Abstract

Light-management is critical to thin film solar cells due to their usually limited optical absorption in the active layer. Conventional approaches involve employing separate techniques for anti-reflection and light trapping. Here, we demonstrate an embedded biomimetic nanostructure (EBN) that achieves both effects for hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. The fabrication of EBNs is accomplished by patterning an index-matching silicon-nitride layer deposited on a glass substrate using polystyrene nanospheres lithography, followed by reactive ion etching. The profile of EBN is then reproduced layer by layer during the deposition of a-Si:H cells. We show that a solar cell with an optimized EBN exhibits a broadband enhanced external quantum efficiency due to both anti-reflection and light-trapping, with respect to an industrial standard cell using an Asahi U glass substrate which is mostly optimized for light trapping. Overall, the cell with an optimized EBN achieves a large short-circuit current density of 17.74 mA/cm2, corresponding to a 37.63% enhancement over a flat control cell. The power conversion efficiency is also increased from 5.36% to 8.32%. Moreover, the light management enabled by the EBN remains efficient over a wide range of incident angles up to 60°, which is particularly desirable for real environments with diffused sun light. The novel patterning method is not restricted to a-Si:H solar cells, but is also widely applicable to other thin film materials.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (3)

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-Y. Chiu, C.-H. Chang, M.-A. Tsai, F.-Y. Chang, and P. Yu, “Improved optical transmission and current matching of a triple-junction solar cell utilizing sub-wavelength structures,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 3), A308–A313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

Ü. Dagkaldiran, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, D. W. Sheel, Z. Remes, and M. Vanecek, “Amorphous silicon solar cells made with SnO2:F TCO films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 159 (2009).

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. P. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

2007 (4)

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(6), 347–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1976 (1)

D. E. Carlson and C. R. Wronski, “Amorphous silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 671–673 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. C. Chittick, J. H. Alexander, and H. F. Sterling, “The preparation and properties of amorphous silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(1), 77–81 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, J. H.

R. C. Chittick, J. H. Alexander, and H. F. Sterling, “The preparation and properties of amorphous silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(1), 77–81 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Arafune, K.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. P. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arikawa, K.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailat, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, A.

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Canhola, P.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, D. E.

D. E. Carlson and C. R. Wronski, “Amorphous silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 671–673 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

M.-Y. Chiu, C.-H. Chang, M.-A. Tsai, F.-Y. Chang, and P. Yu, “Improved optical transmission and current matching of a triple-junction solar cell utilizing sub-wavelength structures,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 3), A308–A313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Tseng, H. C. Chen, M. A. Tsai, C.-H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, and P. Yu, “Angle-resolved characteristics of silicon photovoltaics with passivated conical-frustum nanostructures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (to be published).

Chang, F.-Y.

Chang, Y. C.

Chang, Y. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Chen, C. C.

Chen, H. C.

M. A. Tsai, P. C. Tseng, H. C. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and P. Yu, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of a crystalline silicon solar cell with frustum nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 1), A28–A34 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Tseng, H. C. Chen, M. A. Tsai, C.-H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, and P. Yu, “Angle-resolved characteristics of silicon photovoltaics with passivated conical-frustum nanostructures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (to be published).

Chen, K. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. J.

Chittick, R. C.

R. C. Chittick, J. H. Alexander, and H. F. Sterling, “The preparation and properties of amorphous silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(1), 77–81 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

Chiu, M.-Y.

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Creazzo, T.

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dagkaldiran, Ü.

Ü. Dagkaldiran, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, D. W. Sheel, Z. Remes, and M. Vanecek, “Amorphous silicon solar cells made with SnO2:F TCO films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 159 (2009).

Droz, C.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. P. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

Ü. Dagkaldiran, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, D. W. Sheel, Z. Remes, and M. Vanecek, “Amorphous silicon solar cells made with SnO2:F TCO films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 159 (2009).

Fahr, S.

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, I.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Finger, F.

Ü. Dagkaldiran, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, D. W. Sheel, Z. Remes, and M. Vanecek, “Amorphous silicon solar cells made with SnO2:F TCO films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 159 (2009).

Foletti, S.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortunato, E.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. P. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goncalves, A.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordijn, A.

Ü. Dagkaldiran, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, D. W. Sheel, Z. Remes, and M. Vanecek, “Amorphous silicon solar cells made with SnO2:F TCO films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 159 (2009).

Hane, K.

Honsberg, C.

Hsu, C. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. W. P.

Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, S. H.

Hsu, Y. K.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. F.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y. J.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Broadband antireflection gratings fabricated upon silicon substrates,” Opt. Lett. 24(20), 1422–1424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, U.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Lederer, F.

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. H.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. A.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H. C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

Martins, R.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, B. B.

Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutitu, J. G.

Ohshita, Y.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palasantzas, G.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C. L.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parker, A. R.

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(6), 347–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C. Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peters, D. W.

Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pimentel, A.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Raniero, L.

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Remes, Z.

Ü. Dagkaldiran, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, D. W. Sheel, Z. Remes, and M. Vanecek, “Amorphous silicon solar cells made with SnO2:F TCO films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 159 (2009).

Rockstuhl, C.

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruby, D. S.

Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sai, H.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Schade, H.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A. V.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheel, D. W.

Ü. Dagkaldiran, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, D. W. Sheel, Z. Remes, and M. Vanecek, “Amorphous silicon solar cells made with SnO2:F TCO films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 159 (2009).

Shi, S.

Stavenga, D. G.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterling, H. F.

R. C. Chittick, J. H. Alexander, and H. F. Sterling, “The preparation and properties of amorphous silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(1), 77–81 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. P. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tong, H.

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. P. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townley, H. E.

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(6), 347–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. A.

M. A. Tsai, P. C. Tseng, H. C. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and P. Yu, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of a crystalline silicon solar cell with frustum nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 1), A28–A34 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Tseng, H. C. Chen, M. A. Tsai, C.-H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, and P. Yu, “Angle-resolved characteristics of silicon photovoltaics with passivated conical-frustum nanostructures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (to be published).

Tsai, M.-A.

Tseng, P. C.

M. A. Tsai, P. C. Tseng, H. C. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and P. Yu, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of a crystalline silicon solar cell with frustum nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 1), A28–A34 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Tseng, H. C. Chen, M. A. Tsai, C.-H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, and P. Yu, “Angle-resolved characteristics of silicon photovoltaics with passivated conical-frustum nanostructures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (to be published).

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

Ü. Dagkaldiran, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, D. W. Sheel, Z. Remes, and M. Vanecek, “Amorphous silicon solar cells made with SnO2:F TCO films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 159 (2009).

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Wronski, C. R.

D. E. Carlson and C. R. Wronski, “Amorphous silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 671–673 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wyrsch, N.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yates, H. M.

Ü. Dagkaldiran, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, D. W. Sheel, Z. Remes, and M. Vanecek, “Amorphous silicon solar cells made with SnO2:F TCO films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 159 (2009).

Yu, P.

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H. P.

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. P. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. E. Carlson and C. R. Wronski, “Amorphous silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(11), 671–673 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. P. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. H. Lin, “Self-assembled two-dimensional surface structures for beam shaping of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 12–14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

R. C. Chittick, J. H. Alexander, and H. F. Sterling, “The preparation and properties of amorphous silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(1), 77–81 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

Ü. Dagkaldiran, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, H. M. Yates, P. Evans, D. W. Sheel, Z. Remes, and M. Vanecek, “Amorphous silicon solar cells made with SnO2:F TCO films deposited by atmospheric pressure CVD,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 6, 159 (2009).

Nano Lett. (3)

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(6), 347–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Chen, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, S. H. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and Y. C. Chang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection employing disordered GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8748–8754 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Chen, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, S. H. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and Y. C. Chang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection employing disordered GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8748–8754 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Mutitu, S. Shi, C. Chen, T. Creazzo, A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, and D. W. Prather, “Thin film solar cell design based on photonic crystal and diffractive grating structures,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15238–15248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-Y. Chiu, C.-H. Chang, M.-A. Tsai, F.-Y. Chang, and P. Yu, “Improved optical transmission and current matching of a triple-junction solar cell utilizing sub-wavelength structures,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 3), A308–A313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Tsai, P. C. Tseng, H. C. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and P. Yu, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of a crystalline silicon solar cell with frustum nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 1), A28–A34 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Biol. Sci. (1)

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, “Light trapping effect of submicron surface textures in crystalline Si solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 15(5), 415–423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film Silicon Solar Cell Technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

P. C. Tseng, H. C. Chen, M. A. Tsai, C.-H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, and P. Yu, “Angle-resolved characteristics of silicon photovoltaics with passivated conical-frustum nanostructures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (to be published).

Thin Solid Films (1)

L. Raniero, I. Ferreira, A. Pimentel, A. Goncalves, P. Canhola, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, “Role of hydrogen plasma on electrical and optical properties of ZGO, ITO and IZO transparent and conductive coatings,” Thin Solid Films 511–512, 295–298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. E. I. Schropp, and M. Zeman, “Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Modeling, Materials, and Device Technology (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998).

R. E. I. Schropp, and M. Zeman, Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Modeling, Materials, and Device Technology (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998).

W. Ley, E. Plescher, A. Freiburg, N. Nikolaizig, and A. Popvitch, “SUN Simulator Calibration Procedure,” in Proceedings of the Third International Symposium: Environmental Testing for Space Programmes (1997) , pp. 339–344.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic fabrication flow for a-Si solar cell with an embedded biomimetic nanostructure (EBN): (a) the EBN fabricated by colloidal lithography and a reactive ion etching technique, a conformal deposition of (b) an 80 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, (c) active a-Si:H layer (p-i-n), and (d) the aluminum back electrode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of (a) the fabricated biomimetic nanostructure and (b) a commercial Asahi U substrate. (c) The cross-sectional TEM image of a fabricated solar cell on the EBN-patterned substrate. The inset shows the x-ray diffraction patterns of p-i-n layers, revealing the amorphous material properties.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured reflectance spectra for solar cells deposited on flat, Asahi U glass, and embedded biomimetic nanostructure (EBN) patterned substrates. The EBN and Asahi U cells reveal the enhanced absorption properties compared to the flat control.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The current-voltage (I–V) and (b) external quantum efficiency (EQE) characteristics for solar cells deposited on various substrates: flat, Asahi U, and an embedded biomimetic nanostructure (EBN).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The improvement factors of the EQE (ΔEQE) for EBN and Asahi U, (a) between 400 nm and 600 nm, and (b) between 600 nm and 800 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The measured angular absorption spectra for solar cells deposited on (a) flat, (b) Asahi U glass, and (c) EBN-patterned substrates.

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