Abstract

Dye-sensitized solar cells have slightly lower photoelectric efficiency than silicon solar cells. Researchers have investigated various ways to address this problem. This study improved the efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell by re-driving it with a reflector, reusing discarded light after it was absorbed. The reflector increased efficiency by about 50%, by increasing the size of the pattern shape and increasing the distance of the reflector.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. B. O'Regan, M. Grätzel, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Optical electrochemistry. I, Steady-state spectroscopy of conduction-band electrons in a metal oxide semiconductor electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183(1–2), 89–93 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Grätzel, “Conversion of sunlight to electric power by nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 164(1–3), 3–14 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(25), 638–640 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N.-G. Park and K. Kim, “Transparent solar cells based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(8), 1895–1904 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 455–459 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Diamant, S. G. Chen, O. Melamed, and A. Zaban, “Core-shell nanoporous electrode for dye sensitized solar cells: the effect of the SrTiO3 shell on the electronic properties of the TiO2 core,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(9), 1977–1981 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. P. S. Perera, P. K. D. D. P. Pitigala, P. V. V. Jayaweera, K. M. P. Bandaranayake, and K. Tennakone, “Dye-sensitized solid-state photovoltaic cells based on dye multilayer-semiconductor nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13758–13761 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ngamsinlapasathian, “Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell using nanocrystalline titanium containing nanotube structure,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 164(1-3), 145–151 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Mihi, F. J. López-Alcaraz, and H. Miguez, “Full spectrum enhancement of the light harvesting efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells by including colloidal photonic crystal multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Miguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 764–770 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Lozano, S. Colodrero, O. Caulier, M. E. Calvo, and H. Miguez, “Theoretical analysis of the performance of one-dimensional photonic crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(8), 3681–3687 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

G. Lozano, S. Colodrero, O. Caulier, M. E. Calvo, and H. Miguez, “Theoretical analysis of the performance of one-dimensional photonic crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(8), 3681–3687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Miguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N.-G. Park and K. Kim, “Transparent solar cells based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(8), 1895–1904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(25), 638–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Mihi, F. J. López-Alcaraz, and H. Miguez, “Full spectrum enhancement of the light harvesting efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells by including colloidal photonic crystal multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Grätzel, “Conversion of sunlight to electric power by nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 164(1–3), 3–14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ngamsinlapasathian, “Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell using nanocrystalline titanium containing nanotube structure,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 164(1-3), 145–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Diamant, S. G. Chen, O. Melamed, and A. Zaban, “Core-shell nanoporous electrode for dye sensitized solar cells: the effect of the SrTiO3 shell on the electronic properties of the TiO2 core,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(9), 1977–1981 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. S. Perera, P. K. D. D. P. Pitigala, P. V. V. Jayaweera, K. M. P. Bandaranayake, and K. Tennakone, “Dye-sensitized solid-state photovoltaic cells based on dye multilayer-semiconductor nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13758–13761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. O'Regan, M. Grätzel, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Optical electrochemistry. I, Steady-state spectroscopy of conduction-band electrons in a metal oxide semiconductor electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183(1–2), 89–93 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bandaranayake, K. M. P.

V. P. S. Perera, P. K. D. D. P. Pitigala, P. V. V. Jayaweera, K. M. P. Bandaranayake, and K. Tennakone, “Dye-sensitized solid-state photovoltaic cells based on dye multilayer-semiconductor nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13758–13761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boschloo, G.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Miguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, M. E.

G. Lozano, S. Colodrero, O. Caulier, M. E. Calvo, and H. Miguez, “Theoretical analysis of the performance of one-dimensional photonic crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(8), 3681–3687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caulier, O.

G. Lozano, S. Colodrero, O. Caulier, M. E. Calvo, and H. Miguez, “Theoretical analysis of the performance of one-dimensional photonic crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(8), 3681–3687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. G.

Y. Diamant, S. G. Chen, O. Melamed, and A. Zaban, “Core-shell nanoporous electrode for dye sensitized solar cells: the effect of the SrTiO3 shell on the electronic properties of the TiO2 core,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(9), 1977–1981 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, Y.

Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(25), 638–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colodrero, S.

G. Lozano, S. Colodrero, O. Caulier, M. E. Calvo, and H. Miguez, “Theoretical analysis of the performance of one-dimensional photonic crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(8), 3681–3687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Miguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, F.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diamant, Y.

Y. Diamant, S. G. Chen, O. Melamed, and A. Zaban, “Core-shell nanoporous electrode for dye sensitized solar cells: the effect of the SrTiO3 shell on the electronic properties of the TiO2 core,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(9), 1977–1981 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fantacci, S.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, D.

B. O'Regan, M. Grätzel, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Optical electrochemistry. I, Steady-state spectroscopy of conduction-band electrons in a metal oxide semiconductor electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183(1–2), 89–93 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grätzel, M.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Grätzel, “Conversion of sunlight to electric power by nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 164(1–3), 3–14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. O'Regan, M. Grätzel, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Optical electrochemistry. I, Steady-state spectroscopy of conduction-band electrons in a metal oxide semiconductor electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183(1–2), 89–93 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Greene, L. E.

M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagfeldt, A.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Miguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Häggman, L.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Miguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(25), 638–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Islam, A.

Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(25), 638–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, S.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jayaweera, P. V. V.

V. P. S. Perera, P. K. D. D. P. Pitigala, P. V. V. Jayaweera, K. M. P. Bandaranayake, and K. Tennakone, “Dye-sensitized solid-state photovoltaic cells based on dye multilayer-semiconductor nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13758–13761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. C.

M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

N.-G. Park and K. Kim, “Transparent solar cells based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(8), 1895–1904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koide, N.

Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(25), 638–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Komiya, R.

Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(25), 638–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Law, M.

M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liska, P.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López-Alcaraz, F. J.

A. Mihi, F. J. López-Alcaraz, and H. Miguez, “Full spectrum enhancement of the light harvesting efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells by including colloidal photonic crystal multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lozano, G.

G. Lozano, S. Colodrero, O. Caulier, M. E. Calvo, and H. Miguez, “Theoretical analysis of the performance of one-dimensional photonic crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(8), 3681–3687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melamed, O.

Y. Diamant, S. G. Chen, O. Melamed, and A. Zaban, “Core-shell nanoporous electrode for dye sensitized solar cells: the effect of the SrTiO3 shell on the electronic properties of the TiO2 core,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(9), 1977–1981 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miguez, H.

G. Lozano, S. Colodrero, O. Caulier, M. E. Calvo, and H. Miguez, “Theoretical analysis of the performance of one-dimensional photonic crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(8), 3681–3687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Miguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mihi, F. J. López-Alcaraz, and H. Miguez, “Full spectrum enhancement of the light harvesting efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells by including colloidal photonic crystal multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mihi, A.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Miguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mihi, F. J. López-Alcaraz, and H. Miguez, “Full spectrum enhancement of the light harvesting efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells by including colloidal photonic crystal multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nazeeruddin, M. K.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ngamsinlapasathian, S.

S. Ngamsinlapasathian, “Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell using nanocrystalline titanium containing nanotube structure,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 164(1-3), 145–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ocaña, M.

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Miguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O'Regan, B.

B. O'Regan, M. Grätzel, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Optical electrochemistry. I, Steady-state spectroscopy of conduction-band electrons in a metal oxide semiconductor electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183(1–2), 89–93 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.-G.

N.-G. Park and K. Kim, “Transparent solar cells based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(8), 1895–1904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perera, V. P. S.

V. P. S. Perera, P. K. D. D. P. Pitigala, P. V. V. Jayaweera, K. M. P. Bandaranayake, and K. Tennakone, “Dye-sensitized solid-state photovoltaic cells based on dye multilayer-semiconductor nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13758–13761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pitigala, P. K. D. D. P.

V. P. S. Perera, P. K. D. D. P. Pitigala, P. V. V. Jayaweera, K. M. P. Bandaranayake, and K. Tennakone, “Dye-sensitized solid-state photovoltaic cells based on dye multilayer-semiconductor nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13758–13761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R.

M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selloni, A.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeru, B.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tennakone, K.

V. P. S. Perera, P. K. D. D. P. Pitigala, P. V. V. Jayaweera, K. M. P. Bandaranayake, and K. Tennakone, “Dye-sensitized solid-state photovoltaic cells based on dye multilayer-semiconductor nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13758–13761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Viscardi, G.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(25), 638–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaban, A.

Y. Diamant, S. G. Chen, O. Melamed, and A. Zaban, “Core-shell nanoporous electrode for dye sensitized solar cells: the effect of the SrTiO3 shell on the electronic properties of the TiO2 core,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(9), 1977–1981 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

S. Colodrero, A. Mihi, L. Häggman, M. Ocaña, G. Boschloo, A. Hagfeldt, and H. Miguez, “Porous one-dimensional photonic crystals improve the power-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 764–770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Mihi, F. J. López-Alcaraz, and H. Miguez, “Full spectrum enhancement of the light harvesting efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells by including colloidal photonic crystal multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 193110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

B. O'Regan, M. Grätzel, and D. Fitzmaurice, “Optical electrochemistry. I, Steady-state spectroscopy of conduction-band electrons in a metal oxide semiconductor electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183(1–2), 89–93 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

M. K. Nazeeruddin, F. De Angelis, S. Fantacci, A. Selloni, G. Viscardi, P. Liska, S. Ito, B. Takeru, and M. Grätzel, “Combined experimental and DFT-TDDFT computational study of photoelectrochemical cell ruthenium sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(48), 16835–16847 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem.

M. Grätzel, “Conversion of sunlight to electric power by nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 164(1–3), 3–14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ngamsinlapasathian, “Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell using nanocrystalline titanium containing nanotube structure,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 164(1-3), 145–151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

Y. Diamant, S. G. Chen, O. Melamed, and A. Zaban, “Core-shell nanoporous electrode for dye sensitized solar cells: the effect of the SrTiO3 shell on the electronic properties of the TiO2 core,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(9), 1977–1981 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. S. Perera, P. K. D. D. P. Pitigala, P. V. V. Jayaweera, K. M. P. Bandaranayake, and K. Tennakone, “Dye-sensitized solid-state photovoltaic cells based on dye multilayer-semiconductor nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13758–13761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

G. Lozano, S. Colodrero, O. Caulier, M. E. Calvo, and H. Miguez, “Theoretical analysis of the performance of one-dimensional photonic crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(8), 3681–3687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Chiba, A. Islam, Y. Watanabe, R. Komiya, N. Koide, and L. Han, “Dye-sensitized solar cells with conversion efficiency of 11.1%,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(25), 638–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

M. Law, L. E. Greene, J. C. Johnson, R. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nat. Mater. 4(6), 455–459 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi

N.-G. Park and K. Kim, “Transparent solar cells based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(8), 1895–1904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of compact DSSC and application.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dye-sensitized solar cell with an applied reflector. (b) Dye-sensitized solar cell with an applied random pattern reflector. (c) Dye-sensitized solar cell with an applied pattern reflector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflector efficiency depending on distance reflector between cell. (a) The reflection path is not uniform due to the random pattern. (b) Reflection path of the large pattern. (c) Reflection path of the small pattern.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) The various size shapes of reflectors for Optical analysis. (c) Optical analysis of the reflector pattern. (d) Result of efficiency of cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Manufacturing processes of the dye-sensitized solar cell.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Concept of test apparatus used to measure characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cell. (b) Test apparatus used to measure characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cell.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

IV-curves of a dye-sensitized solar cell without a reflector and one with an applied reflector.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell without a reflector and one with an applied reflector.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Shape of the reflector.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Rate of increasing efficiency by pattern shape and distance.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Size and Shape of Pattern

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