Abstract

The fabrication process and design issues for the fabrication of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes were investigated. The process yield was reduced according to the adhesion of reflective p-electrodes, the exposure of electroplated metal in plasma, and wet-etching induced surface textures. The chip design utilizing current blocking layer and branched n-electrode was found to significantly affect the power efficiency of LEDs.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34(02), 101–107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. H. Baik and S. J. Pearton, “Dry etching characteristics of GaN for blue/green light-emitting diode fabrication,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(11), 5948–5951 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. S. Kwak, K. Y. Lee, J. Y. Han, J. Cho, S. Chae, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Crystal-polarity dependence of Ti/Al contacts to freestanding n-GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3254–3256 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Electrical characteristics of contacts to thin film N-polar n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1921061–1921063 (2008).
  9. H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Kim, K.-K. Choi, K.-K. Kim, J. Cho, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. O. Song, J.-S. Ha, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic-contact technology for GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Role of p-type contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 42–59 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kim and S.-N. Lee, “Performance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with AgNi, AgCu, and AgAl-alloy reflectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 0110321–0110325 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

2011

H. Kim and S.-N. Lee, “Performance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with AgNi, AgCu, and AgAl-alloy reflectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 0110321–0110325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. O. Song, J.-S. Ha, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic-contact technology for GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Role of p-type contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 42–59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34(02), 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Baik and S. J. Pearton, “Dry etching characteristics of GaN for blue/green light-emitting diode fabrication,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(11), 5948–5951 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Electrical characteristics of contacts to thin film N-polar n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1921061–1921063 (2008).

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

H. Kim, K.-K. Choi, K.-K. Kim, J. Cho, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. S. Kwak, K. Y. Lee, J. Y. Han, J. Cho, S. Chae, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Crystal-polarity dependence of Ti/Al contacts to freestanding n-GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3254–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abernathy, C. R.

H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bader, S.

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

K. H. Baik and S. J. Pearton, “Dry etching characteristics of GaN for blue/green light-emitting diode fabrication,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(11), 5948–5951 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J.

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chae, S.

J. S. Kwak, K. Y. Lee, J. Y. Han, J. Cho, S. Chae, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Crystal-polarity dependence of Ti/Al contacts to freestanding n-GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3254–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. Kim, K.-K. Choi, K.-K. Kim, J. Cho, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kwak, K. Y. Lee, J. Y. Han, J. Cho, S. Chae, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Crystal-polarity dependence of Ti/Al contacts to freestanding n-GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3254–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.-K.

H. Kim, K.-K. Choi, K.-K. Kim, J. Cho, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Denbaars, S. P.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Electrical characteristics of contacts to thin film N-polar n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1921061–1921063 (2008).

Eberhard, F.

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eisert, D.

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fehrer, M.

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J.-S.

J. O. Song, J.-S. Ha, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic-contact technology for GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Role of p-type contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 42–59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B.

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. Y.

J. S. Kwak, K. Y. Lee, J. Y. Han, J. Cho, S. Chae, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Crystal-polarity dependence of Ti/Al contacts to freestanding n-GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3254–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Härle, V.

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hays, D. C.

H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, J.-W.

H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Electrical characteristics of contacts to thin film N-polar n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1921061–1921063 (2008).

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S.

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim and S.-N. Lee, “Performance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with AgNi, AgCu, and AgAl-alloy reflectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 0110321–0110325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

H. Kim, K.-K. Choi, K.-K. Kim, J. Cho, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Electrical characteristics of contacts to thin film N-polar n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1921061–1921063 (2008).

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

Kim, K.-K.

H. Kim, K.-K. Choi, K.-K. Kim, J. Cho, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J. S.

H. Kim, K.-K. Choi, K.-K. Kim, J. Cho, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Kwak, K. Y. Lee, J. Y. Han, J. Cho, S. Chae, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Crystal-polarity dependence of Ti/Al contacts to freestanding n-GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3254–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. Y.

J. S. Kwak, K. Y. Lee, J. Y. Han, J. Cho, S. Chae, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Crystal-polarity dependence of Ti/Al contacts to freestanding n-GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3254–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-N.

H. Kim and S.-N. Lee, “Performance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with AgNi, AgCu, and AgAl-alloy reflectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 0110321–0110325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Electrical characteristics of contacts to thin film N-polar n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1921061–1921063 (2008).

H. Kim, K.-K. Choi, K.-K. Kim, J. Cho, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

Mont, F. W.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34(02), 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nam, O. H.

J. S. Kwak, K. Y. Lee, J. Y. Han, J. Cho, S. Chae, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Crystal-polarity dependence of Ti/Al contacts to freestanding n-GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3254–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Electrical characteristics of contacts to thin film N-polar n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1921061–1921063 (2008).

H. Kim, K.-K. Choi, K.-K. Kim, J. Cho, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kwak, K. Y. Lee, J. Y. Han, J. Cho, S. Chae, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Crystal-polarity dependence of Ti/Al contacts to freestanding n-GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3254–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

K. H. Baik and S. J. Pearton, “Dry etching characteristics of GaN for blue/green light-emitting diode fabrication,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(11), 5948–5951 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Plossl, A.

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poxson, D. J.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

Romano, L. T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J.-H.

H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Electrical characteristics of contacts to thin film N-polar n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1921061–1921063 (2008).

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

Seong, T.-Y.

J. O. Song, J.-S. Ha, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic-contact technology for GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Role of p-type contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 42–59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Electrical characteristics of contacts to thin film N-polar n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1921061–1921063 (2008).

H. Kim, K.-K. Choi, K.-K. Kim, J. Cho, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. O.

J. O. Song, J.-S. Ha, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic-contact technology for GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Role of p-type contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 42–59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-O.

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weimar, A.

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, and N. W. Cheung, “Damage-free separation of GaN thin films from sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 599–601 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, “InxGa1-xN light emitting diodes on Si substrates fabricated by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(18), 2822–2824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kwak, K. Y. Lee, J. Y. Han, J. Cho, S. Chae, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Crystal-polarity dependence of Ti/Al contacts to freestanding n-GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3254–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S.-N. Lee, Y. Park, J.-W. Jeon, and T.-Y. Seong, “Electrical characteristics of contacts to thin film N-polar n-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 1921061–1921063 (2008).

H. Kim, K.-K. Kim, K.-K. Choi, H. Kim, J.-O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 0235101–2035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2211111–2211113 (2008).

Appl. Surf. Sci.

K. H. Baik and S. J. Pearton, “Dry etching characteristics of GaN for blue/green light-emitting diode fabrication,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(11), 5948–5951 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. Lee, H. Cho, D. C. Hays, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, R. J. Shul, G. A. Vawter, and J. Han, “Dry etching of GaN and related materials: Comparison of techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(3), 557–563 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Kim, K. H. Baik, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, S.-N. Lee, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “High-reflectance and thermally stable AgCu alloy p-type reflectors for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(5), 336–338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

J. O. Song, J.-S. Ha, and T.-Y. Seong, “Ohmic-contact technology for GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Role of p-type contact,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 42–59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

H. Kim and S.-N. Lee, “Performance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with AgNi, AgCu, and AgAl-alloy reflectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(1), 0110321–0110325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull.

S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34(02), 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

V. Härle, B. Hahn, J. Baur, M. Fehrer, A. Weimar, S. Kaiser, D. Eisert, F. Eberhard, A. Plossl, and S. Bader, “Advanced technologies for high-efficiency GaInN LEDs for solid state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 34–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ag-based electrode and its influence on LLO process. (a) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) z-contrast image of AgCu p-electrodes. (b) The optical microscopic images of LEDs fabricated with Ag after LLO process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dry etching of N-polar GaN. (a) The dry etching rate of Ga-polar and N-polar GaN as a function of %Cl2. (b) SEM images of N-polar surfaces degraded after dry etching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wet etching of N-polar surface and its influence on light extraction. (a) The light extraction efficiency of vertical LEDs as a function of cone density. The upper and lower inset shows the SEM images of KOH-etched N-polar GaN and the schematic used for ray-tracing simulation, respectively. (b) TEM images of vertical chips (mesa sidewall) after KOH wet etching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The LED performance before and after wet etching. (a) The EL spectra, (b) the optical output power, and (c) the forward voltages of vertical LEDs before and after wet etching.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The chip design of vertical LEDs using CBL and branched n-electrodes. (a) The schematic cross-sectional view of LEDs having CBL. (b) The schematic top-views of LED A-E (c) The forward voltage, (d) optical output power, and (e) the power efficiency of LED A-E.

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