Abstract

InGaN/sapphire-based photovoltaic (PV) cells with blue-band GaN/InGaN multiple-quantum-well absorption layers grown on patterned sapphire substrates were characterized under high concentrations up to 150-sun AM1.5G testing conditions. When the concentration ratio increased from 1 to 150 suns, the open-circuit voltage of the PV cells increased from 2.28 to 2.50 V. The peak power conversion efficiency (PCE) occurred at the 100-sun conditions, where the PV cells maintained the fill factor as high as 0.70 and exhibited a PCE of 2.23%. The results showed great potential of InGaN alloys for future high concentration photovoltaic applications.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R. Dahal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. Jeng, Y. Lee, and L. Chang, “Temperature dependences of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum well solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 105101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multijunction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1-xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, ” Science 281(5379), 955–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

C. H. Henry, “Limiting efficiencies of ideal single and multiple energy gap terrestrial solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(8), 4494–4500 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

D. Jenny, J. Loferski, and P. Rappaport, “Photovoltaic Effect in GaAs p-n Junctions and Solar Energy Conversion,” Phys. Rev. 101(3), 1208–1209 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller, and G. L. Pearson, “A new silicon p-n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power,” J. Appl. Phys. 25(5), 676–677 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Agui, T.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Araki, K.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, K. E.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multijunction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bedair, S. M.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bouazzi, A. S.

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1-xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. H.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L.

M. Jeng, Y. Lee, and L. Chang, “Temperature dependences of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum well solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 105101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chapin, D. M.

D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller, and G. L. Pearson, “A new silicon p-n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power,” J. Appl. Phys. 25(5), 676–677 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Cotal, H. L.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multijunction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dahal, R.

R. Dahal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

El-Masry, N. A.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frajtag, P.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, C. S.

D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller, and G. L. Pearson, “A new silicon p-n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power,” J. Appl. Phys. 25(5), 676–677 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Fuyuki, T.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hamzaoui, H.

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1-xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, P.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, P.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multijunction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Limiting efficiencies of ideal single and multiple energy gap terrestrial solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(8), 4494–4500 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, T. C.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. C.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. W.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. S.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huo, D. T. C.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, E.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jani, O.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeng, M.

M. Jeng, Y. Lee, and L. Chang, “Temperature dependences of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum well solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 105101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jenny, D.

D. Jenny, J. Loferski, and P. Rappaport, “Photovoltaic Effect in GaAs p-n Junctions and Solar Energy Conversion,” Phys. Rev. 101(3), 1208–1209 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

R. Dahal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jou, M. J.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Kaneiwa, M.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kinsey, G. S.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multijunction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krut, D. D.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multijunction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kurita, H.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

M. Jeng, Y. Lee, and L. Chang, “Temperature dependences of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum well solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 105101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

R. Dahal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X. W.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

R. Dahal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Loferski, J.

D. Jenny, J. Loferski, and P. Rappaport, “Photovoltaic Effect in GaAs p-n Junctions and Solar Energy Conversion,” Phys. Rev. 101(3), 1208–1209 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luen, M. O.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, W. K.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, ” Science 281(5379), 955–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nepal, N.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, K.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pantha, B.

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, G. L.

D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller, and G. L. Pearson, “A new silicon p-n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power,” J. Appl. Phys. 25(5), 676–677 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. C.

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rappaport, P.

D. Jenny, J. Loferski, and P. Rappaport, “Photovoltaic Effect in GaAs p-n Junctions and Solar Energy Conversion,” Phys. Rev. 101(3), 1208–1209 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Rezig, B.

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1-xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shan, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sherif, R. A.

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multijunction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takamoto, T.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Unno, T.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Uraoka, Y.

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. M.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. H.

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. Dahal, B. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with long operating wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Dahal, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well concentrator solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 073115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, J. K. Sheu, X. W. Liang, M. S. Huang, M. L. Lee, K. H. Chang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhancement of the conversion efficiency of GaN-based photovoltaic devices with AlGaN/InGaN absorption layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 021113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, and C. C. Hu, “Nonalloyed Cr/Au-based Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

J. K. Sheu, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, K. H. Chang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, and L. C. Peng, “Demonstration of GaN-based solar cells with GaN/InGaN superlattice absorption layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(3), 225–227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. K. Wang, D. S. Wuu, S. H. Lin, P. Han, R. H. Horng, T. C. Hsu, D. T. C. Huo, M. J. Jou, Y. H. Yu, and A. Lin, “Efficiency improvement of near-ultraviolet InGaN LEDs using patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1403–1409 (2005) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. H. Henry, “Limiting efficiencies of ideal single and multiple energy gap terrestrial solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(8), 4494–4500 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller, and G. L. Pearson, “A new silicon p-n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power,” J. Appl. Phys. 25(5), 676–677 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of In1-xGaxN alloys: full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477–6482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Jeng, Y. Lee, and L. Chang, “Temperature dependences of InxGa1-xN multiple quantum well solar cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(10), 105101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. Jenny, J. Loferski, and P. Rappaport, “Photovoltaic Effect in GaAs p-n Junctions and Solar Energy Conversion,” Phys. Rev. 101(3), 1208–1209 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

G. S. Kinsey, P. Hebert, K. E. Barbour, D. D. Krut, H. L. Cotal, and R. A. Sherif, “Concentrator multijunction solar cell characteristics under variable intensity and temperature,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(6), 503–508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, ” Science 281(5379), 955–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1-xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Nishioka, T. Takamoto, T. Agui, M. Kaneiwa, Y. Uraoka, and T. Fuyuki, “Evaluation of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell and optimization of solar cell’s structure focusing on series resistance for high-efficiency concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1308–1321 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Araki, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, T. Agui, H. Kurita, K. Takahashi, and T. Unno, “Characteristics of GaAs-based concentrator cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 66(1–4), 559–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. R. King, A. Boca, W. Hong, X. Q. Liu, D. Bhusari, D. Larrabee, K. M. Edmondson, D. C. Law, C. M. Fetzer, S. Mesropian, and N. H. Karam, “Band-gap-engineered architectures for high-efficiency multijunction concentrator solar cells,” Proc. 24th Eur. PVSEC, 55–61 (2009).

A. D. Vos, Thermodynamics of Solar Energy Conversion, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany (2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic structure of fabricated InGaN-based PV devices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical J-V and P-V characteristics of the MQW-type PV devices illuminated by the AM1.5G conditions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical J-V characteristics under concentrated levels up to 150-sun conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The summarized solar parameters under concentrated illumination by the AM1.5G spectrum: (a) PCE in semi-logarithmical scales and (b) VOC and FF in linear scales.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J = J 0 { exp ( qV nkT ) } J s c ,
V oc = nkT q 1 n ( J sc J 0 + 1 ) .

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