Abstract

In this study, we proposed an effective optical design method to solve the problem of prescribed illuminance for LED chip array packaging (LCAP). With this method, light energy redistribution can be obtained by optimizing meshing parameters on the target. Not only can it deal with light controlling of extended source, but also improve the uniformity of both illuminance and luminance for road lighting as well. As an example, we designed a 16W LED packaging with a smooth primary freeform lens for general road lighting. The simulation results demonstrated that optical performance of this lens can meet the requirements of Commission Internationale del'Eclairage (CIE) quite well. Longitudinal and overall uniformities are 0.7 and 0.5 respectively, and relative optical efficiency of luminaire can be enhanced 19.6% in theory compared with traditional optics.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  2. S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, Design of LED Packaging for Lighting Applications (John Wiley and Sons, 2011), (to be published).
  3. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LED array: where does the far-field begin?” Proc. SPIE 7085, 70580R (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Winston, J. C. Miňano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier Academic, 2005), pp. 181–218.
  6. P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. X. Feng, Y. Luo, and Y. J. Han, “Design of LED freeform optical system for road lighting with high luminance/illuminance ratio,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22020–22031 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. CIE (Commission Internationale del'Eclairage), “Calculation and measurement of luminance and illuminance in road lighting,” CIE Report, (1982).
  9. K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5457–5465 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. 99, 1521–3331 (2010).
  12. Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Ries and A. Rabl, “Edge-ray principle of nonimaging optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(10), 2627–2632 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. CIE, (Commission Internationale del'Eclairage), “Road surfaces and lighting,” CIE Report, (1984).

2010 (2)

Z. X. Feng, Y. Luo, and Y. J. Han, “Design of LED freeform optical system for road lighting with high luminance/illuminance ratio,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22020–22031 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. 99, 1521–3331 (2010).

2009 (2)

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5457–5465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LED array: where does the far-field begin?” Proc. SPIE 7085, 70580R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Benítez, P.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blen, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chaves, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5457–5465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, W. T.

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dross, O.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Falicoff, W.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. X.

Gao, K. F.

Han, Y. J.

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hernández, M.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-M.

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, T.-X.

Lee, Y.-L.

Liu, S.

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. 99, 1521–3331 (2010).

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5457–5465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. 99, 1521–3331 (2010).

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5457–5465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Luo, X. B.

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. 99, 1521–3331 (2010).

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Ma, S.-H.

Minano, J. C.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mohedano, R.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LED array: where does the far-field begin?” Proc. SPIE 7085, 70580R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rabl, A.

Ries, H.

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Sun, C.-C.

Wang, K.

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. 99, 1521–3331 (2010).

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5457–5465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. (1)

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Tech. 99, 1521–3331 (2010).

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Qin, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Freeform LED lens for rectangularly prescribed illumination,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(10), 105501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miňano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, and W. Falicoff, “multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “LED array: where does the far-field begin?” Proc. SPIE 7085, 70580R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. Winston, J. C. Miňano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier Academic, 2005), pp. 181–218.

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

S. Liu, and X. B. Luo, Design of LED Packaging for Lighting Applications (John Wiley and Sons, 2011), (to be published).

CIE (Commission Internationale del'Eclairage), “Calculation and measurement of luminance and illuminance in road lighting,” CIE Report, (1982).

CIE, (Commission Internationale del'Eclairage), “Road surfaces and lighting,” CIE Report, (1984).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of LED chip array module (a) and flip chip structure (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flow diagram of designing primary optical system of LCAP module for road lighting.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the distribution of LED modules’ light pattern on the major road.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation and fitting LIDCs of LCAP module.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of light energy mapping relationship.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distributions of luminance coefficient q ( β , γ ) in the directions of parallel and perpendicular (Observer position: −60m, 1.75m, 1.5m).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sketch diagrams of meshing the target plane.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of point generation method of freeform lens.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Primary optical system of LED chip array module.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulation lighting performance of LIDC (a) and radiation pattern (b) of LCAP module.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Simple LED road lamp consists of 9 LCAP modules.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of Each Layer in Simulated LED

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Road Lighting Performance of LED Road Lamp in Simulation and National Standards

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of System Optical Efficiencies Between Traditional LED Road Lamp and New LED Road Lamp Based on LCAP Modules

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ total = 0 2 π d ϕ 0 π / 2 I ( θ ) sin θ d θ = 2 π 0 π / 2 I ( θ ) sin θ d θ ,
Φ total M N = 2 π 2 M θ j θ j + 1 I ( θ ) sin θ d θ   ,         ( j=0, 1, 2, 3 ...   θ 0 = 0 )
L ( β , γ ) = k = 1 K q ( β , γ ) × E k ( c , γ ) = k = 1 K r ( β , γ ) 10 4 × cos 3 γ × E k ( c , γ ) .
[ 1 + n 2 2 n ( O · I ) ] 1 / 2 N = O n I ,

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