Rubin, E. R. Weber, M. D. Bremser, and R. F. Davis, “Strain-related phenomena in GaN thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(24), 17745–17753 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica B (1)

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B 273-274, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, Light-emitting diodes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of air voids embedded LEDs using a W mask. (b) Plan-view SEM image of a W mask. (c), (d) Cross-sectional SEM images of an LEO GaN epilayer grown on a W mask.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Room temperature Raman spectra of an as-grown GaN and LEO GaN epilayers. (b) Room temperature PL spectra of LEDs with and without air voids. The inset shows temperature dependent integrated PL intensity of LEDs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Monte-Carlo ray-tracing result for (a) a conventional LED and (b) the LED with air voids. (c) Far field patterns of an LED with air voids and a conventional LED.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) I-V characteristics of the LEDs with and without air voids as a function of injection current. (b) Optical output power of the LEDs with air voids as a function of injection current.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ω γ = ω γ ω 0 = K γ σ xx ,
I ( T ) 1 1 + i C i exp ( E i / k B T )

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