Abstract

We develop a periodically patterned conformal photonic-plasmonic crystal based solar architecture for a nano-crystalline silicon solar cell, through rigorous scattering matrix simulations. The solar cell architecture has a periodic array of tapered silver nano-pillars as the back-reflector coupled with a conformal periodic structure at the top of the cell. The absorption and maximal current, averaged over the entire range of wavelengths, for this solar cell architecture is at the semi-classical 4n2 limit over a range of common thicknesses (500-1500 nm) and slightly above the 4n2 limit for a 500 nm nc-Si cell. The absorption exceeds the 4n2 limit, corrected for reflection loss at the top surface. The photonic crystal cell current is enhanced over the flat Ag back-reflector by 60%, for a thick 1000 nm nc-Si layer, where predicted currents exceed 31 mA/cm2. The conformal structure at the top surface focuses light within the absorber layer. There is plasmonic concentration of light, with intensity enhancements exceeding 7, near the back reflector that substantially enhances absorption.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (7)

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nano-crystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, B. Ozturk, E. A. Schiff, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Plasmonic light-trapping and quantum efficiency measurements on nc-Si solar cells and Si-on insulator devices,” MRS Bull. 1245, 59–64 (2010).

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

H. M. Branz, V. E. Yost, S. Ward, K. M. Jones, B. To, and P. Stradins, “Nanostructured black silicon and the optical reflectance of graded-density surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, and M. Kondo, “Back surface reflectors with periodic textures fabricated by self-ordering process for light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 1087–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, B. Yan, G. Yue, and S. Guha, “Light trapping in hydrogenated amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells,” MRS Bull. 1153, 247–253 (2009).

F.-J. Haug, T. Soderstrom, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 3, 884–887 (2009).

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan, N. P. Kherani, and S. Zukotynski, “High-efficiency photonic crystal solar cell architecture,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8871–8878 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Haase and H. Steibig, “Thin film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Mullerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(4 Pt 2), 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. S. Ferlauto, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, C. R. Wronski, and R. W. Collins, “Evolutionary phase diagrams for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films from hydrogen-diluted silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2286–2289 (2002).

2000 (1)

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Agrawal, M.

Atwater, H. A.

Bailat, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

F.-J. Haug, T. Soderstrom, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 3, 884–887 (2009).

Bermel, P.

Bhattacharya, J.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nano-crystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nano-crystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Branz, H. M.

H. M. Branz, V. E. Yost, S. Ward, K. M. Jones, B. To, and P. Stradins, “Nanostructured black silicon and the optical reflectance of graded-density surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, B.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chakravarty, N.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nano-crystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

Cody, G. D.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. W.

A. S. Ferlauto, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, C. R. Wronski, and R. W. Collins, “Evolutionary phase diagrams for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films from hydrogen-diluted silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2286–2289 (2002).

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtin, B.

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dalal, V.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nano-crystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dewan, R.

Droz, C.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejfar, A.

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferlauto, A. S.

A. S. Ferlauto, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, C. R. Wronski, and R. W. Collins, “Evolutionary phase diagrams for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films from hydrogen-diluted silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2286–2289 (2002).

Ferry, V. E.

Fujiwara, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, and M. Kondo, “Back surface reflectors with periodic textures fabricated by self-ordering process for light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 1087–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

H. Zhao, B. Ozturk, E. A. Schiff, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Plasmonic light-trapping and quantum efficiency measurements on nc-Si solar cells and Si-on insulator devices,” MRS Bull. 1245, 59–64 (2010).

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, B. Yan, G. Yue, and S. Guha, “Light trapping in hydrogenated amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells,” MRS Bull. 1153, 247–253 (2009).

Haase, H.

H. Haase and H. Steibig, “Thin film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. E.

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, F.-J.

F.-J. Haug, T. Soderstrom, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 3, 884–887 (2009).

Hsu, C.-M.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Jones, K. M.

H. M. Branz, V. E. Yost, S. Ward, K. M. Jones, B. To, and P. Stradins, “Nanostructured black silicon and the optical reflectance of graded-density surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kherani, N. P.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kluth, O.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Mullerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knipp, D.

Kocka, J.

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koh, J.

A. S. Ferlauto, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, C. R. Wronski, and R. W. Collins, “Evolutionary phase diagrams for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films from hydrogen-diluted silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2286–2289 (2002).

Kondo, M.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, and M. Kondo, “Back surface reflectors with periodic textures fabricated by self-ordering process for light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 1087–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, U.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, B.

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nano-crystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. B. T.

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(4 Pt 2), 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, L. L.

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(4 Pt 2), 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, C.

Madzharov, D.

Mallick, S. B.

Meier, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mullerova, L.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Mullerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niquille, X.

F.-J. Haug, T. Soderstrom, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 3, 884–887 (2009).

Owens, J. M.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozturk, B.

H. Zhao, B. Ozturk, E. A. Schiff, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Plasmonic light-trapping and quantum efficiency measurements on nc-Si solar cells and Si-on insulator devices,” MRS Bull. 1245, 59–64 (2010).

Peumans, P.

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Poruba, A.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Mullerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Python, M.

F.-J. Haug, T. Soderstrom, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 3, 884–887 (2009).

Raman, A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rech, B.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Mullerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Remeš, Z.

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rovira, P. I.

A. S. Ferlauto, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, C. R. Wronski, and R. W. Collins, “Evolutionary phase diagrams for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films from hydrogen-diluted silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2286–2289 (2002).

Sai, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, and M. Kondo, “Back surface reflectors with periodic textures fabricated by self-ordering process for light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 1087–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schade, H.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, E. A.

H. Zhao, B. Ozturk, E. A. Schiff, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Plasmonic light-trapping and quantum efficiency measurements on nc-Si solar cells and Si-on insulator devices,” MRS Bull. 1245, 59–64 (2010).

Schropp, R. E. I.

Shah, A.

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A. V.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sivec, L.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soderstrom, T.

F.-J. Haug, T. Soderstrom, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 3, 884–887 (2009).

Springer, J.

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Mullerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Špringer, J.

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steibig, H.

H. Haase and H. Steibig, “Thin film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stradins, P.

H. M. Branz, V. E. Yost, S. Ward, K. M. Jones, B. To, and P. Stradins, “Nanostructured black silicon and the optical reflectance of graded-density surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Terrazzoni-Daudrix, V.

F.-J. Haug, T. Soderstrom, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 3, 884–887 (2009).

Tiedje, T.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

To, B.

H. M. Branz, V. E. Yost, S. Ward, K. M. Jones, B. To, and P. Stradins, “Nanostructured black silicon and the optical reflectance of graded-density surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Torres, P.

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Mullerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M. A.

Walters, R. J.

Ward, S.

H. M. Branz, V. E. Yost, S. Ward, K. M. Jones, B. To, and P. Stradins, “Nanostructured black silicon and the optical reflectance of graded-density surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wronski, C. R.

A. S. Ferlauto, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, C. R. Wronski, and R. W. Collins, “Evolutionary phase diagrams for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films from hydrogen-diluted silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2286–2289 (2002).

Wyrsch, N.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yan, B.

H. Zhao, B. Ozturk, E. A. Schiff, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Plasmonic light-trapping and quantum efficiency measurements on nc-Si solar cells and Si-on insulator devices,” MRS Bull. 1245, 59–64 (2010).

J. Yang, B. Yan, G. Yue, and S. Guha, “Light trapping in hydrogenated amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells,” MRS Bull. 1153, 247–253 (2009).

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

H. Zhao, B. Ozturk, E. A. Schiff, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Plasmonic light-trapping and quantum efficiency measurements on nc-Si solar cells and Si-on insulator devices,” MRS Bull. 1245, 59–64 (2010).

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, B. Yan, G. Yue, and S. Guha, “Light trapping in hydrogenated amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells,” MRS Bull. 1153, 247–253 (2009).

Yost, V. E.

H. M. Branz, V. E. Yost, S. Ward, K. M. Jones, B. To, and P. Stradins, “Nanostructured black silicon and the optical reflectance of graded-density surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yue, G.

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, B. Yan, G. Yue, and S. Guha, “Light trapping in hydrogenated amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells,” MRS Bull. 1153, 247–253 (2009).

Zeng, L.

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, B. Ozturk, E. A. Schiff, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Plasmonic light-trapping and quantum efficiency measurements on nc-Si solar cells and Si-on insulator devices,” MRS Bull. 1245, 59–64 (2010).

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zukotynski, S.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. Yue, L. Sivec, J. M. Owens, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Optimization of back reflector for high efficiency hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(26), 263501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Ferlauto, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, C. R. Wronski, and R. W. Collins, “Evolutionary phase diagrams for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films from hydrogen-diluted silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2286–2289 (2002).

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Haase and H. Steibig, “Thin film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Branz, V. E. Yost, S. Ward, K. M. Jones, B. To, and P. Stradins, “Nanostructured black silicon and the optical reflectance of graded-density surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, and B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 31(5), 711–716 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J. Springer, A. Poruba, L. Mullerova, M. Vanecek, O. Kluth, and B. Rech, “Absorption loss at nanorough silver back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Poruba, A. Fejfar, Z. Remeš, J. Špringer, M. Vaněček, J. Kočka, J. Meier, P. Torres, and A. Shah, “Optical absorption and light scattering in microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 148–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

MRS Bull. (2)

H. Zhao, B. Ozturk, E. A. Schiff, B. Yan, J. Yang, and S. Guha, “Plasmonic light-trapping and quantum efficiency measurements on nc-Si solar cells and Si-on insulator devices,” MRS Bull. 1245, 59–64 (2010).

J. Yang, B. Yan, G. Yue, and S. Guha, “Light trapping in hydrogenated amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells,” MRS Bull. 1153, 247–253 (2009).

Nano Lett. (2)

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, “Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(4 Pt 2), 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, and M. Kondo, “Back surface reflectors with periodic textures fabricated by self-ordering process for light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 1087–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Soderstrom, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 3, 884–887 (2009).

R. Biswas, J. Bhattacharya, B. Lewis, N. Chakravarty, and V. Dalal, “Enhanced nano-crystalline silicon solar cell with a photonic crystal back reflector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(12), 2337–2342 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L. R. Dahal, D. Sainju, J. Li, J. A. Stoke, N. Podraza, X. Deng, and R. W. Collins, “Plasmonic characteristics of Ag/ZnO back-reflectors for thin film Si photovoltaics”, 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2008. pg.1–6. DOI 10.1109/PVSC.2008.4922502.

J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells (Imperial College, 2003), p. 279.

The Electronic Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D Palik, ed. (Academic Press, 1999)

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