Abstract

Bragg gratings incorporated into organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) establish a coupling between waveguide modes and useful light (leaky modes). Here we demonstrate that the net coupling direction depends on the OLED stack design. We fabricated two different device structures with gold Bragg gratings. Angle resolved electroluminescence spectra were recorded. For the first device peaks of enhanced emission due to the Bragg grating are observed corresponding to a net energy transfer in direction of the leaky modes. The second device, on the other hand, exhibits dips in the emission spectrum. This reversed direction of energy transfer from the leaky modes to the waveguide modes is explained considering transfer matrix simulations of modal intensity distributions and device emission simulations. An OLED efficiency enhancement is only achieved, if the waveguide mode extraction is dominant.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
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  6. S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
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  8. M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595 (2002).
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  10. A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. V. Bulović, V. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. Burrows, D. Garbuzov, and S. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Periodic nanostructuring for guided mode extraction in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Energy 1, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, I. Kaiser, J. Hauss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Improving the outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via rough internal interfaces,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 4), A631–A639 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Gombert, B. Bläsi, C. Bühler, P. Nitz, J. Mick, W. Hoßfeld, and M. Niggemann, “Some application cases and related manufacturing techniques for optically functional microstructures on large areas,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2525–2533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature 428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Patel, S. Cina, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2170–2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulović, V. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. Burrows, D. Garbuzov, and S. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M.

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2170–2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bläsi, B.

A. Gombert, B. Bläsi, C. Bühler, P. Nitz, J. Mick, W. Hoßfeld, and M. Niggemann, “Some application cases and related manufacturing techniques for optically functional microstructures on large areas,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2525–2533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bredas, J.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bühler, C.

A. Gombert, B. Bläsi, C. Bühler, P. Nitz, J. Mick, W. Hoßfeld, and M. Niggemann, “Some application cases and related manufacturing techniques for optically functional microstructures on large areas,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2525–2533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulović, V. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. Burrows, D. Garbuzov, and S. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

N. K. Patel, S. Cina, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P.

V. Bulović, V. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. Burrows, D. Garbuzov, and S. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

Choi, J.-M.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cina, S.

N. K. Patel, S. Cina, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, D. A.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S.

V. Bulović, V. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. Burrows, D. Garbuzov, and S. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature 428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “High-external-quantum-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friend, R.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frischeisen, J.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D.

V. Bulović, V. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. Burrows, D. Garbuzov, and S. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

Gerken, M.

J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Periodic nanostructuring for guided mode extraction in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Energy 1, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, I. Kaiser, J. Hauss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Improving the outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via rough internal interfaces,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 4), A631–A639 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Periodic nanostructuring for guided mode extraction in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Energy 1, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gleiss, S.

J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Periodic nanostructuring for guided mode extraction in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Energy 1, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

A. Gombert, B. Bläsi, C. Bühler, P. Nitz, J. Mick, W. Hoßfeld, and M. Niggemann, “Some application cases and related manufacturing techniques for optically functional microstructures on large areas,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2525–2533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greenham, N. C.

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, H.

H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

V. Bulović, V. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. Burrows, D. Garbuzov, and S. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “High-external-quantum-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guetlein, J.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gymer, R.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hauss, J.

J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Periodic nanostructuring for guided mode extraction in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Energy 1, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, I. Kaiser, J. Hauss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Improving the outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via rough internal interfaces,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 4), A631–A639 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoßfeld, W.

A. Gombert, B. Bläsi, C. Bühler, P. Nitz, J. Mick, W. Hoßfeld, and M. Niggemann, “Some application cases and related manufacturing techniques for optically functional microstructures on large areas,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2525–2533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jory, M. J.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, I.

Khalfin, V.

V. Bulović, V. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. Burrows, D. Garbuzov, and S. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koh, T.-W.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krummacher, B. C.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemmer, U.

J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Periodic nanostructuring for guided mode extraction in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Energy 1, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, I. Kaiser, J. Hauss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Improving the outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via rough internal interfaces,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 4), A631–A639 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lögdlun, M.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, R.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B. J.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mick, J.

A. Gombert, B. Bläsi, C. Bühler, P. Nitz, J. Mick, W. Hoßfeld, and M. Niggemann, “Some application cases and related manufacturing techniques for optically functional microstructures on large areas,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2525–2533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, H.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niggemann, M.

A. Gombert, B. Bläsi, C. Bühler, P. Nitz, J. Mick, W. Hoßfeld, and M. Niggemann, “Some application cases and related manufacturing techniques for optically functional microstructures on large areas,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2525–2533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nitz, P.

A. Gombert, B. Bläsi, C. Bühler, P. Nitz, J. Mick, W. Hoßfeld, and M. Niggemann, “Some application cases and related manufacturing techniques for optically functional microstructures on large areas,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2525–2533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nowy, S.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D. F.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohata, H.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. K.

N. K. Patel, S. Cina, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinke, N. A.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, B.

J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Periodic nanostructuring for guided mode extraction in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Energy 1, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, I. Kaiser, J. Hauss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Improving the outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via rough internal interfaces,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 4), A631–A639 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimoji, N.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shoustikov, A.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, S.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taliani, C.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, D. Z. Garbuzov, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “High-external-quantum-efficiency organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 396–398 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuji, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesh, S.

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, S.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, Y.

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(21), 3340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. K. Patel, S. Cina, and J. H. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Photon. Energy (1)

J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Periodic nanostructuring for guided mode extraction in organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Photon. Energy 1, 011012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Greiner, “Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diode Substrates: Simulation and Experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 7A), 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(No. 6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

S. R. Forrest, M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, and M. E. Thompson, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent devices,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, M. Lögdlun, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature 428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Gombert, B. Bläsi, C. Bühler, P. Nitz, J. Mick, W. Hoßfeld, and M. Niggemann, “Some application cases and related manufacturing techniques for optically functional microstructures on large areas,” Opt. Eng. 43(11), 2525–2533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Org. Electron. (1)

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Bulović, V. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. Burrows, D. Garbuzov, and S. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. G. Fluxim, SETFOS: Semiconducting emissive thin film optics simulator software, http://www.fluxim.com.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of the reference device and two different devices with anode side gold gratings (dimensions not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic of the measurement setup used for angle resolved electroluminescence emission measurements. For the devices 1 and 2 the spectra were recorded in a plane perpendicular to the grating grooves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Angle resolved electroluminescence emission spectra of (a) the reference device, (b) device 1, and (c) device 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Electroluminescence emission of (a) device 1, (b) device 2 at a wavelength of 550 nm. (c) Emission of device 1 separated into TE- and TM-polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Classification of optical modes in OLEDs in a dispersion diagram ω(kx). The leaky mode continuum of the light that is able to leave the device is located above the air light line. The substrate mode continuum is located between the air light line and the glass light line. Discrete waveguide modes are found below the glass light line. Arrow 1 represents the extraction of a waveguide mode to the leaky modes by Bragg scattering at a grating with reciprocal lattice constant G. Arrow 2 represents the inverse process: Light from the leaky mode region being coupled into the waveguide mode by a Bragg grating with reciprocal lattice constant G.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Comparison of experimental and calculated spectral and angular position of the fundamental TE waveguide mode in device 1. (b) T-Matrix simulation of the normalized electric field intensity of the fundamental TE mode in device 1 at a wavelength of 550 nm. (c) Comparison of experimental and calculated spectral and angular position of the fundamental TE waveguide mode in device 2. (d) T-matrix simulation of the normalized electric field intensity of the fundamental TE mode in device 2 at a wavelength of 550 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Simulated dipole emission as a function of the effective index of refraction n eff at a wavelength of 550 nm. Device 1 exhibits a distinct peak around neff = 1.6 related to the fundamental TE waveguide mode, whereas the coupling to leaky modes (neff < 1) is rather weak. For device 2 the situation is opposite. (b) Scheme of the emitter coupling to leaky modes and waveguide modes including grating coupling via Bragg scattering between modes into both directions. Arrow 1 represents the waveguide mode extraction process described by Eq. (1). Arrow 2 represents the incoupling in waveguide modes described by Eq. (3). In addition the waveguide modes are damped due to the conductive electrodes and leaky modes leave the device towards the far field.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k x = β G .
θ ( Λ , λ 0 ) = arcsin ( n e f f λ 0 / Λ ) ,
β = k x = k x + G ,
W T E = W 0 π 2 n o r g k 0 | E ( z e ) | 2 | E ( z ) | 2 d z ,

Metrics